To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This chapter examines the intersection between Trucial States, Iran, and the British during the interwar years with a particular emphasis on the crises of 1926‒1929. The events surrounding Iran's reoccupation of Hengam in 1928 and capture of an Arab dhow off the coast of Greater Tunb Island can serve as an apt example of how the Arab rulers and merchants of the Gulf perceived Iran and the British during the interwar years. The chapter concludes with an examination of the shifting power distribution within the shaykhdoms in the 1930s, due to the collapse of the pearl industry and the rise of revenues from air and oil agreements, with particular attention to the position of the Iranian immigrant communities in the Trucial States
This chapter focuses on the intersection between Bahrain, Iran, and the British during the interwar years and the influence that contacts with Iran and Iranians had on the process of nation and state building in Bahrain. It analyzes the role of Iran and the role of the Iranian immigrant communities in the evolution of the Bahrain administration and the emergence of Arab nationalist sentiments in Bahrain. It depicts how different elements of the Iranian communities viewed Iran, the Al Khalifa ruling family, and the British. And it explores how the Al Khalifa and different segments of Bahraini society regarded Bahrain residents of Iranian origin and nationality. The analysis is preceded with a background on politics and society in Bahrain with special attention to the growth and characteristics of the Iranian immigrant communities.
This chapter highlights the primary features of politics and society in the Persian Gulf from the rise of civilization to World War I. It provides a survey of state-tribe relations in the Gulf from antiquity until the introduction of European powers. It will then turns to a consideration of the triangular relationship between states, tribes, and foreign powers in the Gulf, with an emphasis on the period of British supremacy. It identifies the appropriate theoretical tools pertaining to tribes and tribal politics in the Arabian Peninsula, which can be used to better understand how British intervention was viewed by the tribally organized societies situated around the Gulf's perimeter. The advent of nationalism in Iran and the consolidation of Iran's frontiers beginning in the late Qajar period are discussed as well as the waves of Iranian immigration that laid the foundations of politics and society in the Gulf Arab shaykhdoms. The chapter concludes with an analysis of the profound changes that were beginning to take shape in the regional system on the eve of World War I.
Far from an isolated political and cultural moment, foreign election interference appears to be a new feature of statecraft. Its ubiquity might lead some to a state of resignation – to accept it as an established element of international relations and not something that international law can regulate or extinguish. This would be a mistake. There are many international behaviors that are inevitable: war is one example. But the ubiquity of the phenomenon is not a good reason to forgo regulation. International law should recognize the distinctive harm of election interference, just as it recognizes the distinctive harm of armed conflict and seeks to reduce the number and the intensity of military conflicts. So too with election interference. International law (and domestic law) should seek to reduce the number of interferences and mitigate their impact.
Dr. Djalali is a well-known member of the international disaster medicine community. He is a man always with a smile and sincere in seeking the best for all mankind. His now extremely prolonged imprisonment without due process to allow him to defend himself represents one of the most profound inhumane acts on the globe. His torture and starvation are beyond comprehension for the international health and medicine community as well as all men and women. The pictures that accompany this editorial are published with proper permissions and have been authenticated as untouched from the originals.
We investigate how informal social networks can assist multinational firms in their internationalization strategy. We propose a refinement of the Uppsala internalization model (Johanson & Vahne, 2009) grounded in network theory, by developing an intermediate position between an ‘insider’ and an ‘outsider’ for conditions when the transformation of an outsider into an insider is limited by institutional constraints. An intermediary position represents one of the sides of ‘patron-client’ informal networks (Denoeux, 1993) whereby the other side is represented by the ‘insider’. We argue that this setup would help mitigate the Liability of Outsidership (Johanson & Vahne, 2009), a replacement of the Liability of Foreignness (Hymer, 1976; Zaheer, 1995), in the modern networked business world. We contextualize our proposition for the case of Iran, a large rising West-Asian economy with known institutional limitations, and suggest that the informal network of local merchants (bazaaries) could play an important intermediary role in Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) internationalization process. We review the history of bazaaries and make a series of propositions exemplifying possible ways informal networks could influence the internationalization process. In addition to re-affirming the importance of the MNE country of origin (emerging markets, and low psychic distance with Iran), we propose that an intermediary of the Iranian bazaaries will have a positive impact on performance and survival of the MNE's subsidiary in Iran, especially in the case of incongruence of MNE's leadership with Shi'a Islam. Additionally, we suggest that employing the Iranian diaspora may also improve subsidiary performance and survival.
The Public–Private–People partnership (4P) is a significant element in disaster response. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as a pandemic has been the worst disaster in the last decades in Iran in terms of exposure and magnitude. In order to respond effectively, the Iranian Government needs an extra capacity, which may be provided by the private sector and people. This study aims to collect evidences of 4P pertaining to the COVID-19 response in Iran from February to April 2020. Partnership case studies are classified into 3 categories: (1) Public–private partnerships; (2) public–people partnerships; and (3) private–people partnerships. It was found that the Iranian Government has removed or diminished some of the barriers to cooperation. There was also more cooperation between the people, the private sector, and the public sector than during normal times (vs disasters). People participated in the response procedure through some associations or groups, such as religious and ethnic communities, as well as through non-governmental organizations. It has been shown that 4P is vital in disaster response and, in particular, to epidemics. The government can be more active in partnerships with the private sector and people in emergencies, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Enhancing social capital, institutionalization, and developing required infrastructures by the government will improve public–private partnerships.
The aim of this study was to estimate the basic reproduction number (R0) of COVID-19 in the early stage of the epidemic and predict the expected number of new cases in Shahroud in Northeastern Iran. The R0 of COVID-19 was estimated using the serial interval distribution and the number of incidence cases. The 30-day probable incidence and cumulative incidence were predicted using the assumption that daily incidence follows a Poisson distribution determined by daily infectiousness. Data analysis was done using ‘earlyR’ and ‘projections’ packages in R software. The maximum-likelihood value of R0 was 2.7 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1−3.4) for the COVID-19 epidemic in the early 14 days and decreased to 1.13 (95% CI 1.03–1.25) by the end of day 42. The expected average number of new cases in Shahroud was 9.0 ± 3.8 cases/day, which means an estimated total of 271 (95% CI: 178–383) new cases for the period between 02 April to 03 May 2020. By day 67 (27 April), the effective reproduction number (Rt), which had a descending trend and was around 1, reduced to 0.70. Based on the Rt for the last 21 days (days 46–67 of the epidemic), the prediction for 27 April to 26 May is a mean daily cases of 2.9 ± 2.0 with 87 (48–136) new cases. In order to maintain R below 1, we strongly recommend enforcing and continuing the current preventive measures, restricting travel and providing screening tests for a larger proportion of the population.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that emerged as a health problem worldwide. It seems that COVID-19 is more lethal for Iranian veterans with a history of exposure to mustard gas. There are some similarities in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and mustard gas in immune system disruption and pulmonary infection. SARS-CoV-2 and mustard gas inducing oxidative stress, immune system dysregulation, cytokine storm, and overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) receptor in lungs that act as functional entry receptors for SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, Iranian survivors of mustard gas exposure are more susceptible and vulnerable to COVID-19. It is suggested that the principles of COVID-19 infection prevention and control be adhered to more stringently in Iranian survivors of mustard gas exposure than others who have not been exposed to mustard gas. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the different pathologic aspects of lung injury caused by mustard gas and also the relationship between this damage and the increased susceptibility of Iranian mustard gas exposed survivors to COVID-19.
This paper discusses the emergence of an archaeology of the contemporary era in a Middle Eastern country, Iran. Far from North America and Europe, where the subfield was introduced, appreciated and developed by academic archaeologists, this archaeology is now also becoming established in Iran in spite of academic reluctance and (indirect) political pressure. The most encouraged form of archaeology in Iran remains nationalist and conservative, supported by the current political structures. However, the archaeology of the contemporary past is increasingly practised on a limited scale and has gradually extended its scope and subjects. Highly dependent on context, it has enriched the ways and methods of archaeological practice under dictatorship. The archaeology of the contemporary past is still in its infancy in the Middle East, but the pioneers of the subfield try to take up the challenges of smoothing the way for the future of this interdisciplinary archaeology in Iran and the Middle East. Iranian contemporary archaeology not only aims to investigate conflict, tensions and political (and armed) opposition, but also studies everyday life and disastrous contexts.
This chapter explores the foreign policy discourse of the old Anglosphere coalition during the fourth phase of the crisis and civil war in Syria, following the military intervention of Russia, in support of Assad. First, the chapter considers the Anglosphere response to the Russian intervention. Second, it analyses how the intervention influenced the discursive war of position in the Anglosphere. Third, it explores the impact of Donald Trump’s election in the United States, including his administration’s relationship with Russia, the unexpected decision to bomb Assad’s forces and the new discursive opportunities his presidency afforded.
There is no published evidence about the psychometric properties of the Cognitive Behavioral Avoidance Scale (CBAS) in Eastern cultures.
The current research evaluated the psychometric properties of a Persian version of the CBAS.
The research consisted of two studies. In Study 1, a university student sample (n = 702) completed the CBAS, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Thought Control Questionnaire and the Anxious Thoughts Inventory. In Study 2, a general population sample (n = 384) and a clinical sample (n = 152) completed the CBAS, the Young Compensation Inventory and the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale-21.
Exploratory factor analysis of the data from Study 1 suggested a four-factor solution for CBAS. The CBAS had acceptable internal consistency and test–re-test reliability, and showed significant correlations with depression symptoms and anxious thoughts. Confirmatory factor analysis of the data from Study 2 indicated good fit between the four-factor model and data. The CBAS had a significant relationship with depression, anxiety and stress symptoms, but no associations with schema compensatory behaviour strategy. Finally, the CBAS and its subscales successfully distinguished a clinical sample from a general population sample.
The findings provide preliminary evidence for reliability and validity of the CBAS among Iranian student, general population and clinical samples.
Women and men are assigned roles and responsibilities based on their gender in all contexts. Measuring gender-based differences through gender analysis can help understand who will be at greater risk in disasters. Thus, the present study is aimed to develop a valid and reliable gender analysis tool to collect accurate and necessary gender-disaggregated information in disaster-affected regions.
A mix method approach using qualitative and quantitative studies was applied for conducting this study. A total of 20 people affected by the earthquakes and floods and 10 key informants were interviewed in the qualitative stage. The validity and reliability of the tool were measured using the experts as well as women and men living in the destroyed villages of Razavi Khorasan province during the quantitative stage. The Graneheim approach and SPSS software were used to analyze the data collected in both stages.
At the first stage, 7 categories were extracted from the data, namely, livelihood status, social status, health, household/family management, reconstruction, welfare and educational facilities, and disaster prevention. The results of content validity ratio (0.69) and content validity index (0.88) confirmed that the tool is valid. The amount of Cronbach’s alpha (0.75) and test-retest (0.83) examination indicated that the tool was also reliable. The results of content validity and reliability measurements approved that the gender analysis tool can be applied for postdisaster gender analysis surveys.
It is highly suggested to use the information provided by the gender analysis tool for future disaster management plans, programs, and policies in health systems.
The World Health Organization (WHO) (1998) has proclaimed that the definition of health includes four Domains of well-being: physical, mental, social and spiritual. It is therefore suggested that nurses should prepare themselves to assist individuals and families, not only to cope with spiritual distress of illness and suffering but also to explore the meaning in these experiences. The purpose of this investigation is to explore the antecedents of spiritual distress experienced by Iranian Muslim patients in the context of Islam.
qualitative descriptive research was conducted using unstructured interviews with twenty-one patients and three relatives. The data analyzed using content analysis method.
three main categories were found: failure in communication, non-holistic care and inability to worship
The results showed that the patient's spiritual well-being could be enhanced by communication, listening and giving information. Finally, it is clear that staff members have a great deal of responsibility for the patient's well-being, facilitating the relatives’ involvement based on their wishes and limiting the stress and difficulties experienced by the family.
The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence rate of mental disorders in factory workers in Chahar-Mahal Bakhtiary province of Islamic Republic of Iran.
Following a pilot study and determination of cut-off point for the SRQ-24 Questionnaire, the study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage 503 subjects were administered the questionnaire and in the second stage, 148 subjects who had scores equal to or higher than the cut-off point were assessed by a clinical interview checklist based on DSM-IV diagnostic criteria.
Results showed that the prevalence of mental disorders was 19.9% (females 23.4% and males 19.1%).The most prevalent disorders were anxiety disorders (7.7%) and mood disorders (7%) followed by somatoform disorders (2.4%) and adjustment disorders (1.4). The finding also indicated that the prevalence of mental disorders among technical workers, semi-skilled workers and unskilled workers were 22.6%, 20.4%, and 18.6%, respectively.
These findings emphasize the responsibility of the health policy makers for prevention, treatment and medical education for mental health in factories.
Considering the effects of the level of social support and self-esteem as risk factors in the onset and continuation of depression, the purpose of the current study (in addition to studying the demographic items of depression) was to investigate the correlation between depression and level of social support and self-esteem in Iranian university students studying non medical majors.
The study was a cross-sectional descriptive-analytic research carried out on the students of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2006. Self administered questionnaires on socio-demographic information (age, gender, marital status, and educational level), Eysenk self-esteem scale, Beck Depression Inventory and Cassidy social support scale were randomly given out to students who were selected by multi stage randomized sampling. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 14 using the χ2-test.
1200 students responded to the anonymous questionnaires. A total of 57.2% of the participants had depression (36.3% mild, 14.4% moderate and 6.5% severe). Depression was significantly higher in males, singles and in 25-29-year-old students. Results showed that 9.4%, 18.3% and 72.3% of the participants reported low, moderate and high levels of social support respectively. 1.8% and 6.3% of the participants reported low and moderate levels of self-esteem respectively; while 91.9% reported high levels of self-esteem.
Depression has a higher rate in non-medical university students of Iran than general population. Levels of social support and self-esteem were negatively associated with frequency of depression.
Social humans are embedded with a variety of relationships. Satisfactory social support is crucial for having physical and psychological well being.
The purpose of the present study was to find empirical support for the connections between perceived social support and loneliness with life satisfaction.
Material & methods
226 students of Golestan University of Medical Sciences participated in the study. They were assessed using demographic questions, Multidimensional scale of Perceived Social Support, Life Satisfaction Scale, and Loneliness Scale. Using SPSS (16) and Pearson correlation test, linear regression the data were analyzed.
122 male and 104 female students filled the questionnaires. 91 percents of the students were single and also 95 percents were residents of university dormitories. There was a significant relationship between life satisfaction with loneliness in the subjects (p< 0.05). The higher social support from the family and friends was also correlated with more life satisfaction and less loneliness (p< 0.05). Linear regression showed a significant correlation among social support, life satisfaction with loneliness.
Findings suggest, appropriate social support can reduce loneliness and increase life satisfaction. It is also one of the well being predictors. Therefore the universities should provide strategies to facilitate social support from family and the significant others. The empowerment of the students using teaching social communication skills may be helpful as well. The results were discussed within the context of findings from the studies conducted in eastern and western cultures.