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Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), the cryogenic infrared space telescope recently pre-selected for a ‘Phase A’ concept study as one of the three remaining candidates for European Space Agency (ESA's) fifth medium class (M5) mission, is foreseen to include a far-infrared polarimetric imager [SPICA-POL, now called B-fields with BOlometers and Polarizers (B-BOP)], which would offer a unique opportunity to resolve major issues in our understanding of the nearby, cold magnetised Universe. This paper presents an overview of the main science drivers for B-BOP, including high dynamic range polarimetric imaging of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in both our Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Thanks to a cooled telescope, B-BOP will deliver wide-field 100–350
m images of linearly polarised dust emission in Stokes Q and U with a resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and both intensity and spatial dynamic ranges comparable to those achieved by Herschel images of the cold ISM in total intensity (Stokes I). The B-BOP 200
m images will also have a factor
30 higher resolution than Planck polarisation data. This will make B-BOP a unique tool for characterising the statistical properties of the magnetised ISM and probing the role of magnetic fields in the formation and evolution of the interstellar web of dusty molecular filaments giving birth to most stars in our Galaxy. B-BOP will also be a powerful instrument for studying the magnetism of nearby galaxies and testing Galactic dynamo models, constraining the physics of dust grain alignment, informing the problem of the interaction of cosmic rays with molecular clouds, tracing magnetic fields in the inner layers of protoplanetary disks, and monitoring accretion bursts in embedded protostars.
We study the effect of magnetic field in an implosion process achieved by radiation. A time-varying sinusoidal magnetic field is seen to affect the continuous transition of space-like detonation to time-like detonation at the core of implosion region. The oscillating varying magnetic field has a significant effect in increasing the volume of the time-like detonation of the core of implosion and also modifies the time of the implosion process. This transition can have significant outcome both theoretically and experimentally in the areas of high-energy hadronization of quark–gluon plasma matter and inertial confinement fusion efforts of fuels.
The particular environment with high temperature and low plasma density in the corona results to the formation of some forbidden emission lines, in which the well-known green line at 530.3 nm has been utilized to diagnose the corona for a few decades. For the green line, besides its contribution on revealing the long-term coronal cycles as well as their relationship to the other solar phenomena, it is also helpful to detect limb coronal waves and ejections originated from the lower corona which seems not to be paid close attention to. Suggestions are presented that we not only need to keep the green line observation as a routine task for current coronagraph observations, but need to develop larger coronagraphs with advanced technology.
Concentrated magnetic structures such as sunspots and starspots play a fundamental role in driving solar and stellar activity. However, as opposed to the sun, observations as well as numerical simulations have shown that stellar spots are usually formed as high-latitude patches extended over wide areas. Using a fully spectral magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code, we simulate polar starspots produced by self-consistent dynamo action in rapidly rotating convective shells. We carry out high resolution simulations and investigate various properties related to stellar dynamics which lead to starspot formation.
The coronal is the origins of large-scale solar activity and disastrous space weather, it contains extremely rich information and various physical processes. The coronal loop is a kind of bright structure with hot plasma which is bounded by magnetic field in the coronal, it is a good reflection of the magnetic structure that we can hardly observe directly. It is also the energy channel between the photosphere and coronal, and the study of coronal loop is helpful for us to understand the magnetic line foot movement.
Recent dedicated HINODE polar region campaign revealed the presence of concentrated kilogauss patches of magnetic field in the polar regions of Sun which are also shown to be correlated with facular bright points at the photospheric level. In this work, we demonstrate that this spatial intermittency of the magnetic field persists even up to the chromospheric heights. Polar network bright points are the ones which are present in the polar regions of the Sun (above 70° latitudes). We use special HINODE campaigns devoted to observe polar regions of the Sun to study the polar network bright points during the phase of last extended solar minimum. We are able to find a considerable association between the polar network bright points and magnetic field concentrations which led us to conclude that these bright points can serve as a good proxy for polar magnetic fields where the direct and regular measurements of polar magnetic fields are not available (before 1970).
The age-dependent activity of a star dictates the extent of its planetary impact. We study the interaction of the stellar wind produced by Solar-like stars with the magnetosphere of Earth-like planets using three dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. The numerical simulations reveal important features of star-planet interaction e.g. bow-shock, magnetopause, magnetotail, etc. Interesting phenomena such as particle injection into the planetary atmosphere as well as atmospheric mass loss are also observed which are instrumental in determining the atmospheric retention by the planet.
We have studied three Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) having clear signatures of magnetic cloud (MC) arrival at 1 AU and their associated solar sources during 2011 to 2013. Comparing the axial magnetic field strength (B0) of the near-Sun coronal flux-ropes with that of the MC at 1 AU, we have found that the average inferred value of B0 at 1 AU assuming the self-similar expansion of the flux-rope is two times smaller than the value of B0 obtained from the results of MC fitting. Furthermore, by comparing the initial orientation of the flux-rope near the Sun and its final orientation at 1 AU we have found that the three CMEs exhibited more than 80° rotation during its propagation through the interplanetary medium. Our study suggests that although the near-Sun magnetic properties of coronal flux-ropes can be used to infer the field strength of the associated MC at 1 AU, it is difficult to estimate the final orientation of the MC axis in order to predict the geo-effectiveness of the ICMEs.
Our understanding of stellar dynamos has largely been driven by the phenomena we have observed of our own Sun. Yet, as we amass longer-term datasets for an increasing number of stars, it is clear that there is a wide variety of stellar behavior. Here we briefly review observed trends that place key constraints on the fundamental dynamo operation of solar-type stars to fully convective M dwarfs, including: starspot and sunspot patterns, various magnetism-rotation correlations, and mean field flows such as differential rotation and meridional circulation. We also comment on the current insight that simulations of dynamo action and flux emergence lend to our working knowledge of stellar dynamo theory. While the growing landscape of both observations and simulations of stellar magnetic activity work in tandem to decipher dynamo action, there are still many puzzles that we have yet to fully understand.
There seems to be magnetic fields at all scales and epochs in our Universe, but their origin at large scales remains an important open question of cosmology. In this work we focus on the generation of magnetic fields in the intergalactic medium due to the photoionizations by the first galaxies, all along the Epoch of Reionization. Based on previous studies which considered only isolated sources, we develop an analytical model to estimate the mean magnetic energy density accumulated in the Universe by this process. In our model, without considering any amplification process, the Universe is globally magnetized by this mechanism to the order of, at least, several 10−18 G during the Epoch of Reionization (i.e. a few 10−20 G comoving).
This review presents briefly two aspects of Galactic interstellar medium science that seem relevant for studying EoR. First, we give some statistical properties of the Galactic foreground emission in the diffuse regions of the sky. The properties of the emission observed in projection on the plane of the sky are then related to how matter is organised along the line of sight. The diffuse atomic gas is multi-phase, with dense filamentary structures occupying only about 1% of the volume but contributing to about 50% of the emission. The second part of the review presents aspect of structure formation in the Galactic interstellar medium that could be relevant for the subgrid physics used to model the formation of the first stars.
The interstellar medium is suffused with magnetic fields, which inform the shape of structures in the diffuse gas. Recent high-dynamic range observations of Galactic neutral hydrogen, combined with novel data analysis techniques, have revealed a deep link between the morphology of neutral gas and the ambient magnetic field. At the same time, an observational revolution is underway in low-frequency radio polarimetry, driven in part by the need to characterize foregrounds to the cosmological 21-cm signal. A new generation of experiments, capable of high angular and Faraday depth resolution, are revealing complex filamentary structures in diffuse polarization. The relationship between filamentary structures observed in radio-polarimetric data and those observed in atomic hydrogen is not yet well understood. Multiwavelength observations will enable new insights into the magnetic interstellar medium across phases.
The interferometric and single-dish observations of the Extended Green Objects sample have been carried out in order to check the possible common pumping mechanism of class I methanol maser (cIMM) and OH(1720 MHz) maser and their identification with a front of bipolar outflow as a source of interstellar shock stimulating collisional pumping of the molecules. High spatial and spectral resolution observations of OH masers allow us to investigate structure, kinematics, and magnetic field configuration of the inner region of the source, i.e., the outflow ejection region. Analysis of magnetic field strength in a disk area is crucial to understanding of the outflow origin.
Low-frequency polarisation observations of pulsars, facilitated by next-generation radio telescopes, provide powerful probes of astrophysical plasmas that span many orders of magnitude in magnetic field strength and scale: from pulsar magnetospheres to intervening magneto-ionic plasmas including the ISM and the ionosphere. Pulsar magnetospheres with teragauss field strengths can be explored through their numerous emission phenomena across multiple frequencies, the mechanism behind which remains elusive. Precise dispersion and Faraday rotation measurements towards a large number of pulsars probe the three-dimensional large-scale (and eventually small-scale) structure of the Galactic magnetic field, which plays a role in many astrophysical processes, but is not yet well understood, especially towards the Galactic halo. We describe some results and ongoing work from the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) and the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) radio telescopes in these areas. These and other pathfinder and precursor telescopes have reinvigorated low-frequency science and build towards the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), which will make significant advancements in studies of astrophysical magnetic fields in the next 50 years.
The linearly polarized component of a pulsar signal at different radio frequencies can help to constrain the parallel component of the magnetic field along the line of sight. In this work we measured the polarimetric properties of the pulsars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae and we report the Rotation Measure (RM) for 13 of them. A gradient in the RM values of the pulsars across the cluster is detected suggesting the presence of significant variations in the magnetic field across the very small angular scales associated with the lines of sight to the pulsars in 47 Tucanae. Both magnetic fields located in the globular cluster or in the Galactic disk in the direction of the cluster are taken into consideration. However, more detailed modelling of the dynamics of the cluster and deeper observations with the MeerKAT and/or the SKA1 radio telescopes are necessary to discriminate among the models.
The full theory of polarized SiO maser emission from the near-circumstellar environment of Asymptotic Giant Branch stars has been the subject of debate, with theories ranging from classical Zeeman origins to predominantly non-Zeeman anisotropic excitation or propagation effects. Features with an internal electric vector position angle (EVPA) rotation of ∼π/2 offer unique constraints on theoretical models. In this work, results are presented for one such feature that persisted across five epochs of SiO ν = 1, J = 1 − 0 VLBA observations of TX Cam. We examine the fit to the predicted dependence of linear polarization and EVPA on angle (θ) between the line of sight and the magnetic field against theoretical models. We also present results on the dependence of mc on θ and their theoretical implications. Finally, we discuss potential causes of the observed differences, and continuing work.
We present the results of the linear polarisation observations of methanol masers at 44 and 95 GHz towards 39 massive star forming regions (Kang et al. 2016). These two lines are observed simultaneously with the 21-m Korean VLBI Network (KVN) telescope in single dish mode. About 60% of the observed showed fractional polarisation of a few percents at least at one of the two transition lines. We note that the linear polarisation of the 44 GHz methanol maser is first detected in this study including single dish and interferometer observations. We find the polarisation properties of these two lines are similar as expected, since they trace similar regions. As a follow-up study, we have carried out the VLBI polarisation observations toward some 44 GHz maser targets using the KVN telescope. We present preliminary VLBI polarisation results of G10.34-0.14, which show consistent polarisation properties in multiple epoch observations.
A superconductor of paired protons is thought to form in the core of neutron stars soon after their birth. Minimum energy conditions suggest that magnetic flux is expelled from the superconducting region due to the Meissner effect, such that the neutron star core retains or is largely devoid of magnetic fields for some nuclear equation of state and proton pairing models. We show via neutron star cooling simulations that the superconducting region expands faster than flux is expected to be expelled because cooling timescales are much shorter than timescales of magnetic field diffusion. Thus magnetic fields remain in the bulk of the neutron star core for at least 106 − 107yr. We estimate the size of flux free regions at 107yr to be ≲ 100m for a magnetic field of 1011G and possibly smaller for stronger field strengths.
Propagation effects have been central to pulsar research and indeed were an integral part of the pulsar discovery and its prologue. I will summarize the early deduction process for establishing pulsar distances and refinements to the distance scale and modeling of the Galaxy in electron density and magnetic field. This will lead to the analogous current situation of understanding distances and media for extragalactic radio bursts. The role of magnetoionic media in precision pulsar timing and surveys for transients will be summarized. Finally, going full circle, searches for extraterrestrial intelligence (LGMs) also require attention to propagation effects.
We present polarimetric observations of the 4 ground-state transitions of OH, toward a sample of maser-emitting planetary nebulae (PNe) using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. This sample includes confirmed OH-emitting PNe, confirmed and candidate H2O-maser-emitting PNe. Polarimetric observations provide information related to the magnetic field of these sources. Maser-emitting PNe are very young PNe and magnetic fields are a key ingredient in the early evolution and shaping process of PNe. Our preliminary results suggest that magnetic field strengths may change very rapidly in young PNe.