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We characterize various forms of positive dependence, such as association, positive supermodular association and dependence, and positive orthant dependence, for jump-Feller processes. Such jump processes can be studied through their state-space dependent Lévy measures. It is through these Lévy measures that we will provide our characterization. Finally, we present applications of these results to stochastically monotone Feller processes, including Lévy processes, the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process, pseudo-Poisson processes, and subordinated Feller processes.
In the literature on optimal stopping, the problem of maximizing the expected discounted reward over all stopping times has been explicitly solved for some special reward functions (including (x+)ν, (ex − K)+, (K − e− x)+, x ∈ ℝ, ν ∈ (0, ∞), and K > 0) under general random walks in discrete time and Lévy processes in continuous time (subject to mild integrability conditions). All such reward functions are continuous, increasing, and logconcave while the corresponding optimal stopping times are of threshold type (i.e. the solutions are one-sided). In this paper we show that all optimal stopping problems with increasing, logconcave, and right-continuous reward functions admit one-sided solutions for general random walks and Lévy processes, thereby generalizing the aforementioned results. We also investigate in detail the principle of smooth fit for Lévy processes when the reward function is increasing and logconcave.
The fractional nonhomogeneous Poisson process was introduced by a time change of the nonhomogeneous Poisson process with the inverse α-stable subordinator. We propose a similar definition for the (nonhomogeneous) fractional compound Poisson process. We give both finite-dimensional and functional limit theorems for the fractional nonhomogeneous Poisson process and the fractional compound Poisson process. The results are derived by using martingale methods, regular variation properties and Anscombe’s theorem. Eventually, some of the limit results are verified in a Monte Carlo simulation.
In this paper we present a set of results relating to the occupation time α(t) of a process X(·). The first set of results concerns exact characterizations of α(t), e.g. in terms of its transform up to an exponentially distributed epoch. In addition, we establish a central limit theorem (entailing that a centered and normalized version of α(t)∕t converges to a zero-mean normal random variable as t→∞) and the tail asymptotics of ℙ(α(t)∕t≥q). We apply our findings to spectrally positive Lévy processes reflected at the infimum and establish various new occupation time results for the corresponding model.
We introduce and study the class of branching-stable point measures, which can be seen as an analog of stable random variables when the branching mechanism for point measures replaces the usual addition. In contrast with the classical theory of stable (Lévy) processes, there exists a rich family of branching-stable point measures with a negative scaling exponent, which can be described as certain Crump‒Mode‒Jagers branching processes. We investigate the asymptotic behavior of their cumulative distribution functions, that is, the number of atoms in (-∞, x] as x→∞, and further depict the genealogical lineage of typical atoms. For both results, we rely crucially on the work of Biggins (1977), (1992).
Motivated by a common mathematical finance topic, we discuss the reciprocal of the exit time from a cone of planar Brownian motion which also corresponds to the exponential functional of Brownian motion in the framework of planar Brownian motion. We prove a conjecture of Vakeroudis and Yor (2012) concerning infinite divisibility properties of this random variable and present a novel simple proof of the result of DeBlassie (1987), (1988) concerning the asymptotic behavior of the distribution of the Bessel clock appearing in the skew-product representation of planar Brownian motion, as t→∞. We use the results of the windings approach in order to obtain results for quantities associated to the pricing of Asian options.
In this paper we consider the factor analysis for Lévy-driven multivariate price models with stochastic volatility. Our main aim is to provide conditions on the volatility process under which we can possibly reduce the dimension of the driving Lévy motion. We find that these conditions depend on a particular form of the multivariate Lévy process. In some settings we concentrate on nondegenerate symmetric α-stable Lévy motions.
Let X be a jump-diffusion process and X* its running supremum. In this paper we first show that for any t > 0, the law of the pair (X*t, Xt) has a density with respect to the Lebesgue measure. This allows us to show that for any t > 0, the law of the pair formed by the random variable Xt and the running supremum X*t of X at time t can be characterized as a weak solution of a partial differential equation concerning the distribution of the pair (X*t, Xt). Then we obtain an expression of the marginal density of X*t for all t > 0.
In this paper we investigate the Parisian ruin problem of the general dual Lévy risk model. Unlike the usual concept of ultimate ruin, allowing the surplus level to be negative within a prespecified period indicates that the deficit at Parisian ruin is not necessarily equal to zero. Hence, we consider a Gerber–Shiu type expected discounted penalty function at the Parisian ruin and obtain an explicit expression for this function under the dual Lévy risk model. As particular cases, we calculate the Parisian ruin probability and the expected discounted kth moments of the deficit at the Parisian ruin for the compound Poisson dual risk model and a drift-diffusion model. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the behavior of Parisian ruin and the expected discounted deficit at Parisian ruin.
In this paper we study the existence of Lebesgue densities of one-dimensional Lévy processes. Equivalently, we show the absolute continuity of the distributions of one-dimensional Lévy processes. Compared with the previous literature, we consider Lévy processes with Lévy symbols of a logarithmic behavior at ∞.
In the paper we present a novel construction of Marshall–Olkin (MO) multivariate exponential distributions of failure times as distributions of the first-passage times of the coordinates of multidimensional Lévy subordinator processes above independent unit-mean exponential random variables. A time-inhomogeneous version is also given that replaces Lévy subordinators with additive subordinators. An attractive feature of MO distributions for applications, such as to portfolio credit risk, is its singular component that yields positive probabilities of simultaneous defaults of multiple obligors, capturing the default clustering phenomenon. The drawback of the original MO fatal shock construction of MO distributions is that it requires one to simulate 2n-1 independent exponential random variables. In practice, the dimensionality is typically on the order of hundreds or thousands of obligors in a large credit portfolio, rendering the MO fatal shock construction infeasible to simulate. The subordinator construction reduces the problem of simulating a rich subclass of MO distributions to simulating an n-dimensional subordinator. When one works with the class of subordinators constructed from independent one-dimensional subordinators with known transition distributions, such as gamma and inverse Gaussian, or their Sato versions in the additive case, the simulation effort is linear in n. To illustrate, we present a simulation of 100,000 samples of a credit portfolio with 1,000 obligors that takes less than 18 seconds on a PC.
In this paper, we propose an estimator of the survival probability for a Lévy risk model observed at low frequency. The estimator is constructed via a regularised version of the inverse of the Laplace transform. The convergence rate of the estimator in a sense of the integrated squared error is studied for large sample size. Simulation studies are also given to show the finite sample performance of our estimator.
Using the kernel representation of a continuous-time Lévy-driven ARMA (autoregressive moving average) process, we extend the class of nonnegative Lévy-driven Ornstein–Uhlenbeck processes employed by Barndorff-Nielsen and Shephard (2001) to allow for nonmonotone autocovariance functions. We also consider a class of fractionally integrated Lévy-driven continuous-time ARMA processes obtained by a simple modification of the kernel of the continuous-time ARMA process. Asymptotic properties of the kernel and of the autocovariance function are derived.
The paper shows that the use of both types of random noise, white noise and Poisson noise, can be justified when using an innovations approach. The historical background for this is sketched, and then several methods of whitening dependent time series are outlined, including a mixture of Gaussian white noise and a compound Poisson process: this appears as a natural extension of the Gaussian white noise model for the prediction errors of a non-Gaussian time series. A statistical method for the identification of non-linear time series models with noise made up of a mixture of Gaussian white noise and a compound Poisson noise is presented. The method is applied to financial time series data (dollar-yen exchange rate data), and illustrated via six models.
Inspired by the works of Landriault et al. (2011), (2014), we study the Gerber–Shiu distribution at Parisian ruin with exponential implementation delays for a spectrally negative Lévy insurance risk process. To be more specific, we study the so-called Gerber–Shiu distribution for a ruin model where at each time the surplus process goes negative, an independent exponential clock is started. If the clock rings before the surplus becomes positive again then the insurance company is ruined. Our methodology uses excursion theory for spectrally negative Lévy processes and relies on the theory of so-called scale functions. In particular, we extend the recent results of Landriault et al. (2011), (2014).
In this paper we study the asymptotic behaviour near extinction of (sub-)critical continuous-state branching processes. In particular, we establish an analogue of Khintchine's law of the iterated logarithm near extinction time for a continuous-state branching process whose branching mechanism satisfies a given condition.
We derive a new equation for the optimal investment boundary of a general irreversible investment problem under exponential Lévy uncertainty. The problem is set as an infinite time-horizon, two-dimensional degenerate singular stochastic control problem. In line with the results recently obtained in a diffusive setting, we show that the optimal boundary is intimately linked to the unique optional solution of an appropriate Bank–El Karoui representation problem. Such a relation and the Wiener–Hopf factorization allow us to derive an integral equation for the optimal investment boundary. In case the underlying Lévy process hits any point in R with positive probability we show that the integral equation for the investment boundary is uniquely satisfied by the unique solution of another equation which is easier to handle. As a remarkable by-product we prove the continuity of the optimal investment boundary. The paper is concluded with explicit results for profit functions of Cobb–Douglas type and CES type. In the former case the function is separable and in the latter case nonseparable.
We describe an Euler scheme to approximate solutions of Lévy driven stochastic differential equations (SDEs) where the grid points are given by the arrival times of a Poisson process and thus are random. This result extends the previous work of Ferreiro-Castilla et al. (2014). We provide a complete numerical analysis of the algorithm to approximate the terminal value of the SDE and prove that the mean-square error converges with rate O(n-1/2). The only requirement of the methodology is to have exact samples from the resolvent of the Lévy process driving the SDE. Classical examples, such as stable processes, subclasses of spectrally one-sided Lévy processes, and new families, such as meromorphic Lévy processes (Kuznetsov et al. (2012), are examples for which our algorithm provides an interesting alternative to existing methods, due to its straightforward implementation and its robustness with respect to the jump structure of the driving Lévy process.
We extend the Kalman-Bucy filter to the case where both the system and observation processes are driven by finite dimensional Lévy processes, but whereas the process driving the system dynamics is square-integrable, that driving the observations is not; however it remains integrable. The main result is that the components of the observation noise that have infinite variance make no contribution to the filtering equations. The key technique used is approximation by processes having bounded jumps.