Field experiments were conducted in 1997 and 1998 to evaluate the effects of gypsum (GYP), anionic polyacrylamide (PAM), and dolomitic lime (DL) on atrazine and acetochlor efficacy and leaching. Surface-applied treatments of PAM (20 kg/ha), GYP (1,000 kg/ha), PAM + GYP (20 + 1,000 kg/ha), and DL (1,000 kg/ha), plus an unamended control, were evaluated at two locations, i.e., West Lafayette, IN (sites A and B) and Bourbon, IN (sites C and D). Sites A and C were evaluated in 1997 and 1998, while sites B and D were evaluated only in 1998. West Lafayette experiments were on a Raub silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, mesic, aquic Arguidolls) soil, and Bourbon experiments were on a Rensselaer silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, mesic, Typic Arguidolls) soil. Atrazine and acetochlor efficacy was reduced on GYP-amended plots at site A in 1997 where the total weed density was significantly higher (P = 0.10) compared with all other treatments. The results were not significant at this site in 1998; however, weed density tended to be higher with the GYP treatment. Weed density was significantly higher with DL amendments than with the other treatments at site B in 1998. Weed control was not reduced with any treatment at site C or site D in 1997 and 1998. The very strong weed pressures at these sites may have hidden potential differences. Rainfall within hours of amendment and herbicide application resulted in increased atrazine and acetochlor leaching below 15 cm under GYP-amended plots compared with all the treatments at site C in 1997. Atrazine and acetochlor concentrations in the soil were similar among treatments at all other sites, sampling times, and in both years. The application of GYP increased herbicide leaching only when heavy rainfall occurred immediately after application.