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The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), at an EPA:DHA ratio of 150:500) and phytosterol esters (PS) on Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ninety-six NAFLD subjects were randomly assigned to the following groups: the PS group (receiving 3.3 g/day phytosterol ester); the FO group (receiving 450mg EPA+1500mg DHA/day); the PS+FO combination group (receiving 3.3 g/day phytosterol ester and 450mg EPA+1500mg DHA/day); and the PO group (a placebo group). The baseline clinical characteristics of the four groups were similar. The primary outcome was liver/spleen attenuation ratio (L/S ratio). The percentage increase in liver/spleen attenuation (≤1) in the PS+FO group was 36% (P=0.083), higher than those in the other three groups (PS group, 11%, P= 0.519; FO group, 18%, P=0.071; PO group, 15%, P=0.436). Compared with baseline, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) was significantly decreased in the three study groups at the end of the trial (PS, P=0.000; FO, P=0.002; PS+FO, P=0.001), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was significantly decreased in the FO group (P=0.036), PS+FO group (P=0.005) and PO group (P=0.032) at the end of the intervention. Notably, TGF-β was reduced significantly more in the PS+FO group than in the PO group (P=0.032). The TG and TC levels of the PS+FO group was reduced by 11.57% and 9.55%, respectively. In conclusion, co-supplementation of PS and EPA+DHA could increase the effectiveness of treatment for hepatic steatosis.
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of post-ruminally infused fat supplements, varying in fatty acid (FA) chain length, on animal performance, metabolism and milk FA. Eleven multiparous Holstein dairy cows were used in a replicated incomplete 3×3 Latin square design with 7-d periods, separated by 7-d washouts. Treatments were administered as abomasal infusions of enrichments providing 280 g/d of FAs: 1) palmitic acid (98.4% 16:0; PA), 2) caprylic and capric acids (56.2% 8:0, 43.8% 10:0; MCT), and 3) stearic acid (99.0% 18:0; SA). Relative to PA, SA decreased the efficiency of fat-corrected milk production, which was associated with a tendency for higher dry matter intake and lower FA absorption with SA, whereas MCT was not different from PA for these variables. Milk fat concentration and yield were increased by PA relative to SA, but only fat yield tended to be greater relative to MCT. Relative to PA, MCT increased milk fat concentration of FAs < 16 C, whereas SA increased FAs > 16 C. Expression of mammary stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 was lower with SA than with PA. Relative to PA, liver expression of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-1 and pyruvate kinase was increased with MCT, whereas expression of these genes tended to be increased by SA. The mechanism of increased fat secretion with PA does not seem to be related to a modulation of the expression of lipogenesis-related genes, but rather to increased substrate availability as reflected by milk FA profile.
Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids have shown to regulate lipid metabolism and reduce fat accumulation in the liver. This trial investigated the effect of flaxseed oil, as a rich source of alpha-linolenic acid, on fatty liver and cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was performed on 68 NAFLD patients who divided into flaxseed (n=34) and sunflower (n=34) oil groups. Patients were given a hypocaloric diet (-500 kcal/d) and 20 g/d of the corresponding oil for 12 weeks. Fatty liver grade, liver enzymes, and cardiometabolic parameters were determined. The intention-to-treat approach was used for data analysis. Fatty liver grade significantly decreased in both groups (-0.68 in flaxseed vs. -0.29 in sunflower, P=0.002). ALT and AST decreased in both groups (P<0.01). Also, significant reduction was observed in blood glucose (P=0.005) and fat mass (P=0.01) of flaxseed and muscle mass (P=0.01) of sunflower group. However, none of these alterations was significantly different between the groups. Weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure significantly decreased in both groups but only weight change was significantly different between groups (P=0.01). Interleukin-6 did not significantly change in either group but showed a significant between-group difference (P=0.03). Overall, the results showed that in the context of a low-calorie diet and moderate physical activity, flaxseed oil may benefit NAFLD patients to improve fatty liver grade, weight, and interleukin-6 compared to sunflower oil.
The last few decades have witnessed a global rise in the number of older individuals. Despite this demographic shift, morbidity within this population group is high. Many factors influence healthspan; however, an obesity pandemic is emerging as a significant determinant of older people’s health. It is well established that obesity adversely affects several metabolic systems. However, due to its close association with overall cardiometabolic health, the impact that obesity has on cholesterol metabolism needs to be recognised. The aim of the present review is to critically discuss the effects that obesity has on cholesterol metabolism and to reveal its significance for healthy ageing.
For their glucose supply, ruminants are highly dependent on the endogenous synthesis in the liver, but despite the numerous studies that evaluated hepatic glucose production, very few simultaneously measured hepatic glucose production and uptake of all precursors. As a result, the variability of precursor conversion into glucose in the liver is not known. The present study aimed at investigating by meta-analysis the relationships between hepatic glucose net release and uptake of precursors. We used the FLuxes of nutrients across Organs and tissues in Ruminant Animals database, which gathers international results on net nutrient fluxes at splanchnic level measured in catheterized animals. Response equations were developed for intakes up to 41 g DM intake/kg BW per day of diets varying from 0 to 100 g of concentrate/100 g DM in the absence of additives. The net hepatic uptake of propionate, α-amino-N and l-lactate was linearly and better related to their net portal appearance (NPA) than to their afferent hepatic flux. Blood flow data were corrected for lack of deacetylation of the para-aminohippuric acid, and this correction was shown to impact the response equations. To develop response equations between the availability of precursors (portal appearance and hepatic uptake) and net glucose hepatic release, missing data on precursor fluxes were predicted from dietary characteristics using previously developed response equations. Net hepatic release of glucose was curvilinearly related to hepatic supply and uptake of the sum of precursors, suggesting a lower conversion rate of precursors at high precursor supply. Factors of variation were explored for the linear portion of this relationship, which applied to NPA of precursors ranging from 0.99 to 9.60 mmol C/kg BW per h. Hepatic release of glucose was shown to be reduced by the portal absorption of glucose from diets containing bypass starch and to be increased by an increased uptake of β-hydroxybutyrate indicative of higher body tissue mobilization. These relationships were affected by the physiological status of the animals. In conclusion, we established equations that quantify the net release of glucose by the liver from the net availability of precursors. They provide a quantitative overview of factors regulating hepatic glucose synthesis in ruminants. These equations can be linked with the predictions of portal absorption of nutrients from intake and dietary characteristics, and provide indications of glucose synthesis from dietary characteristics.
Schistosomiasis represents a public health problem and praziquantel is the only drug used for treatment of all forms of the disease. Thus, the development of new anti-schistosomal agents is of utmost importance to increase the effectiveness, reduce side effects and delay the emergence of resistance. The present study was conducted to report the therapeutic efficacy of PPQ-8, a new synthetic quinoline-based compound against Schistosoma mansoni. Mice were treated with PPQ-8 at day 49 post infection using two treatment regimens (20 and 40 mg/kg). Significant reductions were recorded in hepatic (62.9% and 83.6%) and intestinal tissue egg load (57.4% and 73.5%), granuloma count (75.4% and 89.1%) and diameter (26.2% and 47.3%), in response to the drug regimens, respectively. In addition, both treatment regimens induced significant decrease in liver (23.3% and 32.8%) and spleen (37.5% and 45.3%) indices. Also, there were significant reductions in mature ova, total worm and female count, which were more prominent with the higher dose. The reduction in the level of nitric oxide in the liver by both therapeutic regimens to 22.5% and 47.2% indicates the anti-oxidant activity of PPQ-8. Bright field microscopic examination of worms recovered from infected and PPQ-8-treated mice showed nearly empty intestinal caeca with no observable changes in the tegument. Our findings hold promise for the development of a novel anti-schistosomal drug using PPQ-8, but further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to elucidate the possible mechanism/s of action and to study the effect of PPQ-8 on other human schistosomes.
Third-stage larvae of the anisakid nematode Contracaecum osculatum infecting cod (Gadus morhua) liver elicit a host immune response involving both innate and adaptive factors, but the reactions differ between liver and spleen. Inflammatory reactions occur in both liver and spleen, but a series of immune effector genes are downregulated in liver infected with nematodes whereas these genes in spleen from the same fish are upregulated. A series of novel primer and probe sets targeting cod immune responses were developed and applied in a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction set-up to measure the expression of immune-relevant genes in liver and spleen of infected and uninfected cod. In infected liver, 12 of 23 genes were regulated. Genes encoding cytokines associated with inflammatory reactions (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8) were significantly upregulated, whereas genes encoding effector molecules, assisting the elimination of pathogens, C-reactive protein (CRP)-PII, hepcidin, lysozyme G1, lysozyme G2, C3 and IgDm, were significantly downregulated. The number of downregulated genes increased with the parasite burden. In spleen, 14 of 23 immune genes showed significant regulation and nine of these were upregulated, including genes encoding CRPI, CRPII, C3, hepcidin and transferrin. The general gene expression level was higher in spleen compared to liver, and although inflammation was induced in nematode-infected liver, the effector molecule genes were depressed, which suggests a worm-induced immune suppression locally in the liver.
The present study investigated the effects of condensed tannins (CT) on intestinal immune function in on-growing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 healthy grass carp were fed six diets containing different levels of CT (0, 10·00, 20·00, 30·00, 40·00 and 50·00 g/kg diet) for 70 d and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 d. The results showed that, compared with the control group, dietary CT (1) induced intestinal histopathological lesions and aggravated enteritis; (2) decreased lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 (C3), C4 and IgM contents and down-regulated the Hepcidin, liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP)-2A, LEAP-2B, Mucin2 and β-defensin-1 mRNA levels in the proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) (P < 0·05); (3) down-regulated the mRNA levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2 (not in MI and DI), IL-4/13A (not IL-4/13B), IL-10 and IL-11 partly correlated with target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling; and (4) up-regulated the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ2, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 (not in PI), IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-15 and IL-17D partly related to NF-κB signalling in the intestine of on-growing grass carp. Overall, the results indicated that CT could impair the intestinal immune function, and its potential regulation mechanisms were partly associated with the TOR and NF-κB signalling pathways. Finally, based on the percentage weight gain and enteritis morbidity, the maximum allowable levels of CT for on-growing grass carp (232·22–890·11 g) were estimated to be 18·6 and 17·4 g/kg diet, respectively.
This chapter continues the scenario from the chapter on Hepatic Portoenterostomy or Kasai Procedure. The pathophysiology of end stage liver disease is reviewed with its specific effects on the individual organ systems. The authors provide a detailed explanation of the pre-operative evaluation for patients requiring liver transplantation. A detailed description of the 3 main phases of liver transplantation is presented with attention to the related anesthetic considerations.
This chapter, provides an overview of the basics of pharmacology and physiology in the neonate. The authors focus on the physiological differences between children and adults using a background case of omphalocele. Key concepts for pediatric anesthesia are considered including, hyperbilirubinemia, oxygenation, hepatic function and metabolism and thyroid function.
Dietary protein insufficiency has been linked to excessive TAG storage and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in developing countries. Hepatic TAG accumulation following a low-protein diet may be due to altered peroxisomal, mitochondrial and gut microbiota function. Hepatic peroxisomes and mitochondria normally mediate metabolism of nutrients to provide energy and substrates for lipogenesis. Peroxisome biogenesis and activities can be modulated by odd-chain fatty acids (OCFA) and SCFA that are derived from gut bacteria, for example, propionate and butyrate. Also produced during amino acid metabolism by peroxisomes and mitochondria, propionate and butyrate concentrations correlate inversely with risk of obesity, insulin resistance and NAFLD. In this horizon-scanning review, we have compiled available evidence on the effects of protein malnutrition on OCFA production, arising from loss in mitochondrial, peroxisomal and gut microbiota function, and its association with lipid accumulation in the liver. The methyl donor amino acid composition of dietary protein is an important contributor to liver function and lipid storage; the presence and abundance of dietary branched-chain amino acids can modulate the composition and metabolic activity of the gut microbiome and, on the other hand, can affect protective OCFA and SCFA production in the liver. In preclinical animal models fed with low-protein diets, specific amino acid supplementation can ameliorate fatty liver disease. The association between low dietary protein intake and fatty liver disease is underexplored and merits further investigation, particularly in vulnerable groups with dietary protein restriction in developing countries.
Consumption of a high-fat diet increases fat accumulation and may further lead to inflammation and hepatic injuries. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of Camellia oleifera seed extract (CSE) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). After a 16-week NAFLD-inducing period, rats were assigned to experimental groups fed an NAFLD diet with or without CSE. At the end of the study, we found that consuming CSE decreased the abdominal fat weight and hepatic fat accumulation and modulated circulating adipokine levels. We also found that CSE groups had lower hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β protein expressions. In addition, we found that CSE consumption may have affected the gut microbiota and reduced toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) expression and proinflammatory cytokine concentrations in the liver. Our results suggest that CSE may alleviate the progression of NAFLD in rats with diet-induced steatosis through reducing fat accumulation and improving lipid metabolism and hepatic inflammation.
Malnutrition risk screening in cirrhotic patients is crucial, as poor nutritional status negatively affects disease prognosis and survival. Given that a variety of malnutrition screening tools is usually used in routine clinical practice, the effectiveness of eight screening tools in detecting malnutrition risk in cirrhotic patients was sought. A total of 170 patients (57·1 % male, 59·4 (sd 10·5) years, 50·6 % decompensated ones) with cirrhosis of various aetiologies were enrolled. Nutritional screening was performed using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, Nutritional Risk Index, Malnutrition Screening Tool, Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS-2002), Birmingham Nutritional Risk Score, Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, Royal Free Hospital Nutritional Prioritizing Tool (RFH-NPT) and Liver Disease Undernutrition Screening Tool (LDUST). Malnutrition diagnosis was defined using the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). Data on 1-year survival were available for 145 patients. The prevalence of malnutrition risk varied according to the screening tools used, with a range of 13·5–54·1 %. RFH-NPT and LDUST were the most accurate in detecting malnutrition (AUC = 0·885 and 0·892, respectively) with a high sensitivity (97·4 and 94·9 %, respectively) and fair specificity (73·3 and 58 %, respectively). Malnutrition according to SGA was an independent prognostic factor of within 1-year mortality (relative risk was 2·17 (95 % CI 1·0, 4·7), P = 0·049) after adjustment for sex, age, disease aetiology and Model for End-stage Liver Disease score, whereas nutrition risk according to RFH-NPT, LDUST and NRS-2002 showed no association. RFH-NPT and LDUST were the only screening tools that proved to be accurate in detecting malnutrition in cirrhotic patients.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a considerable challenge to public health across the globe. Whole grain is highly recommended as an inseparable part of a healthy diet and has been proposed as an effective way to manage NAFLD. The objective in the present study was to evaluate the effects of whole-grain consumption on hepatic steatosis and liver enzymes as primary outcomes in patients with NAFLD. Over the 12 weeks of this open-label, randomised controlled clinical trial, 112 patients (mean age 43 (sd 8·7) years; BMI 32·2 (sd 4·3) kg/m2) were randomly assigned to two groups to receive dietary advice, either to obtain at least half of their cereal servings each day from whole-grain foods or from usual cereals. By the end of the study, the grades of NAFLD showed a significant decrease in the intervention group (P < 0·001). In addition, a significant reduction in serum concentration of alanine aminotransferase (P < 0·001), aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0·001), γ-glutamyltransferase (P = 0·009), systolic blood pressure (P = 0·004) and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0·008) was observed in the intervention group compared with the control group. After adjusting, however, no significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of lipid profile, glycaemic status and anthropometric measurements. Overall, our study demonstrated that consumption of whole grains for 12 weeks had beneficial effects on hepatic steatosis and liver enzymes concentrations in patients with NAFLD.
In the human population, influenza A viruses are associated with acute respiratory illness and are responsible for millions of deaths annually. Avian and human influenza viruses typically have a different α2-3- and α2-6-linked sialic acid (SA) binding preference. Only a few amino acid changes in the haemagglutinin on the surface of avian influenza viruses (AIV) can cause a switch from avian to human receptor specificity, and the individuals with pathognostic chronic diseases might be more susceptible to AIV due to the decreased expression level of terminal α2-3-linked SA in their saliva. Here, using lectin and virus histochemical staining, we observed the higher expression levels of α2-3/6-linked SA influenza virus receptors in the airway of HBV-transgenic mice compared with that of control mice due to the significant decrease in control mice during ageing, which imply that this is also a risk factor for individuals with pathognostic chronic diseases susceptible to influenza viruses. Our findings will help understand the impact on influenza virus pathogenesis and transmission.
Animal studies have suggested that mushroom intake can alleviate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, the association between mushroom intake and NAFLD is unknown in humans. We aimed to investigate the association of mushroom intake with NAFLD among Chinese adults. This is a cross-sectional study of 24 236 adults (mean (standard deviation) age: 40·7 (sd 11·9) years; 11 394 men (47·0 %)). Mushroom intake was assessed via a validated FFQ. Newly diagnosed NAFLD was identified based on the results of annual health examinations, including ultrasound findings and a self-reported history of the disease. Multiple logistic models were used to examine the association between mushroom intake and NAFLD. The prevalence of newly diagnosed NAFLD was 19·0 %. Compared with those consuming mushrooms less frequently (≤1 time/week), the fully adjusted OR of newly diagnosed NAFLD were 0·95 (95 % CI 0·86, 1·05) for those consuming 2–3 times/week and 0·76 (95 % CI 0·63, 0·92) for those consuming ≥4 times/week (Pfor trend = 0·01). The inverse association was consistent in subgroups defined by age, sex and BMI. In conclusion, higher mushroom intake was significantly associated with lower prevalence of NAFLD among Chinese adults. Future research is required to understand the causal association between mushroom intake and NAFLD.
Previous studies have shown that the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet might contribute to managing risk factors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but evidence is limited. We examined the association of DASH diet score (DASH-DS) with NAFLD, as well as the intermediary effects of serum retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4), serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum TAG, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and BMI.
We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study. Dietary data and lifestyle factors were assessed by face-to-face interviews and the DASH-DS was then calculated. We assessed serum RBP4, hs-CRP and TAG and calculated HOMA-IR. The presence and degree of NAFLD were determined by abdominal sonography.
Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study participants, aged 40–75 years at baseline (n 3051).
After adjusting for potential covariates, we found an inverse association between DASH-DS and the presence of NAFLD (Ptrend = 0·009). The OR (95 % CI) of NAFLD for quintiles 2–5 were 0·78 (0·62, 0·98), 0·74 (0·59, 0·94), 0·69 (0·55, 0·86) and 0·77 (0·61, 0·97), respectively. Path analyses indicated that a higher DASH-DS was associated with lower serum RBP4, hs-CRP, TAG, HOMA-IR and BMI, which were positively associated with the degree of NAFLD.
Adherence to the DASH diet was independently associated with a marked lower prevalence of NAFLD in Chinese adults, especially in women and those without abdominal obesity, and might be mediated by reducing RBP4, hs-CRP, TAG, HOMA-IR and BMI.
A mixture of natural ingredients, namely, DHA, phosphatidylcholine, silymarin, choline, curcumin and d-α-tocopherol, was studied in subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Primary endpoints were serum levels of hepatic enzymes, and other parameters of liver function, the metabolic syndrome and inflammation were the secondary endpoints. The coagulation–fibrinolysis balance was also thoroughly investigated, as NAFLD is associated with haemostatic alterations, which might contribute to increased cardiovascular risk of this condition. The present study involved a double-blind, randomised, multicentre controlled trial of two parallel groups. Subjects with NAFLD (18–80 years, either sex) received the active or control treatment for 3 months. All assays were performed on a total of 113 subjects before and at the end of supplementation. The hepatic enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase decreased from 23·2 to 3·7 % after treatment, only the AST levels reaching statistical significance. However, no differences were found between control and active groups. Metabolic and inflammatory variables were unchanged, except for a slight (less than 10 %) increase in cholesterol and glucose levels after the active treatment. Coagulation–fibrinolytic parameters were unaffected by either treatment. In conclusion, chronic supplementation with the mixture of dietary compounds was well tolerated and apparently safe in NAFLD subjects. The trial failed to demonstrate any efficacy on relevant physiopathological markers, but its protocol and results may be useful to design future studies with natural compounds.
Ruminants are recognised to suffer from Cu-responsive disorders. Present understanding of Cu transport and metabolism is limited and inconsistent across vets and veterinary professionals. There has been much progress from the studies of the 1980s and early 1990s in cellular Cu transport and liver metabolism which has not been translated into agricultural practice. Cu metabolism operates in regulated pathways of Cu trafficking rather than in pools of Cu lability. Cu in the cell is chaperoned to enzyme production, retention within metallothionein or excretion via the Golgi into the blood. The hepatocyte differs in that Cu-containing caeruloplasmin can be synthesised to provide systemic Cu supply and excess Cu is excreted via bile. The aim of the present review is to improve understanding and highlight the relevant progress in relation to ruminants through the translation of newer findings from medicine and non-ruminant animal models into ruminants.
Fasciola hepatica is a trematode parasite that affects mammals, including humans. In Brazil, fascioliasis, a disease caused by the parasite, is of great importance. The disorder affects the welfare of the Brazilian population through impairing the agricultural production of cattle, where the disease causes weight loss as a result of liver damage. This study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity of F. hepatica throughout Southern Brazil to determine its geographic origin and estimate the colonization route of the parasite. To accomplish these aims, flukes were collected from slaughterhouses in three endemic areas of Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná states. DNA was isolated using the phenol–chloroform protocol from single flukes and two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (Nad1), were amplified and sequenced. Ten haplotypes of COI were found from 75 isolated parasites and the total haplotype and nucleotide diversity observed were 0.475 and 0.002, respectively. Using the Nad1 gene, we found 24 haplotypes from 79 samples, resulting in haplotype and nucleotide diversity values of 0.756 and 0.004, respectively. An analysis of molecular variance showed that 57.4% and 77.5% of variation was within populations (FST), while 9.0 and 36.8% of variation was among groups (FCT) when considering COI and Nad1 genes, respectively. For COI, the fixation index values of 0.425 and 0.368 were obtained for FST and FCT, respectively, while analysis of Nad1 0.225 and 0.089 index values were obtained for FST and FCT, respectively. We have determined that F. hepatica found in the two distinct areas originated from several geographical regions, since we found haplotypes that were shared with at least three different continents. These data are in accordance with the recent colonization of Brazil, and the recent import of cattle from South American, European and, possibly, some African countries. The observed FST and FCT values for COI and Nad1 genes of F. hepatica may be a result of limited movement of animals within states and support the lack of geographical structure of the parasite in Brazil, which are in agreement with the observed cattle production systems in this region.