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This chapter examines how the legal climate around prostitution in Baltimore changed in the wake of the Civil War. Growing fears about vagrancy following emancipation and the triumph of a free labor economy prompted crackdowns on streetwalkers and public sex workers, who found themselves incarcerated in the city’s growing network of carceral institutions. Meanwhile, real estate speculators’ growing disenchantment with brothels as investment properties and pressures from a growing urban middle class that expected the state to act as an active guarantor of their property rights brought challenges to the decades-old regime of toleration around indoor prostitution. Brothels, once regarded as a comparatively benign sexual labor arrangement because they kept illicit sexuality contained and out of sight, came to be firmly defined as threats to private property rights and to the future of the middle class. Authorities began to utilize the precedent set by an 1857 equity decision, Hamilton v. Whitridge, as they moved to crack down on sex workers and evict them from “respectable” neighborhoods. As they did so, they began to create informal red-light districts.
This chapter traces the development of the anti-vice and good governance movements that eventually succeeded in securing the closure of Baltimore’s already ailing red-light districts in 1915. The most successful of Baltimore’s anti-vice movements had its origins in evangelical Christianity, but concerns over industrialization, urbanization, and women’s role in the changing economy ensured that it developed a diverse following. Women’s rights organizations, Progressive political reformers, and physician and public health advocates all focused on prostitution as a symbol of the perils of urbanization, economic inequality, and political corruption. The relationship between political reform and anti-vice reform eventually proved to be the most significant one, as reform Democratic and Republican victories in state elections ushered in a period of state support for anti-vice measures. Following the white slavery scare of the 1910s, Maryland’s governor appointed a new Police Board and a state-level anti-vice commission. The combined efforts of the Police Board and the Maryland Vice Commission would ultimately result in the closure of Baltimore’s formerly tolerated brothels.
This chapter examines black women’s increased participation in the sex trade in the aftermath of the Civil War. During the 1860s, thousands of black women, children, and men arrived in Baltimore as refugees from war and enslavement. As police increasingly pushed brothels out of “respectable” neighborhoods, black Baltimoreans who faced limited housing prospects found themselves occupying the same neighborhoods as sex establishments. As the overlap between brothel districts and black neighborhoods grew, black women entered the indoor sex trade in larger numbers and began to remake it to suit their needs and preferences. Although selling sex was an important part of personal economies of makeshifts for black sex workers, sex work fueled long-standing racial stereotypes about black women’s libidinousness and black men’s unfitness as patriarchs. Middle-class black Baltimoreans who founded the city’s Colored Law and Order League attempted to resist these stereotypes by publicizing their efforts to clean up their neighborhoods, but they failed to sway the city’s white politicians, who used the alleged “disorder” of black residential enclaves to argue for racial segregation of housing.
A method was developed to expedite the imaging of diatoms by optimizing their orientation. This quick technique puts grooves into a SEM stub so that as the diatoms are laid down they either land on the flat surface or in a variety of positions in the grooves, thereby reducing time required to capture taxonomically critical features.
Common seepweed [Suaeda glauca (Bunge) Bunge] is a common salt-tolerant weed species distributed across the agricultural regions of northern China. It produces dimorphic seeds with different phenotypic characteristics and seed sizes. However, there is no information regarding the germination biology of these dimorphic seeds. Studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of ecological factors such as temperature, light, pH, osmotic stress, salt concentration, and planting depth on seed germination and seedling emergence. The results showed that brown seeds were nondormant, whereas black seeds had an intermediate physiological dormancy. The germination percentage of brown seeds was more than 80% at all temperature regimes and light conditions, but the optimum germination occurred at the cold thermoperiod of 20/10 C. In contrast, less than 6% of black seeds germinated at all temperature regimes and light conditions. Eight weeks of cold stratification did not break the dormancy of black seeds, whereas low concentrations of gibberellic acid (0.1 and 1.0 mM) significantly increased seed germination. Removal of the testa of black seeds also promoted germination and produced normal seedlings. Brown seeds showed moderate tolerance to salt stress, with 16% germination percentage at a salt concentration of 600 mM NaCl. The germination of brown seeds was 38% at an osmotic potential stress of −0.8 MPa; above that, no germination was obtained. Brown seeds germinated well in a wide pH range (4 to 10), with a germination percentage higher than 95%. Seedling emergence percentage was higher than 90% at burial depths of 0 to 2 cm, while germination percentage severely decreased for brown seeds with burial depths >2 cm, indicating that shallow tillage could be an effective measure to minimize seed germination. Information gathered from this study will help to develop an effective protocols for controlling S. glauca.
Chapter 7 deals with syntax proper. In this chapter, we discuss Category 2 (verbal and adjectival) formation, basic sentence structure, and the passive and causative patterns. We describe five basic patterns of predication: verbal predicates, adjectival predicates, nominal (copular) predicates, auxiliaries, and irregular predicates. We begin with basic sentence patterns, then introduce “scrambling” phenomena (that is, variations in word order), clausal embedding, and other complex sentence patterns. For both passive and causative constructions, we describe the basic shape of the patterns, the three-way distinction of lexical, morphological, and syntactic passives and causatives, and major syntactic characteristics of each. As with lexical passives, lexical causatives are underived. Morphological causatives involve seven allomorphs, four homophonous with the suffixes of the morphological passive. We survey the four patterns of syntactic causatives, and explain the major syntactic differences between morphological and syntactic causatives. We show that from an areal/typological perspective, Korean fits the North Asian pattern of primarily causativizing (transitivizing) languages.
Light musical theatre first appeared in Greece during the second half of the nineteenth century in the form of French operetta and vaudeville, bringing new morals that scandalized the nouveau-bourgeois society of Athens and divided the public into ‘Europeanists’ and ‘conservatives’. At the dawn of the twentieth century, Viennese operetta introduced light musical theatre, which thrilled Athenian audiences and represented the ‘imperial dream’ of the inhabitants of a small country on the fringes of Europe. Operetta inspired the creation of Greek musical theatre companies from the early twentieth century and became popular for tours of the south-eastern Mediterranean. This phase ended with the production of plays and performances of Greek operetta during the interwar period. This chapter offers a multi-sided approach to the expansion of operetta in Greek-speaking areas, which brought with it a renovation of the Modern Greek theatrical stage and life, invigorating it with a new repertoire and forming a new theatrical tradition. New operettas provided the frame for Greece’s twofold musical identity: Western and Oriental. Operetta served as a social melting pot between ‘high’ and ‘popular’ musical creation and was the source of many well-known songs
Despite the much improved therapeutic approaches for cancer treatment that have been developed over the past 50 years, cancer remains a major cause of mortality globally. Considerable epidemiological and experimental evidence has demonstrated an association between ingestion of food and nutrients with either an increased risk for cancer or its prevention. There is rising interest in exploring agents derived from natural products for chemoprevention or for therapeutic purposes. Honey is rich in nutritional and non-nutritional bioactive compounds, as well as in natural antioxidants, and its potential beneficial function in human health is becoming more evident. A large number of studies have addressed the anti-cancer effects of different types of honey and their phenolic compounds using in vitro and in vivo cancer models. The reported findings affirm that honey is an agent able to modulate oxidative stress and has anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulatory and anti-metastatic properties. However, despite its reported anti-cancer activities, very few clinical studies have been undertaken. In the present review, we summarise the findings from different experimental approaches, including in vitro cell cultures, preclinical animal models and clinical studies, and provide an overview of the bioactive profile and bioavailability of the most commonly studied honey types, with special emphasis on the chemopreventive and therapeutic properties of honey and its major phenolic compounds in cancer. The implications of these findings as well as the future prospects of utilising honey to fight cancer will be discussed.
Light and intermittent smokers (LITS) represent almost 50% of all current smokers. Research is needed to understand smoking motives among adult light smokers.
To explore smoking cues and motivators among a racially diverse sample of adult LITS (≤10 CPD). In addition, we explored differences between native (always smoked ≤10), and converted (former heavier) LITS.
We used purposive sampling to recruit participants who were native and converted LITS and to include equal numbers of African Americans, Whites and Latinos. We coded and analyzed transcripts using a stage approach to identify themes.
Four main themes emerged that may be unique to light smokers and suggests potential strategies for intervention: (1) smoking in response to cues and control, (2) identifying as a smoker, (3) concern about health consequences, and (4) other priorities influencing smoking. There were some differences among smoking cues and motivators by race and ethnicity, and differences between native and converted LITS.
Overall, LITS reported drivers of smoking that were unrelated to symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. Even when experiencing salient cues, our LITS cohort expressed the ability to assert control over smoking by abstaining when situational contexts made smoking inconvenient.
The bioaccessibility of fat has implications for satiety and postprandial lipidaemia. The prevailing view holds that the integrity of plant cell wall structure is the primary determinant of energy and nutrient extraction from plant cells as they pass through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, comparisons across nuts (walnuts, almonds and pistachios) with varying physical properties do not support this view. In the present study, masticated samples of three nuts from healthy adults were exposed to a static model of gastric digestion followed by simulated intestinal digestion. Primary outcomes were particle size and lipid release at each phase of digestion. Walnuts produced a significantly larger particle size post-mastication compared with almonds. Under gastric and intestinal conditions, the particle size was larger for walnuts compared with pistachios and almonds (P < 0·05). However, the masticated and digesta particle sizes were not related to the integrity of cell walls or lipid release. The total lipid release was comparable between nuts after the in vitro intestinal phase (P > 0·05). Microstructural examination showed ruptured and fissured cell walls that would allow digestion of cellular contents, and this may be governed by internal cellular properties such as oil body state. Furthermore, the cell walls of walnuts tend to rupture rather than separate and as walnut tissue passes through the GI tract, lipids tend to coalesce reducing digestion efficiency.
Chapter Four focuses on the experimental approaches of physical-psychical scientists to psychical phenomena. It focuses on four key examples from the 1870s-1890s: William Crookes’s investigations of ‘psychic force’ ; Crookes and Cromwell Varley’s electrical tests of mediumship; the SPR’s studies of Reichenbach’s ‘od’ ; and Oliver Lodge and Benjamin Davies’s ideas about and experimental tests of telekinesis. The chapter shows the extraordinary lengths to which physical-psychical scientists went to achieve greater control over, to measure and record psychical effects, and to turn domestic seances into sites of experimental physics. The limited effectiveness of this work was partly due to perceived flaws in experimental design, a lack of suitable experimental subjects (mediums), and because physical-psychical scientists believed their professional and intellectual goals were better served by focusing experimental research on purely physical topics.
An array of nano-scale protrusions, called the nipple array, is found on the body surface of various invertebrates, and this structure is believed to decrease light reflectance and water wettability on the surface in the terrestrial environment. However, its potential functions have not been well studied in aquatic environments. Clavelina spp. are colonial ascidians that have the nipple array on their integumentary matrix (i.e. tunic). We examined the physical properties on the surface of the tunic of C. cyclus and C. obesa, such as hardness, wettability and refractive indices, to evaluate the functional importance of this structure. The tunic cuticle of both species was covered with the nipple array, and the cuticle of C. cyclus was bent into folds forming parallel plications. The Clavelina tunic was very soft and had high bubble- and oil-repellency. The refractive-index deviation between the tunic and seawater was 0.07–0.095 for 589-nm light (D-line). Rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) showed that the nipple array slightly reduced reflectance on the surface and the parallel plications reduced the reflectance still more. The nanoimprinted plates imitating the parallel plications have higher bubble repellency and lower reflectance than the flat plates. These findings support the functional importance of the plications as well as the nipple array.
Light-absorbing impurities (LAIs, e.g. black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), mineral dust (MD)) deposited on snow cover reduce albedo and accelerate its melting. Northern Xinjiang (NX) is an arid and semi-arid inland region, where snowmelt leads to frequent floods that have been a serious threat to local ecological security. There is still a lack of quantitative assessments of the effects of LAIs on snowmelt in the region. This study investigates spatial variations of LAIs in snow and its effect on snow albedo, radiative forcing (RF) and snowmelt across NX. Results showed that concentrations of BC, OC (only water-insoluble OC), MD ranged from 32 to 8841 ng g−1, 77 to 8568 ng g−1 and 0.46 to 236 µg g−1, respectively. Weather Research and Forecasting Chemistry model suggested that residential emission was the largest source of BC. Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiative modelling showed that the average contribution of BC and MD to snow albedo reduction was 17 and 3%, respectively. RF caused by BC significantly exceeded RF caused by MD. In different scenarios, changes in snow cover duration (SCD) caused by BC and MD decreased by 1.36 ± 0.61 to 6.12 ± 3.38 d. Compared with MD, BC was the main dominant factor in reducing snow albedo and SCD across NX.
Implementing a photoperiod during incubation has been shown to be a potential next step to removing one more stressor for newly hatched poultry species. The distribution of hatch over time is a parameter that may be influenced by photoperiod that could benefit from a photoperiod but has not been studied at this time and is the objective of this paper. The impact on hatch rate for three strains of chicken, Barred Plymouth Rock (BR), Lohmann Brown (LB) and Lohmann Lite (LL), was measured following the provision of a 12L : 12D (12 h light : 12 h dark) photoperiod starting at 0, 9 or 17 days of incubation and compared with incubation in the dark. The cumulative number of chicks hatched eggs at four points in time (489, 498, 507 and 516 h of incubation) was analysed using repeated measures analysis in a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments. Repeated measures analysis was done to determine the main and interaction effects of photoperiod and bird strain, and a regression analysis was used to determine how these effects evolved over time. Lohmann Brown embryos provided a 12L : 12D photoperiod throughout incubation were first to reach 50% of total chicks hatched and rate of hatch from 50% to 75% of total chicks hatched as well. As the LB chicks did not begin to hatch earlier or finish later, the LB strain was the most synchronised when provided a 12L : 12D photoperiod from the beginning of incubation. Similar results were found for LL, but no difference on the percentage hatched over time was found when provided the 12L : 12D photoperiod at the beginning of incubation or at day 9. The BR strain only showed a significant difference in hatch window synchronisation when provided a 12L : 12D photoperiod at day 9 of incubation. These results indicate that the strain of chicken impacts the hatch window, and each strain responds to a photoperiod during incubation differently. This information could be useful for hatchery managers to deal with different strains of chicken for incubation.
The objective lens is regarded as the critical component for an optimal image in light microscopy. Not every damage to the lens surface may be easily visible during maintenance when the objective is removed and observed. The internal lens organization produces a magnified image of the outer lens surface. Shining the light of a laser pointer into the lens, and reproducing the image of the light exiting onto a flat surface, produces different images for intact and damaged objective lenses.
LED illumination systems for fluorescence microscopy offer a wealth of benefits in comparison to traditional mercury and metal halide lamps, including ease of use, improved stability, and enhanced control. To fully realize these benefits, it is important to ensure that optical filters are configured correctly, which often can be confusing. However, without the correct filter configuration, experimental conditions can be suboptimal, and results may therefore be inaccurate. This article looks at optical filter setup in more depth, explaining the purpose and benefits of optimal LED filtering.
Carolina redroot [Lachnanthes caroliniana (Lam.) Dandy] is a frequent weed of New Jersey cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) bogs that competes with the crop for nutritional resources. Studies were conducted in 2018 to determine the effects of planting depth, soil moisture, lighting conditions, rhizome water content, and duration of rhizome submersion under water on L. caroliniana shoot emergence, vegetative growth, and rhizome development. Only planting depth greater than 12 cm significantly reduced shoot emergence (54%), biomass shoot and root production (27% and 65%, respectively), and rhizome formation (65%) compared with a 2-cm depth. Complete inhibition of new rhizome production was observed when the rhizome water content dropped to 30%. Soil moisture ≤30% decreased shoot biomass by ≥53% compared to 60% soil moisture, but marginally affected root biomass and had no impact on rhizome formation. Rhizome submersion for at least 120 d had minor effect on shoot emergence but reduced plant biomass by ≥28% and completely inhibited the formation of rhizomes. Finally, shading did not influence emergence but had a more dramatic effect on root and shoot biomass, which were reduced by 53% and 75%, respectively, and prevented the development of new rhizomes. This study demonstrates the plasticity of L. caroliniana to drought stress or long-lasting flooding conditions, therefore preventing consideration of cranberry bed temporary flooding or limitation of irrigation volume and frequency as viable management options. Sanding would not provide a layer of material sufficiently thick for reducing L. caroliniana shoot emergence. Reducing the quantity of light reaching the soil with black tarps or promoting rapid crop canopy closure are options that can complement the use of mesotrione for controlling L. caroliniana. Future research should address the practicality of these options, especially in bogs with low L. caroliniana pressure when early-summer weed regrowth occurs following dissipation of PRE herbicide activity.
The multi-petawatt (PW) lasers currently being built in Europe as part of the Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) project will be capable of generating femtosecond light pulses of ultra-relativistic intensities (~1023–1024 W/cm2) that have been unattainable so far. Such laser pulses can be used for the production of high-energy ion beams with unique features that could be applied in various fields of scientific and technological research. In this paper, the prospect of producing ultra-intense (intensity ≥1020 W/cm2) ultra-short (pico- or femtosecond) high-energy ion beams using multi-PW lasers is outlined. The results of numerical studies on the acceleration of light (carbon) ions, medium-heavy (copper) ions and super-heavy (lead) ions driven by a femtosecond laser pulse of ultra-relativistic intensity, performed with the use of a multi-dimensional (2D3 V) particle-in-cell code, are presented, and the ion acceleration mechanisms and properties of the generated ion beams are discussed. It is shown that both in the case of light ions and in the case of medium-heavy and super-heavy ions, ultra-intense femtosecond multi-GeV ion beams with a beam intensity much higher (by a factor ~102) and ion pulse durations much shorter (by a factor ~104–105) than achievable presently in conventional radio frequency-driven accelerators can be produced at laser intensities of 1023 W/cm2 predicted for the ELI lasers. Such ion beams can open the door to new areas of research in high-energy density physics, nuclear physics and inertial confinement fusion.
This research communication addresses the hypothesis that in dual-purpose goats, exposure to 1 h of extra-light given from 16 to 17 h after dawn (pulse of light) in winter stimulates milk yield. One group of goats was maintained under natural short photoperiod (natural day; ND (n = 7)). Another group of lactating females was submitted to an artificial long-day photoperiod consisting of 16 h light and 8 h darkness (long days; LD (n = 7)). A third group of females received one single hour of extra-light 16 h after the fixed dawn (pulse of light; PL (n = 6)). Goats from LD and PL yielded 30% more milk than goats from ND. Mean percentages of fat, protein and lactose contents in milk did not differ between the 3 groups at any stage of lactation, but these components in grams/day were higher in goats from PL than in the others two groups within the first 45 d of lactation. In conclusion, dual-purpose lactating goats that started their lactation during natural short days, the daily exposition to a 1-h pulse of light is sufficient to stimulate milk yield compared to females maintained under natural short photoperiod.
It is clear that the productions in the West End and on Broadway of The Merry Widow marked a distinctive new phase in operetta reception. The massive success of The Merry Widow opened up a flourishing market for operettas from Vienna and Berlin. This was confirmed by the huge success of Straus’s The Chocolate Soldier in New York (1909) and London (1910). The Berlin operettas of Jean Gilbert were soon in demand in the West End and on Broadway. Continental European operetta entered a marketplace dominated by musical comedy. The first major blow to the operetta market, especially in the UK, was the outbreak of the First World War. After the war, many creators of operetta were eager to escape to the comfort of historical romances. In the first three decades of the twentieth century, many people were prepared to pay for operetta, and an assortment of theatres and ticket prices enabled a broad social mixture to do so. In addition to critical-aesthetic reception, theatrical productions were open to moral concerns. The chapter ends with reflections on the reasons for the decline in productions on Broadway and in the West End post-1933.