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Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), the cryogenic infrared space telescope recently pre-selected for a ‘Phase A’ concept study as one of the three remaining candidates for European Space Agency (ESA's) fifth medium class (M5) mission, is foreseen to include a far-infrared polarimetric imager [SPICA-POL, now called B-fields with BOlometers and Polarizers (B-BOP)], which would offer a unique opportunity to resolve major issues in our understanding of the nearby, cold magnetised Universe. This paper presents an overview of the main science drivers for B-BOP, including high dynamic range polarimetric imaging of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in both our Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Thanks to a cooled telescope, B-BOP will deliver wide-field 100–350
m images of linearly polarised dust emission in Stokes Q and U with a resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and both intensity and spatial dynamic ranges comparable to those achieved by Herschel images of the cold ISM in total intensity (Stokes I). The B-BOP 200
m images will also have a factor
30 higher resolution than Planck polarisation data. This will make B-BOP a unique tool for characterising the statistical properties of the magnetised ISM and probing the role of magnetic fields in the formation and evolution of the interstellar web of dusty molecular filaments giving birth to most stars in our Galaxy. B-BOP will also be a powerful instrument for studying the magnetism of nearby galaxies and testing Galactic dynamo models, constraining the physics of dust grain alignment, informing the problem of the interaction of cosmic rays with molecular clouds, tracing magnetic fields in the inner layers of protoplanetary disks, and monitoring accretion bursts in embedded protostars.
The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array offers regular observations of our Sun since 2016. After an extended period of further developing and optimizing the post-processing procedures, first scientific results are now produced. While the first observing cycles mostly provided mosaics and time series of continuum brightness temperature maps with a cadence of 1-2s, additional receiver bands and polarization capabilities will be offered in the future. Currently, polarization capabilities are offered for selected receiver bands but not yet for solar observing. An overview of the recent development, first scientific results and potential of solar magnetic field measurements with ALMA will be presented.
The growth of spectroscopic observations of exoplanetary systems allows the possibility of testing theoretical models and studying the interaction that exoplanetary atmospheres have with the wind and the energetic photons from the star. In this work, we present a set of numerical 3D simulations of HD 209458b for which spectral lines observations of their evaporative atmosphere are available. The different simulations aim to reproduce different scenarios for the star-planet interaction. With our models, we reconstruct the Lyα line during transit and compare with observations. The results allows us to analyse the shape of the line profile under these different scenarios and the comparison with the observations suggest that HD209458b may have a magnetic field off less than 1 G. We also explore the behaviour of the magnesium lines for models with and without magnetic fields.
Coronal holes can be identified as the darkest regions in EUV or soft X-ray images with predominantly unipolar magnetic fields (LIRs) or as the regions with open magnetic fields (OMF). Our study reveals that only 12% of OMF regions are coincident with LIRs. The aim of this study is to investigate the conditions that affect the EUV intensity of OMF regions. Our results indicate that the EUV intensity and the magnetic field expansion factor of the OMF regions are weakly positively correlated when plotted in logarithmic scale, and that the bright OMF regions are likely to locate inside or next to the regions with closed field lines. We empirically determined a linear relationship between the expansion factor and the EUV intensity. The relationship is demonstrated to improve the consistency from 12% to 23%. The results have been published in Astrophysical Journal (Huang et al. 2019).
Prediction of solar activity cycles is challenging because physical processes inside the Sun involve a broad range of multiscale dynamics that no model can reproduce and because the available observations are highly limited and cover mostly surface layers. Helioseismology makes it possible to probe solar dynamics in the convective zone, but variations in differential rotation and meridional circulation are currently available for only two solar activity cycles. It has been demonstrated that sunspot observations, which cover over 400 years, can be used to calibrate the Parker-Kleeorin-Ruzmaikin dynamo model, and that the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) method can be used to link the modeled magnetic fields to sunspot observations and make reliable predictions of a following activity cycle. However, for more accurate predictions, it is necessary to use actual observations of the solar magnetic fields, which are available only for the last four solar cycles. In this paper I briefly discuss the influence of the limited number of available observations on the accuracy of EnKF estimates of solar cycle parameters, the criteria to evaluate the predictions, and application of synoptic magnetograms to the prediction of solar activity.
Effective Landé g-factors (geff) are fundamental quantities in order to derive stellar magnetic field intensities. The determination of geff involves both total angular momenta and Landé g-factors of the transition levels. Theoretical g-factors are generally adopted, and the corresponding geff, often quite different from the one obtained in laboratory, affects the accuracy on magnetic field strength measurements. In this work we discuss a method to experimentally determine geff for highly ionised species, based on high resolution spectropolarimetry applied to Electron Cyclotron Resonance laboratory plasmas.
We study the effect of magnetic field in an implosion process achieved by radiation. A time-varying sinusoidal magnetic field is seen to affect the continuous transition of space-like detonation to time-like detonation at the core of implosion region. The oscillating varying magnetic field has a significant effect in increasing the volume of the time-like detonation of the core of implosion and also modifies the time of the implosion process. This transition can have significant outcome both theoretically and experimentally in the areas of high-energy hadronization of quark–gluon plasma matter and inertial confinement fusion efforts of fuels.
In these proceedings we discuss advances in the theory and observation of magnetic fields in the intergalactic medium and in the cosmic web. We make the point that, despite perhaps unsurmountable obstacles in simulating a small-scale dynamo, currently most cosmological magnetohydrodynamical simulations paint a similar picture of magnetic field amplification in the cosmos. However, observations of magnetic fields in the intergalactic medium turn out to be very difficult. As a case in point, we present recent work on Faraday rotation measurement in the direction of a giant galaxy with the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR). These observations demonstrate the currently unique capability of LOFAR to measure Faraday rotation at the high accuracy and angular resolution required to investigate the magnetisation of large-scale structure filaments of the cosmic web.
We report the detection of the Zeeman effect in the 44 GHz Class I methanol maser line toward the star forming region DR21W. The 44 GHz methanol masers in this source occur in a ∼3” linear structure that runs from northwest to southeast, with the two dominant components at each end, and several weaker maser components in between. Toward a 93 Jy maser in the dominant northwestern component, we find a significant Zeeman detection of −23.4 ± 3.2 Hz. If we use the recently published result of Lankhaar et al. (2018) that the F=5-4 hyperfine transition is responsible for the 44 GHz methanol maser line, then their value of z = −0.92 Hz mG−1 yields a line-of-sight magnetic field of Blos =25.4 ± 3.5 mG. If Class I methanol masers are pumped in high density regions with n∼107–8 cm−3, then magnetic fields in these maser regions should be a few to several tens of mG. Therefore, our result in DR21W is certainly consistent with the expected values.
Using the above noted splitting factor in past Zeeman effect detections in Class I methanol masers reported by Sarma & Momjian (2011) and Momjian & Sarma (2017) in the star forming regions OMC-2 and DR21(OH) result in Blos values of 20.0 ± 1.2 mG and 58.2 ± 2.9 mG, respectively. These are also consistent with the expected values.
It is believed that magnetic fields play important roles in the processes leading to the formation of stars and planets. Polarimetry from optical to centimeter wavelengths has been the most powerful observing technique to study magnetic fields: the development of polarimetric capabilities on a wide range of observational facilities now allows to probe the magnetic field properties in various objects along the star formation sequence, from star-forming molecular clouds to young stars and their protoplanetary disks. However, the complexity of combining results from different observational techniques and facilities emphasizes the need to transcend historical barriers and bring together the various communities working with polarimetric observations. This Focus Meeting was a first step to compare observations of magnetic fields at the various evolutionary stages and physical scales involved in star formation processes, such that we can establish a coherent view of their key role in the multi-scale process of star formation.
This review examines observations of magnetic fields in molecular clouds, that is, at spatial scales ranging from tens to tenths of parsecs and densities up to hundreds of particles per cubic centimetre. I will briefly summarize the techniques for observing and mapping magnetic fields in molecular clouds. I will review important examples of observational results obtained using each technique and their implications for our understanding of the role of the magnetic field in molecular cloud formation and evolution. Finally, I will briefly discuss the prospects for advances in our observational capabilities with telescopes and instruments now beginning operation or under construction.
The present-day Earth with its innumerable life forms is a product of cosmic evolution starting with the formation of our galaxy and the dense gas clouds within it, and proceeding through the contraction of one of those clouds about 4.6 Gyr ago, first into filaments and then one or more protostellar disks, planets, and central stars, one of which was our Sun. Radioactive debris from a massive nearby star was included. The planets themselves formed through coagulation, accretion, and fragmentation of solid bodies. Habitability depends on a delicate balance between disk accretion by gravity and dispersal by the central star, which determine the size of the planet and its gaseous envelope, combined with a long period of stellar radiation, which has to disperse this envelope but leave a hospitable secondary atmosphere. The final step toward life involves even more complexity as self-replicating bio-molecules form with ever increasing stability.
It has been recognized that non-ideal MHD effects (Ohmic diffusion, Hall effect, ambipolar diffusion) play crucial roles for the circumstellar disk formation and evolution. Ohmic and ambipolar diffusion decouple the gas and the magnetic field, and significantly reduces the magnetic torque in the disk, which enables the formation of the circumstellar disk (e.g., Tsukamoto et al. 2015b). They set an upper limit to the magnetic field strength of ∼ 0.1 G around the disk (Masson et al. 2016). The Hall effect notably changes the magnetic torques in the envelope around the disk, and strengthens or weakens the magnetic braking depending on the relative orientation of magnetic field and angular momentum. This suggests that the bimodal evolution of the disk size possibly occurs in the early disk evolutionary phase (Tsukamoto et al. 2015a, Tsukamoto et al. 2017). Hall effect and ambipolar diffusion imprint the possibly observable characteristic velocity structures in the envelope of Class 0/I YSOs. Hall effect forms a counter-rotating envelope around the disk. Our simulations show that counter rotating envelope has the size of 100–1000 au and a recent observation actually infers such a structure (Takakuwaet al. 2018). Ambipolar diffusion causes the significant ion-neutral drift in the envelopes. Our simulations show that the drift velocity of ion could become 100-1000 ms–1.
Planets orbiting young, active stars are embedded in an environment that is far from being as calm as the present solar neighbourhood. They experience the extreme environments of their host stars, which cannot have been without consequences for young stellar systems and the evolution of Earth-like planets to habitable worlds. Stellar magnetism and the related stellar activity are crucial drivers of ionization, photodissociation, and chemistry. Stellar winds can compress planetary magnetospheres and even strip away the outer layers of their atmospheres, thus having an enormous impact on the atmospheres and the magnetospheres of surrounding exoplanets. Modelling of stellar magnetic fields and their winds is extremely challenging, both from the observational and the theoretical points of view, and only ground breaking advances in observational instrumentation and a deeper theoretical understanding of magnetohydrodynamic processes in stars enable us to model stellar magnetic fields and their winds – and the resulting influence on the atmospheres of surrounding exoplanets – in more and more detail. We have initiated a national and international research network (NFN): ‘Pathways to Habitability – From Disks to Active Stars, Planets to Life’, to address questions on the formation and habitability of environments in young, active stellar/planetary systems. We discuss the work we are carrying out within this project and focus on how stellar evolutionary aspects in relation to activity, magnetic fields and winds influence the erosion of planetary atmospheres in the habitable zone. We present recent results of our theoretical and observational studies based on Zeeman Doppler Imaging (ZDI), field extrapolation methods, wind simulations, and the modeling of planetary upper atmospheres.
Recent advanced simulations of protoplanetary disks allow us to search for observational constraints to identify the magnetic field activity in protoplanetary disks. With our 3D radiation non-ideal magneto-hydrodynamical (MHD) models including irradiation from an Herbig type star we are able to model the thermal and dynamical evolution in a so far never reached detail (Flock et al. 2017). The activity of the magneto-rotational instability in the inner hot ionized regions comes along with a magnetic dynamo. The oscillations in the mean toroidal magnetic field with a timescale of 10 local orbits can slightly bend the inner dust rim and so the irradiation surface. This causes a clear variability pattern in the near infrared (NIR) emission at the dust inner rim surface. Another way to identify the presence of magnetic fields are to search for polarization signatures. Using 3D non-ideal MHD simulations of the outer disk regions (Flock et al. 2015) we calculate synthetic images of the intrinsically polarized continuum emitted by aspherical grain aligned with the dominantly toroidal magnetic field (Bertrang et al. 2017). Our results show a clear radial polarization pattern for face-on observed disk, similar to recent observations by Ohashi et al. (2018). Additionally, we are even able to see the change of the polarization pattern inside the vortex as the poloidal magnetic field dominates therein.
There is ample evidence for the presence of strong magnetic fields in the envelopes of (post-)Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars as well as supergiant stars. The origin and role of these fields are still unclear. This paper updates the current status of magnetic field observations around AGB and post-AGB stars, and describes their possible role during these stages of evolution. The discovery of magnetically aligned dust around a supergiant star is also highlighted. In our search for the origin of the magnetic fields, recent observations show the signatures of possible magnetic activity and rotation, indicating that the magnetic fields might be intrinsic to the AGB stars.
The next generation of radio telescopes offer significant improvement in bandwidth and survey speed. We examine the ability to resolve Faraday thick objects in Faraday space as a function of survey parameters. The necessary combination of λmax and λmin to resolve objects with modest Faraday thick components requires one or two surveys with instantaneous bandwidth 300 MHz to 750 MHz offered by next generation telescopes. For spiral galaxies, bandwidths in excess of 1.5 GHz are required. Correction for Galactic Faraday rotation must account for common gradients of order 10 rad m−2 per degree. How effective a new rotation measure grid is in probing the foreground depends on off-axis polarization calibration.
An excellent laboratory for studying large scale magnetic fields is the grand design face-on spiral galaxy M51. Due to wavelength-dependent Faraday depolarization, linearly polarized synchrotron emission at different radio frequencies gives a picture of the galaxy at different depths: Observations at L-band (1 – 2 GHz) probe the halo region while at C- and X-band (4 – 8 GHz) the linearly polarized emission probe the disk region of M51. We present new observations of M51 using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at S-band (2 – 4 GHz), where previously no polarization observations existed, to shed new light on the transition region between the disk and the halo. We discuss a model of the depolarization of synchrotron radiation in a multilayer magneto-ionic medium and compare the model predictions to the multi-frequency polarization data of M51 between 1 – 8 GHz. The new S-band data are essential to distinguish between different models. Our study shows that the initial model parameters, i.e. the total regular and turbulent magnetic field strengths in the disk and halo of M51, need to be adjusted to successfully fit the models to the data.
In Bertrang et al. (2018), we present new data of the protoplanetary disk surrounding the Herbig Ae/Be star HD 169142 obtained in the very broad-band (VBB) with the Zurich imaging polarimeter (ZIMPOL), a subsystem of the Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch instrument (SPHERE) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). Our Polarimetric Differential Imaging (PDI) observations probe the disk as close as 0.″3 (3.5au) to the star and are able to trace the disk out to ~1.″08 (~126 au). We find an inner hole, a bright ring bearing substructures around ~0.″18 (21au), and an elliptically shaped gap stretching from 0.″25 to 0.″47 (29–55 au). Outside of 0.″47, the surface brightness drops off, discontinued only by a narrow annular brightness minimum at ~0.″63–0.″74 (74–87 au). These observations confirm features found in less-well resolved data as well as reveal yet undetected indications for planet-disk interactions, such as small-scale structures, star-disk offsets, and potentially moving shadows.
The new generation of radio interferometers will deliver an unprecedented amount of deep and high resolution observations. In this proceedings, we present recent algorithmic advances in the context of the study of cosmic magnetism in order to extract all the information contained in these data.