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Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the developed world. Age is a primary risk factor for developing cancer, and geriatric oncology is a rapidly emerging field that aims to address the specific needs of older patients with cancer. All clinicians who treat elderly patients should have knowledge of cancer risks, screening, and management principles. This chapter will review the principles of geriatric oncology, including geriatric assessment in the oncology population. We will then discuss the four most common solid tumors encountered in elderly patients: breast, prostate, colorectal, and lung cancer. Each section will include risk factors, screening and prevention, presentation, staging, prognosis, and multidisciplinary management of early- and late-stage disease.
This review aimed to compare the clinical features and CT imaging features between patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and lung cancer and patients with PTB alone. That would help to analyse the differences between the two and consequently providing a theoretical basis for the clinical diagnosis and treatment for the patients. Relevant case-control studies focusing on the clinical and CT imaging characteristics between PTB with lung cancer and PTB alone were systematically searched from five electronic databases. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for comparison. As of 2021-07-06, a total of 1735 articles were retrieved. But only 15 articles were finally included for meta-analysis. The results showed a higher proportion of irritable cough, haemorrhagic pleural effusion and lower proportion of night sweating in PTB patients with lung cancer than in PTB patients, and the differences were statistically significant (irritable cough: OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.43–4.11; haemorrhagic pleural effusion: OR 5.73, 95% CI 1.63–20.12; night sweating: OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.36–0.87). In addition, there are many differences in the imaging characteristics of the two types of patients. In conclusion, this review summarises the similarities and differences in clinical symptoms and imaging features between patients with PTB and lung cancer and patients with PTB alone, suggesting that we should be alert to the occurrence of lung cancer in patients with obsolete PTB relapse.
In thoracic radiotherapy (RT), heart sparing is very essential, as the high cardiac dose is associated with poor survival in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The study aims to determine the doses exposed to heart substructures and coronary arteries by different RT techniques in central tumor irradiation in lung cancer.
Twenty patients with NSCLC, irradiated between January 2018 and December 2020 in our department, were included in this study. Patients whose primary tumor was centrally located in the left lung were selected. The heart substructures [left atrium, right atrium (RA), left ventricle, and right ventricle] and coronary arteries (left main, left anterior descending, circumflex, and right coronary arteries) were delineated by the same physician. The doses of 60 Gy external RT were prescribed in 30 fractions using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), static intensity-modulated radiotherapy (s-IMRT), and dynamic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (d-IMRT) techniques in all patients. The obtaining plans using three different techniques were compared.
The d-IMRT plans were statistically the best optimal plan for planning target volume (PTV) [Dmean (p = 0 04), Dmax (p < 0 0001), V95 (p < 0 0001), V107 (p < 0 0001), CI (p < 0 0001) and HI (p < 0 0001)]. The s-IMRT plans were significantly superior to 3D-CRT plans for PTV. RA Dmax and V45 were not different between the three techniques [Dmax (p = 0 148) and V45 (p = 0 12)]. The d-IMRT technique was significantly better in other heart substructures and coronary arteries.
Compared to 3D-CRT and s-IMRT techniques, the d-IMRT technique provided the best protection in all heart substructures except for a few parameters (RA Dmax and V45 doses).
Biomacromolecules have gained much attention as biomedicine carriers in recent years due to their remarkable biophysical and biochemical properties including sustainability, non-toxicity, biocompatibility, biodegradability, long systemic circulation time and ability to target. Recent developments in a variety of biological functions of biomacromolecules and progress in the study of biological drug carriers suggest that these carriers may have advantages over carriers of synthetic materials in terms of half-life, durability, protection and manufacturing facility. Despite the full pledge advancements in the applications of biomacromolecules, its clinical use is hindered by certain factors that allow the pre-mature release of loaded cargos before reaching the target site. The delivery therapeutics are degraded by systemic nucleases, cleared by reticulo-endothelial system, cleared by pulmonary mucus cilia or engulfed by lysosome during cellular uptake that has led to the failure of clinical therapy. It clearly indicates that there is a wide range of gaps in the results of experimental work and clinical applications of biomacromolecules. This review focuses mainly on the barriers (intracellular/extracellular) and hurdles to the delivery of biomacromolecules with special emphasis on siRNA as well as the delivery of antisense oligos in multiple pulmonary diseases, particularly focusing on lung cancer. Also, the challenges posed to such delivery and possible solutions have been highlighted.
There are many terminally ill cancer patients who are struggling with the meaning of life, but it cannot be said that their concerns are being adequately addressed.
From a series of cancer patients undergoing end-of-life care, the case of a patient, who developed incurable lung cancer and, together with his wife, lost the meaning of life and underwent meaning-centered couples psychotherapy once every two weeks to have them consider the meaning of life together, is presented.
The patient was a 70-year-old man who had been diagnosed with lung cancer and pleural dissemination 14 months earlier. The meaning-centered psychotherapy (MCP) sessions were conducted with the patient and his 70-year-old wife by a cancer nursing specialist who had received extensive training in MCP and had also received 7-year on-going supervision from a Japanese MCP-enlightened psychologist. At the same time, palliative treatment of physical distress was performed. The patient was able to discover the meaning of life as a result of MCP performed by a cancer nursing specialist for him and his spouse who had lost any notion of the meaning of life after being informed that he had terminal cancer at the time of the initial diagnosis.
Significance of results
Meaning-centered psychotherapy provided to terminal cancer patients by cancer nurses can help patients and their families express their gratitude, thereby achieving a good death for the bereaved family. Nurses are likely to increasingly perform MCP in the future.
The prevalence of malnutrition is high among oncology patients in Northern China. Malnutrition is related to the longer hospital stay, and it can be used to predict the prognostic outcome of patients. This work focused on investigating the relationship of nutritional condition with the length of hospital stay (LOS) in Northern Chinese patients with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). The Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA), Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) score, recent weight loss and BMI were assessed in a probabilistic sample of 389 LUAD patients without epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. This study collected the demographic and clinical features of patients in a prospective manner. Then, we examined the association of nutritional status with LOS among the population developing LUAD. According to the PG-SGA, 63 (16·3 %), 174 (44·7 %) and 78 (20·1 %) patients were at risk for undernutrition, moderate undernutrition and severe undernutrition, respectively. Nutritional risk was found in 141 (36·2 %) patients based on the NRS 2002. The average LOS for tumour patients in Northern China was 12·5 d. At admission, a risk of undernutrition or undernutrition according to the PG-SGA (P < 0·001), NRS 2002 (P < 0·001) and latest weight loss (P < 0·001) predicted the longer LOS. LOS was related to nutritional status and hospitalisation expenses (P < 0·001). LUAD patients who stayed in the ICU had a poorer nutritional status and a longer LOS (P < 0·001). In Northern Chinese patients with LUAD, a risk for undernutrition evaluated by the PG-SGA, the NRS 2002 and recent weight loss, but not BMI, could predict a longer LOS.
The present study evaluated whether fat mass assessment using the triceps skinfold (TSF) thickness provides additional prognostic value to the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) framework in patients with lung cancer (LC). We performed an observational cohort study including 2672 LC patients in China. Comprehensive demographic, disease and nutritional characteristics were collected. Malnutrition was retrospectively defined using the GLIM criteria, and optimal stratification was used to determine the best thresholds for the TSF. The associations of malnutrition and TSF categories with survival were estimated independently and jointly by calculating multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR). Malnutrition was identified in 808 (30·2 %) patients, and the best TSF thresholds were 9·5 mm in men and 12 mm in women. Accordingly, 496 (18·6 %) patients were identified as having a low TSF. Patients with concurrent malnutrition and a low TSF had a 54 % (HR = 1·54, 95 % CI = 1·25, 1·88) greater death hazard compared with well-nourished individuals, which was also greater compared with malnourished patients with a normal TSF (HR = 1·23, 95 % CI = 1·06, 1·43) or malnourished patients without TSF assessment (HR = 1·31, 95 % CI = 1·14, 1·50). These associations were concentrated among those patients with adequate muscle mass (as indicated by the calf circumference). Additional fat mass assessment using the TSF enhances the prognostic value of the GLIM criteria. Using the population-derived thresholds for the TSF may provide significant prognostic value when used in combination with the GLIM criteria to guide strategies to optimise the long-term outcomes in patients with LC.
CyberKnife is the most advanced form of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) system that uses a robotic arm to deliver highly focused beams of radiation; however, a limitation is that it only irradiates from ceiling to floor direction. In patients with posterior lungs tumour who are positioned supine, normal lung tissue may suffer undesirable radiation injuries. This study compares the treatment planning between the prone set-up and the supine set-up for lung cancer in CyberKnife SBRT to decrease normal lung dose to avoid radiation side effects.
Materials and methods:
A human phantom was used to generate 108 plans (54 for prone and 54 for supine) using the CyberKnife planning platform. The supine and prone plans were compared in terms of the dosimetric characteristics, delivery efficiency and plan efficiency.
For posterior targets, the area of low-dose exposure to normal lungs was smaller in the prone set-up than in the supine set-up. V10 of the lungs was 7·53% and 10·47% (p < 0·001) in the anterior region, and 10·78% and 8·03% (p < 0·001) in the posterior region in the supine and prone set-up plans, respectively.
The comparison between the prone set-up and the supine set-up was investigated with regard to target coverage and dose to organs at risk. Our results may be deployed in CyberKnife treatment planning to monitor normal tissue dose by considering patient positioning. This may assist in the design of better treatment plans and prevention of symptomatic radiation pneumonitis in lung cancer patients.
This review provides an overview of the existing literature on the importance of care coordination for lung cancer care and other cancers in general. The review is inclusive of the burden of cancer, with a special reference to lung cancer, as well as challenges and achievements relating to cancer care coordination.
We conducted a search of online databases of peer-reviewed studies published in the English language. The analysis for this review has been packaged into themes in order to generate results that can inform researchers and cancer health professionals, on the existing gaps necessary for developing appropriate intervention strategies and policy guidelines.
Cancer is a complex condition that often requires multiple interventions provided by a variety of health professionals within the healthcare continuum. This paper reviewed research studies that explored the supportive care needs of cancer patients. The results are presented in three superordinate themes, namely (a) cancer as a healthcare priority in South Africa (SA), (b) making a case for coordinated cancer care in SA, and (c) care coordination: a poorly defined, yet complex concept. One major need identified was the requirement of informational support. Other essential needs included referral, emotional, and financial support.
Significance of results
The identification of current obstacles has the potential to guide the development of a model to improve quality coordinated cancer health care. It remains that limited research exists around cancer services and cancer care in the South African region. This narrative review identified common elements and barriers to care for lung cancer patients and survivors, and offers recommendations for developing clinical care models.
Lung cancer (LC) is the most frequent and deadly neoplasm in the world, and patients have shown a tendency to have more emotional distress than other cancer populations. Dignity Therapy (DT) is a brief intervention aimed to improve emotional well-being in patients facing life-threatening illness.
To analyze the effect of DT on anxiety, depression, hopelessness, emotional distress, dignity-related distress, and quality of life (QoL) in a group of Mexican patients with stage IV LC undergoing active medical treatment with baseline emotional distress.
In this preliminary pretest–posttest study, patients received three sessions of DT and were evaluated with the HADS, Distress Thermometer, Patient Dignity Inventory, single-item questions, and QLQ-30.
In total, 24 out of 29 patients completed the intervention. Statistically significant improvements were found in anxiety, depression, emotional distress, hopelessness, and dignity-related distress with large effect sizes. Patients reported that DT helped them, increased their meaning and purpose in life, their sense of dignity, and their will to live, while it decreased their suffering. No changes were found in QoL.
Significance of results
DT was well accepted and effective in improving the emotional symptoms of LC patients with distress that were undergoing medical treatment. Although more research is warranted to confirm these results, this suggests that DT can be used in the context of Latin-American patients.
Diagnosis of cancer is emotionally threatening not only for patients but also for their family caregivers (FC) who witness and share much of the illness experience. This study compares distress experienced by lung cancer patients and their FC during the year following the diagnosis.
A prospective cohort study of 206 patients recently diagnosed with inoperable lung cancer (participation rate 79.5%) and 131 FC (participation rate 63.6%) was conducted in an ambulatory oncology clinic in Quebec City (Canada). They completed validated questionnaires regarding their personal and psychological characteristics (Hospital and Anxiety Depression Scale—HADS), in the first months after the diagnosis of lung cancer and after 6 and 12 months. Univariate, bivariate, and linear mixed models were conducted to compare patient and FC distress.
At baseline, 7.8% of patients reported distress (HADS total score >15) and their mean distress score was 7.0 ± 4.9 (range 0–42). In contrast, 33.6% of FC presented significant distress and their mean distress score was 12.0 ± 7.2 (P < 0.0001). Proportions of patients and FC with distress remained relatively stable at 6 and 12 months, and at every time point, FC reported higher levels of distress compared to their relative with cancer (P < 0.0001). Comparable trends were found when looking at the mean scores of distress, anxiety, and depression throughout the study.
Significance of results
Being diagnosed with lung cancer and going through its different phases seems to affect more FC than patients. The psychological impact of such diagnosis appears early after the diagnosis and does not significantly change over time. These findings reinforce the importance for oncology teams, to include FC in their systematic distress screening program, in order to help them cope with their own feelings and be able to play their role in patient support and care throughout the cancer journey.
To determine whether myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) changes in lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) were detectable with late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (LGE CMR).
Materials and methods:
Twenty-one patients with lung cancer were evaluated pre-RT and at 2 and 6 months post-RT follow-up (FU) with MPS and LGE CMR. MPS changes in the left ventricle (LV) were analysed using the semi-quantitative summed rest score method (20 segments) and the Bull’s-eye-view technique. The LGE CMR studies were analysed for visual signs of myocardial damage (fibrosis), that is, focal LGE in the LV and cardiac function parameters.
MPS changes were detected in 7/20 patients at 2 months FU and in 8/13 patients at 6 months FU. Only one patient had a new irreversible defect judged to be caused by direct irradiation. MPS changes in two cases were deemed to be caused by attenuation. All new MPS defects were minor and no corresponding myocardial damage, or any functional changes, were evident on LGE CMR.
The extent of MPS changes at 6 months FU appeared less prominent than in previous reports. No visual signs or functional changes corresponding to myocardial damage were detected on LGE CMR. A risk for false-positive MPS changes caused by attenuation is evident.
Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in Canada and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in both men and women in North America. Surgery is usually the primary treatment option for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, for patients who may not be suitable candidates for surgery, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an alternative method of treatment. SBRT has proven to be an effective technique for treating NSCLC patients by focally administering high radiation dose to the tumour with acceptable risk of toxicity to surrounding healthy tissues. The goal of this comprehensive retrospective dosimetric study is to compare the dosimetric parameters between three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) lung SBRT treatment plans for two prescription doses.
We retrospectively analysed and compared lung SBRT treatment plans of 263 patients treated with either a 3DCRT non-coplanar or with 2–3 VMAT arcs technique at 48 Gy in 4 fractions (48 Gy/4) or 50 Gy in 5 fractions (50 Gy/5) prescribed to the planning target volume (PTV), typically encompassing the 80% isodose volume. All patients were treated on either a Varian 21EX or TrueBeam linear accelerator using 6-MV or 10-MV photon beams.
The mean PTV V95% and V100% for treatment plans at 48 Gy/4 are 99·4 ± 0·6% and 96·0 ± 1·0%, respectively, for 3DCRT and 99·7 ± 0·4% and 96·4 ± 3·4%, respectively, for VMAT. The corresponding mean PTV V95% and V100% at 50 Gy/5 are 99·0 ± 1·4% and 95·5 ± 2·5% for 3DCRT and 99·5 ± 0·8% and 96·1 ± 1·6% for VMAT. The CIRI and HI5/95 for the PTV at 48 Gy/4 are 1·1 ± 0·1 and 1·2 ± 0·0 for 3DCRT and 1·0 ± 0·1 and 1·2 ± 0·0 for VMAT. The corresponding CIRI and HI5/95 at 50 Gy/5 are 1·1 ± 0·1 and 1·3 ± 0·1 for 3DCRT and 1·0 ± 0·1 and 1·2 ± 0·0 for VMAT. The mean R50% and D2cm at 48 Gy/4 are 5·0 ± 0·8 and 61·2 ± 7·0% for 3DCRT and 4·9 ± 0·8 and 57·8 ± 7·9% for VMAT. The corresponding R50% and D2cm at 50 Gy/5 are 4·7 ± 0·5 and 65·5 ± 9·4% for 3DCRT and 4·7 ± 0·7 and 60·0 ± 7·2% for VMAT.
The use of 3DCRT or VMAT technique for lung SBRT is an efficient and reliable method for achieving dose conformity, rapid dose fall-off and minimising doses to the organs at risk. The VMAT technique resulted in improved dose conformity, rapid dose fall-off from the PTV compared to 3DCRT, although the magnitude may not be clinically significant.
Studies evaluating depression's role in lung cancer risk revealed contradictory findings, partly because of the small number of cases, short follow-up periods, and failure to account for key covariates including smoking exposure. We investigated the association of depressive symptoms with lung cancer risk in a large prospective cohort over 24 years while considering the role of smoking.
Women from the Nurses' Health Study completed measures of depressive symptoms, sociodemographics, and other factors including smoking in 1992 (N = 42 913). Depressive symptoms were also queried in 1996 and 2000, whereas regular antidepressant use and physician-diagnosed depression were collected starting in 1996. Multivariable Cox regression models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of lung cancer risk until 2016.
We identified 1009 cases of lung cancer. Women with the highest v. lowest level of depressive symptoms had an increased lung cancer risk (HRsociodemographics-adjusted = 1.62, 95% CI 1.34–1.95; HRfully-adjusted = 1.25, 95% CI 1.04–1.51). In a test of mediation, lifetime pack-years of smoking accounted for 38% of the overall association between depressive symptoms and disease risk. When stratifying by smoking status, the elevated risk was evident among former smokers but not current or never smokers; however, the interaction term suggested no meaningful differences across groups (p = 0.29). Results were similar or stronger when considering time-updated depression status (using depressive symptoms, physician diagnosis, and regular antidepressant use) and chronicity of depressive symptoms.
These findings suggest that greater depressive symptoms may contribute to lung cancer incidence, directly and indirectly via smoking habits, which accounted for over a third of the association.
Inflammation may contribute to the high prevalence of depressive symptoms seen in lung cancer. “Sickness behavior” is a cluster of symptoms induced by inflammation that are similar but distinct from depressive symptoms. The Sickness Behavior Inventory-Revised (SBI-R) was developed to measure sickness behavior. We hypothesized that the SBI-R would demonstrate adequate psychometric properties in association with inflammation.
Participants with stage IV lung cancer (n = 92) were evaluated for sickness behavior using the SBI-R. Concomitant assessments were made of depression (Patient Hospital Questionniare-9, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and inflammation [C-reactive protein (CRP)]. Classical test theory (CTT) was applied and multivariate models were created to explain SBI-R associations with depression and inflammation. Factor Analysis was also used to identify the underlying factor structure of the hypothesized construct of sickness behavior. A longitudinal analysis was conducted for a subset of participants.
The sample mean for the 12-item SBI-R was 8.3 (6.7) with a range from 0 to 33. The SBI-R demonstrated adequate internal consistency with a Cronbach's coefficient of 0.85, which did not increase by more than 0.01 with any single-item removal. This analysis examined factor loadings onto a single factor extracted using the principle components method. Eleven items had factor loadings that exceeded 0.40. SBI-R total scores were significantly correlated with depressive symptoms (r = 0.78, p < 0.001) and CRP (r = 0.47, p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses revealed that inflammation and depressive symptoms explained 67% of SBI-R variance.
Significance of results
The SBI-R demonstrated adequate reliability and construct validity in this patient population with metastatic lung cancer. The observed findings suggest that the SBI-R can meaningfully capture the presence of sickness behavior and may facilitate a greater understanding of inflammatory depression.
The purpose of the present study is to compare hybrid [three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy-volumetric-modulated arc therapy (3DCRT-VMAT)] and helical tomotherapy (HT) techniques in terms of both planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) in the plans we made in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients
Material and methods:
Radiotherapy was planned for 15 locally advanced NSCLC patients with 2 different techniques. Large tumours with positive mediastinal lymph nodes were preferred. The prescription dose was determined as 60 Gy at 30 fractions.
Mean PTV volume was 602·5 cc (range: 265–1461). Mean total lung volume was 4264 cc (range: 1885–6803). Homogeneity index, Dmean, Dmax, D2 and V105 were found to be lower in HT, V100, total monitor units (MU) and total beam on time were found to be lower in the hybrid plan. Total lung Dmean was found to be 17 Gy in both techniques. V10 value was 42·85 in the hybrid plan and 48·67 in HT (p = 0·037). Heart Dmean was 14·5 Gy in the hybrid plan and 18·7 in HT (p < 0·001), and V30 values were 18·1 and 22·9, respectively (p = 0·009).
Suitable dose coverage and OAR doses can be provided with both techniques. Especially the opposite lung, heart and oesophagus doses can be kept lower with the hybrid plan, and lower MU and shorter beam on time can be provided.
Treatment of metachronous second primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients already treated with definitive radiotherapy is a matter of debate, since most patients are excluded from surgical treatment, which remains a therapeutic standard for patients with isolated lung masses. Salvage chemotherapy or immunotherapy alone offers a low probability of disease control. The option of re-irradiation often remains the only viable, but the risks of severe acute or late toxicities affecting the surrounding normal tissues make this a real clinical challenge.
Materials and methods:
From January 2015 to April 2018, five patients (male/female: 4/1; age 54–81 years, median 68) with previously irradiated NSCLC presented with a second primary lung tumour.
A partial response was seen in four patients, one complete responses in the fifth. The toxicity was low: two patients experienced a grade 2 asymptomatic radiation pneumonitis after 6 and 12 months from the end of stereotactic body radiation therapy, resolved with cortisone therapy. No acute or late oesophageal or cardiac toxicity was found.
In this work, we present our initial experience about the use of stereotactic radiotherapy technique in already irradiated patients. We reported a local disease control in all cases with an acceptable toxicity.
This paper aims to describe the clinical and regulatory aspects of new drugs and indications that were approved for lung, breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer, from 2016 to 2018, in order to provide health technology assessment trends in oncology.
Data were collected from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) online database for new medications and indications approved for the above-mentioned types of cancer. Data regarding clinical study characteristics and regulatory information were collected.
From 2016 to 2018, 53 percent of the FDA approvals of new drugs and indications for the most incident cancers were for oral protein kinase inhibitor monotherapy for advanced lung cancer. Since 2018, four drugs were approved as tumor-agnostic therapies. A biomarker was included in 72 percent of indications, and 58 percent of approvals were for targeted therapies, potentially heralding an end to research into conventional cytotoxic agents. A special designation for faster approval was granted in 78 percent of new approvals. The majority of the studies were open label randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (44 percent), followed by blind RCTs, single-arm clinical trials, and cohort studies. Only 14 percent of studies used overall survival as the primary end point; the vast majority used surrogate end points, and did not use patient-important outcomes. Three biosimilars were approved in the period.
Advanced lung cancer therapy, mainly targeted drugs, accounted for 53 percent of approvals. Special designations for faster approval were used in 78 percent of FDA approvals, and four drugs were approved for tumor-agnostic treatment—a new form of approval.
Findings of epidemiological studies regarding the association between carrot consumption and lung cancer risk remain inconsistent. The present study aimed to summarise the current epidemiological evidence concerning carrot intake and lung cancer risk with a meta-analysis. We conducted a meta-analysis of case–control and prospective cohort studies, and searched PubMed and Embase databases from their inception to April 2018 without restriction by language. We also reviewed reference lists from included articles. Prospective cohort or case–control studies reporting OR or relative risk with the corresponding 95 % CI of the risk lung cancer for the highest compared with the lowest category of carrot intake. A total of eighteen eligible studies (seventeen case–control studies and one prospective cohort study) were included, involving 202 969 individuals and 5517 patients with lung cancer. The pooled OR of eighteen studies for lung cancer was 0·58 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·74) by comparing the highest category with the lowest category of carrot consumption. Based on subgroup analyses for the types of lung cancer, we pooled that squamous cell carcinoma (OR 0·52, 95 % CI 0·19, 1·45), small-cell carcinoma (OR 0·43, 95 % CI 0·12, 1·59), adenocarcinoma (OR 0·34, 95 % CI 0·15, 0·79), large-cell carcinoma (OR 0·40, 95 % CI 0·10, 1·57), squamous and small-cell carcinoma (OR 0·85, 95 % CI 0·45, 1·62), adenocarcinoma and large-cell carcinoma (OR 0·20, 95 % CI 0·02, 1·70) and mixed types (OR 0·61, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·81). Exclusion of any single study did not materially alter the pooled OR. Integrated epidemiological evidence from observational studies supported the hypothesis that carrot consumption may decrease the risk of lung cancer, especially for adenocarcinoma.
The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated the use of low dose helical computed tomography (LDCT) scans for lung cancer screening. However, the NLST was implemented in urban hospitals and prior to the Lung CT Screening Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS). In this retrospective cohort study, 774 eligible patients received LDCT screening using Lung-RADS criteria. Eighty-four patients (10.9%) had subsequent testing performed compared to 24.2% in the NLST study. Of those with subsequent testing, 21.4% were diagnosed with lung cancer compared to only 4.6% in the NLST study. Lung-RADS significantly reduced unnecessary testing while identifying higher rates of lung cancer compared to the NLST.