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Current research on the psychological health of near-centenarians (95−99 years old) and centenarians remains limited. Existing studies have mainly characterized their physical, cognitive, and social health. Results on the anxiety and depression of near-centenarians and centenarians (more than 95 years old) have been mixed with some studies, finding higher rates of anxiety and depression among those older than 95 years and others reporting no difference in rates compared with younger age groups. This study aims to synthesize the existing literature on the prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression in near-centenarians and centenarians.
A systematic review was conducted using Ovid Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane database. Common and conflicting findings among the literature were examined.
Thirty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Six studies examined the prevalence and predictors of anxiety, and 37 studies investigated the prevalence and predictors of depression. Five studies examined both anxiety and depression in the same sample. Prevalence data on anxiety and depression varied significantly, as did comparisons with rates in younger populations. Findings on predictors of anxiety and depression were contradictory.
There is a large degree of heterogeneity among studies of centenarians’ psychological status. Findings conflict on the prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression and rates compared with younger age groups. Variation in findings may result from the different inclusion criteria, sampling methods, and measurement tools. Better harmonization of centenarian study methodologies may improve consistency of findings to aid in developing clinical interventions.
This chapter looks at insurance standards used to create new markets or reinforce existing ones. It unveils a number of little-known standards that are instrumental in pushing the frontier of highly innovative and securitised insurance markets ever further. It first provides a detailed analysis of the project that insurers, pension schemes and investment banks developed over several years for a standardised solution to pass over to capital markets the risk associated with longer and different expectations in populations’ longevity – known as ‘longevity risk’. Then it shows the significance of standardised data exchange formats in various lines of insurance markets. A case in point is how the world’s largest reinsurers took decades to standardise the exposure to natural hazards risks included in their portfolio. Another one, though not confined to insurance, is the standardised guidelines used for extra-financial reporting and developed by the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI). Evidence gathered in this chapter suggests that, although those standards largely belong to a logic of market creation and rationalisation, compliance remains ambiguous and falls short of a mere transnationalisation of capital accumulation.
The oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata is an important crop pest in eastern Asia. Nocturnal insects, including nocturnal moths, have phototactic behavior to an artificial light source. Phototactic behavior in insects is species-specific in response to different wavelengths of light sources. Our previous study showed that green (520 nm) light emitting diode (LED) light resulted in a significantly higher phototactic behavior in M. separata moths compared to the other wavelength LED lights. The goal of the present study is to investigate the influence of green light illumination on biological characteristics of different developmental stages in M. separata. Our results revealed that when different developmental stages of M. separata were exposed to the green light illumination in a dark period, several biological characteristics in all developmental stages except for egg stage were positively changed, but those of F1 generation M. separata which are next generation of the adults exposed to the green light did not significantly change compared with the control level. These findings suggest that green light illumination at night (or dark period) has a positive effect on the development and longevity of M. separata.
The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of the experiences of extended longevity as perceived by centenarians. Centenarians (people over 100 years of age) are the fastest growing group of the ageing population in developed countries. Ten centenarians aged between 100 and 106 years, living in the Lower North Island of New Zealand, participated in the study. The biographical narrative interpretive method of inquiry guided data collection through face-to-face interviews, and thematic analysis was subsequently undertaken. Four themes were identified: (a) ‘becoming a centenarian: ‘Just another day’; (b) ‘growing up in a privileged environment’ that revealed four sub-themes: ‘having freedom and choice’, ‘being loved and nurtured’, ‘living healthy lifestyles’ and having ‘good education prospects’; (c) ‘unique opportunities in adult life’; and (d) ‘positive ageing and celebration of longevity’. The centenarians spoke nonchalantly about their experience of turning 100 and positive personalities were prominent features of the participants, who all expressed a sense of acceptance and satisfaction with life and contentment with living in the present, a feature throughout their lives that was ongoing and at an intergenerational level. This study has provided further insights into the existing literature on longevity and through the narratives of the centenarians has demonstrated the value of Erikson's psycho-social stages of development and Tornstam's theory of gerotranscendence when considering positive ageing.
Longevity is one of the most important traits determining dairy cow profitability. In the last decades dairy cows suffered a lowering in the age at culling. With the aim to identify the genes involved in longevity, dates of birth, yields, dates of calving during lifespan and culling dates were collected for 946 culled cows which had been genotyped with the Bovine High Density panel. Using the GenABEL package in R, genome-wide association analysis was performed on three potential traits of longevity: (1) ‘days in production,’ (2) ‘days in herd,’ (3) number of calvings over lifespan.’ Five genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with all three longevity traits were detected. Several consecutive SNPs identified on chromosomes 16 and 30 indicated the presence of two suggestive quantitative trait loci (QTL). The genes comprised in the QTL regions had biological functions related to fertility, reproductive disorders, heat stress and welfare of cows. These findings might contribute to improving breeding strategies to improve longevity.
The present study investigated the population dynamics of Hepatus pudibundus in the Cananéia region, in southern São Paulo state, Brazil, focusing on population structure, growth parameters, longevity, sex ratio, reproduction and recruitment juvenile period. Sampling was performed monthly at seven stations from July 2012 to June 2014, using a shrimp fishing boat. A total of 1650 specimens were collected: 551 males and 1099 females. The males were larger than females. Reproductive females were captured throughout the study period and juveniles were captured in most months. Both of these demographic categories were positively correlated with temperature. Growth parameters showed differences between sexes: CW∞ = 78.91 mm, k = 0.0066 day−1, t0 = 0.0965 for males and CW∞ = 69.71 mm, k = 0.0053 day−1, t0 = −0.2404 for females. Longevity was estimated at 1.91 and 2.40 years for males and females, respectively. The findings provide a greater understanding of the life cycle in this species. Additionally, since trawl nets are not selective, this study also provides information for better trawl fishery management, addressing not only the target shrimp but also the by-catch species.
Probiotics are bacteria among the intestinal flora that are beneficial for human health. Bifidobacterium longum (BL) is a prototypical probiotic that is widely used in yogurt making, supplements and others. Although various physiological effects of BL have been reported, those associated with longevity and anti-ageing still remain elusive. Here we aimed to elucidate the physiological effects of killed BL (BR-108) on stress tolerance and longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans and their mechanisms. Worms fed killed BL in addition to Escherichia coli (OP50) displayed reduced body length in a BL dose-dependent manner. When compared with those fed E. coli alone, these worms had a higher survival rate following heat stress at 35°C and hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. A general decrease in motility was observed over time in all worms; however, killed BL-fed ageing worms displayed increased movement and longer life span than those fed E. coli alone. However, the longevity effect was suppressed in sir-2.1, daf-16 and skn-1-deficient worms. Killed BL induced DAF-16 nuclear localisation and increased the expression of the DAF-16 target gene hsp-12.6. These results revealed that the physiological effects of killed BL in C. elegans were mediated by DAF-16 activation. These findings contradict previous observations with different Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains, which showed the role for SKN-1 independently of DAF-16.
Highlighting the dispersal ecology of parasites is important for understanding epidemiological, demographic and coevolutionary aspects of host–parasite interactions. Yet, critical aspects of the dispersal stage of parasites, such as longevity and the factors influencing it, are poorly known. Here we study the lifespan of the dispersal stage of an ectoparasitic dipteran, Carnus hemapterus, and the impact of gender, body size and food provisioning on longevity. We found that freshly emerged imagoes survive at most less than 4 days. Longevity increased with body size and, since this parasite exhibits sexual size dimorphism, the bigger females lived longer than males. However, controlling for body size suggests that males lived relatively longer than females. Furthermore, a humid environment and food provisioning (flowers) significantly increased individual life spans. We discuss the relative importance of spatial and temporal dispersal in relation to the infectious potential of this parasite.
The importance of the right food source for the survival and reproduction of certain insect species is well documented. In the case of biocontrol agents, this is even more important in order to reach a high predation or parasitation performance. The egg parasitoid Telenomus laeviceps (Förster, 1861) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) is a promising candidate for mass release as a biological control agent of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). However, adult T. laeviceps need a sugar-rich food source to increase their parasitation performance and produce a good amount of female offspring. Released biocontrol agents were shown to benefit from conservation biocontrol, which includes the provision of selected flowers as nectar resources for beneficial insects. In Switzerland, Centaurea cyanus L. (Asteraceae), Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Polygonaceae) and Vicia sativa L. (Fabaceae) are successfully implemented in the field to attract and promote natural enemies of different cabbage pests. In this study, we investigated the potential of these selected flowers to attract and promote T. laeviceps under laboratory conditions. In Y-tube olfactometer experiments, we first tested whether the three nectar providing plant species are attractive to T. laeviceps. Furthermore, we assessed their effects on survival and parasitation performance of adult T. laeviceps. We found that flowers of F. esculentum and C. cyanus were attractive in contrast to V. sativa. Also fecundity and the number of female offspring produced were higher for females kept on F. esculentum and C. cyanus than on V. sativa. In contrast, survival was similar on all treatments. Our findings present a further key step towards the implementation of T. laeviceps as a biocontrol agent.
This study evaluated the population structure, growth and longevity of Xiphopenaeus kroyeri in the State of Sergipe. The obtained data were compared with other populations on a latitudinal scale in order to evaluate whether the latitudinal paradigm applies to this species. Shrimp sampling took place monthly from September 2013 to August 2014, in nine stations distributed at 5, 15 and 30 m depths, using a shrimp fishery boat equipped with a ‘double rig’ net. Sexual maturity was estimated by the logistic function y = a/(1 + b*exp(-cx)), and the sex ratio was analysed with the Chi-square test. The individual growth rate was estimated using the von Bertalanffy model, and the longevity was estimated by the inverse form of this formula. A total of 6418 (3457 females and 2961 males) was analysed. The size at onset of sexual maturity was 12 mm of carapace length (CL) for males and 12.5 mm CL for females. The total sex ratio did not differ from the expected (1:1). Males exhibited higher growth coefficients (k) and smaller asymptotic growth (CC∞ = 28.74 mm, k = 0.0081 day−1) than females (CC∞ = 30.79 mm, k = 0.0058 day−1). The estimated longevity (years) was 1.55 for males and 2.15 for females. No evident latitudinal pattern was observed regarding the size at onset of sexual maturity or the growth parameters for X. kroyeri. The information found, besides contributing to the knowledge about the biology of this shrimp, can also clarify hypotheses presented in relation to the latitudinal paradigm along the Brazilian coast.
The resilience of seed quality in rice (Oryza sativa L.) to flooding was investigated. Pot-grown plants of the japonica cv. Gleva, the indica cv. IR64, and the introgressed line IR64-Sub1 were submerged in water, to simulate flooding, for 3‒5 days at different stages of seed development and maturation. Mean seed weight, pre-harvest sprouting, ability to germinate, and subsequent longevity in air-dry storage were assessed. Whereas seed quality in both IR64 and IR64-Sub1 was resilient to submergence, in Gleva the longer the duration of submergence and the later in development when plants were submerged the greater the pre-harvest sprouting. Thousand seed dry weight was reduced more by submergence in Gleva than IR64 or IR64-Sub1. At harvest maturity, few pre-harvest sprouted seeds were able to germinate upon rehydration after desiccation to 11‒12% moisture content. Seed longevity of the non-sprouted seed fraction in air-dry hermetic storage (40°C, 15% moisture content) was not affected greatly by submergence, but longevity of the japonica rice was less than that of the indica rices due to the former's steeper seed survival curves. Longevity of the two indica rices was predicted well by the seed viability equation and previously published estimates of viability constants for rice. The greater dormancy of IR64 and IR64-Sub1, compared with Gleva, enhanced resilience to pre-harvest sprouting and reduced thousand seed dry weight from plant submergence. There was little or no effect of plant submergence on subsequent air-dry storage longevity of non-sprouted seeds in any genotype.
This article proposes a neural-network approach to predict and simulate human mortality rates. This semi-parametric model is capable to detect and duplicate non-linearities observed in the evolution of log-forces of mortality. The method proceeds in two steps. During the first stage, a neural-network-based generalization of the principal component analysis summarizes the information carried by the surface of log-mortality rates in a small number of latent factors. In the second step, these latent factors are forecast with an econometric model. The term structure of log-forces of mortality is next reconstructed by an inverse transformation. The neural analyzer is adjusted to French, UK and US mortality rates, over the period 1946–2000 and validated with data from 2001 to 2014. Numerical experiments reveal that the neural approach has an excellent predictive power, compared to the Lee–Carter model with and without cohort effects.
Longer-lived cows tend to be more profitable and the stayability trait is a selection criterion correlated to longevity. An alternative to the traditional approach to evaluate stayability is its definition based on consecutive calvings, whose main advantage is the more accurate evaluation of young bulls. However, no study using this alternative approach has been conducted for Zebu breeds. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare linear random regression models to fit stayability to consecutive calvings of Guzerá, Nelore and Tabapuã cows and to estimate genetic parameters for this trait in the respective breeds. Data up to the eighth calving were used. The models included the fixed effects of age at first calving and year-season of birth of the cow and the random effects of contemporary group, additive genetic, permanent environmental and residual. Random regressions were modeled by orthogonal Legendre polynomials of order 1 to 4 (2 to 5 coefficients) for contemporary group, additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Using Deviance Information Criterion as the selection criterion, the model with 4 regression coefficients for each effect was the most adequate for the Nelore and Tabapuã breeds and the model with 5 coefficients is recommended for the Guzerá breed. For Guzerá, heritabilities ranged from 0.05 to 0.08, showing a quadratic trend with a peak between the fourth and sixth calving. For the Nelore and Tabapuã breeds, the estimates ranged from 0.03 to 0.07 and from 0.03 to 0.08, respectively, and increased with increasing calving number. The additive genetic correlations exhibited a similar trend among breeds and were higher for stayability between closer calvings. Even between more distant calvings (second v. eighth), stayability showed a moderate to high genetic correlation, which was 0.77, 0.57 and 0.79 for the Guzerá, Nelore and Tabapuã breeds, respectively. For Guzerá, when the models with 4 or 5 regression coefficients were compared, the rank correlations between predicted breeding values for the intercept were always higher than 0.99, indicating the possibility of practical application of the least parameterized model. In conclusion, the model with 4 random regression coefficients is recommended for the genetic evaluation of stayability to consecutive calvings in Zebu cattle.
Raphanus raphanistrum (wild radish) is a highly competitive weed in winter crops. Integrated weed management practices and decision-making tools benefit from the ability to predict seed longevity and dormancy status in the soil seed bank, as well as time and density of emergence in the field. We wondered if unique values taken from databases could serve for modelling purposes, whatever the origins of the weed populations. We investigated dormancy and longevity of fruits buried in the soil over a four-year seed burial experiment of two highly contrasted populations that differ by their biogeographical origin (oceanic versus continental climate), their habitat (arable field versus undisturbed) and their fruit size (thick versus thin fruit wall). High viability persisted over two years, followed by a rapid reduction, especially for the ‘continental-undisturbed-thin’ population. Dormancy cycling, with dormancy at its lowest in October, was observed for the ‘oceanic-arable-thick’ population, whilst a slow decrease without clear seasonal pattern was found for the other population. These results indicate different ways of regulating seed persistence in the soil, which might be taken into account when building demographic models. These differences could be due to interactions between fruit wall thickness and the other factors; it is possible that a thicker fruit wall increases longevity by promoting dormancy by physical restriction, but depending on temperature. Thinner fruit walls would make plants display other adaptive strategies to maximize survival time in the soil seed bank. Studies involving more populations and isogenic material are needed to address this specific question.
We present a savings plan for retirement that removes risk by fixing a constraint on a life-long pension so that it has an upper and a lower bound. This corresponds to the ideas of Nobel laureate R.C. Merton whose implementation has never been published. We show with an illustration that our proposed practical algorithm reproduces the theoretical results after a savings period of around 30 years by using daily, monthly, weekly or yearly updates of the investment positions. We calculate the percentiles of the final accumulated wealth distribution for the adjusted implementation. In the simulated illustration, we observe that the adjusted values converge to the theoretical values of the percentiles when the frequency of update increases. We conclude that monthly adjustments result in a practical way to implement theoretical results that were obtained under the hypothesis of a continuous process by Donnelly et al. (2015). This method is easy to use in practice by pension savers and fund managers.
We analyze the impact of increasing longevity on technological progress within an overlapping generations research and development (R&D)-based growth framework and test the model's implication on Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) data from 1960 to 2011. The central hypothesis is that—by raising the incentives of households to invest in physical capital and in R&D—decreasing mortality positively affects technological progress and productivity growth. The empirical results confirm the theoretical prediction. This implies that the demographic changes we observed in industrialized economies over the last decades were not detrimental to economic prosperity, at least as far as technological progress and productivity growth are concerned.
The population size structure from a total of 876 individuals, together with published values of growth rate, maximum size and size at age were used to estimate an instantaneous rate of natural mortality (M) of 0.46–0.59 year−1 in a population of the sea star Archaster angulatus from south-western Australia. Peak abundance (17%) of all animals sampled was 105–109 mm arm radius (means of 4.2–4.8 years of age) and only one per cent of sea stars are predicted to live beyond 8 years in the population studied. There are few comparable studies on sea stars but when compared with rates of natural mortality in other echinoderms (sea urchins), A. angulatus is intermediate among species which exhibit the extremes of life history strategies, that is, those which grow very rapidly and may live just two years or less and those with very slow growth rates and which may live for decades.
Over the last 20 years, the extent of defined benefit provision has declined substantially in the United Kingdom. Whilst most of the focus has been on deficits relating to past benefit accrual, the increasing cost of future benefit accrual is also important. There are two reasons for this. First, the change in the cost of defined benefit accrual represents the difference in the earnings for employees with membership of a defined benefit scheme and those with membership of a defined contribution scheme. Second, the current cost of defined benefit accrual gives an indication of the cost of an adequate pension. As such, it can be compared with levels of contribution to defined contribution schemes to determine whether these are adequate. I therefore look at how the cost of pensions has changed relative to the cost of non-pensions earnings. I also look at the main components of the change in pensions cost – those relating to benefits payable, discount rates and longevity – to analyse their relative importance. I find that the cost of employing a member of defined benefit pension scheme has consistently outpaced the cost of employing someone in a defined contribution arrangement. I also find that the current cost of accrual is significantly higher than the average level of payments to defined contribution schemes.
This article aims at studying a general equilibrium model with overlapping generations that incorporates inherited tastes (aspirations) and endogenous longevity. The existence of standard-of-living aspirations transmitted between two subsequent generations in a context where the individual state of health depends on public investments in health has some remarkable consequences at the macroeconomic level. First, aspirations allow escaping from the well-known poverty trap scenario described by Chakraborty (2004). Second, the steady-state equilibrium may be destabilized through a super-critical Neimark–Sacker bifurcation when the health tax rate is set at too high or too low a level. This causes endogenous fluctuations in income and longevity.
Cerambyx cerdo (Cc) is a protected saproxylic beetle in Europe, although it is increasingly reported as an oak ‘pest’. Cc ecological features are relatively well known, but, its reproductive biology is still poorly understood. Hence, we investigated the reproductive traits of Cc under laboratory conditions. In females, body length was 44.1 ± 0.9 mm, 28–53 (mean ± SE, range); fecundity 143 ± 11 eggs, 33–347; fertility 78 ± 1%, 65–93; oviposition period 44 ± 3 days, 13–128 and longevity 59 ± 5 days, 16–157. Fecundity was positively correlated with female size, longevity and oviposition period. Daily fecundity was 3.5 ± 0.2 eggs/day, 0.9–6.5 showing a fluctuating synovigenic pattern with a slight decreasing trend over time. Egg length was 3.74 ± 0.01 mm, 2.3–6.0 and egg volume 5.45 ± 0.04 mm3, 2.4–9.6. Egg size was correlated with female size, but, the relative size of eggs was larger in smaller females. Incubation time was 13.5 ± 0.1 days, 7–28. Hatching was superior in larger eggs and neonate size was positively correlated to egg volume. Females were polyandrous (up to 19 matings), but, multiple mating did not enhance fecundity or fertility. In males, body length was 41.8 ± 0.8 mm, 29–53 and longevity 49 ± 3 days, 9–124. Male longevity was unrelated to body size. Males were polygynous (up to 16 matings) and mating number did not affect male longevity. Overall, females were larger and lived longer than males. Cc reproductive traits are compared with those other Cerambycidae, especially with the congeneric pest Cerambyx welensii. Our data may be valuable to improve the protection/management measures of Cc in dehesa woodlands and other oak forests.