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Chapter 2 explains why middling people were so vulnerable to imprisonment through analysis of structures of credit and wealth. Drawing on debtors’ schedules, or inventories of wealth generated by the imprisonment process, the credit networks and patterns of wealth-holding of middling households are reconstructed. I argue that the portions of middle ranking wealth bound up in credit, changing structures of credit and middling people’s positions within credit networks rendered them vulnerable to failure. Analysis of how middling people held their wealth suggests that they did not lack assets, but rather faced problems of liquidity. Incarceration was the consequence of endemic structural insecurities.
The reduction in international trade has been more than the reduction in economic activity during the 2008 financial crisis, against the one-to-one relationship between them implied by standard trade models. This so-called the Great Trade Collapse (GTC) has been investigated extensively in the literature resulting in alternative competing stories as potential explanations. By introducing and estimating a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model using 18 quarterly series from the USA, including those that represent the competing stories, this paper evaluates the contribution of each story to GTC. The results show that retail inventories have contributed the most to the collapse and the corresponding recovery, followed by protectionist policies, intermediate-input trade, and trade finance. Productivity and demand shocks have played negligible roles.
Species distribution data are critical information sources when it comes to implementing the multiple Aichi Targets set by the international Convention on Biological Diversity. Although there have been international-scale efforts to aggregate distribution data, the magnitudes and locations of the gaps in biodiversity knowledge remain unclear. In this study, we use a large database, including over 200 000 species occurrence records, to identify knowledge gaps in biodiversity inventories for nine animal taxa in a Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot. Spatial modelling methods were employed to relate the completeness of inventories to population, road and protected area density. The completeness of faunistic inventories was correlated with the amount of protected areas, roads and population density. Despite more than 200 years of faunistic sampling, knowledge of the distributions of most animal taxa is still limited, especially for invertebrates. As the window of opportunity for achieving Aichi Targets 11 and 19 begins to close, means of filling such knowledge gaps are required. We argue that a combination of quantitative tools and citizen science data collection programmes may help inform conservation decisions.
This paper investigates the time delay in the transmission of oil price shocks using disaggregated manufacturing data on inventories and sales. VAR estimates indicate that industry-level inventories and sales respond faster to an oil price shock than aggregate gross domestic product, especially in industries that are energy-intensive. In response to an unexpected oil price increase, sales drop and inventories are accumulated. This leads to future reductions in production. We estimate a modified linear–quadratic inventory model to inquire whether the patterns observed in the VAR impulse responses are consistent with rational behavior by the firms. Estimation results suggest that three mechanisms play a role in the industry-level dynamics. First, oil prices act as a negative demand shock. Second, the shock catches manufacturers by surprise, resulting in higher-than-anticipated inventories. Third, because of their desire to smooth production, manufacturers deviate from the target level of inventories and spread the decline in production over various quarters; hence the delay in the response of aggregate output.
This article analyzes the bamboo strips recovered from the northern chamber of the tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng (d. 433 b.c.e.). It argues that the strips comprised at least two separate texts that were integral to the organization and performance of the Marquis's funerary cortège. One text lists on individual strips the chariots and horse teams used in the procession, as well as their donors, categorizing them under bureaucratic offices. A second text describes these same chariots one after another, along with their drivers, decorations, and armor. Counting marks next to each of the chariot names appear to have verified the written totals found in the text. This evidence demonstrates that the director of the cortège combined together donated materials from a vast geographic area in order to create a distinctive funerary spectacle that displayed the wealth, status, and power of the Marquis and the state of Zeng. The article further argues that characterizing the Zeng texts as “inventories” (qian'ce 遣策)—so often analyzed for evidence of ideas about the afterlife—hardly does justice to the complex role that the texts played in the funeral procession and Zeng royal display. It concludes that this political display function drove the production of the texts and the organization of the funeral, not least because Marquis Yi's heir and Zeng state officials would have wanted to ensure a smooth transfer of power.
Knowledge of the types and quantities of foods and drinks available in family homes supports the development of targeted intervention programmes for obesity prevention or management, or for overall diet improvement. In the UK, contemporary data on foods that are available within family homes are lacking. The present study aimed to explore home food and drink availability in UK homes.
An exploratory study using researcher-conducted home food availability inventories, measuring all foods and drinks within the categories of fruits, vegetables, snack foods and beverages.
Bradford, a town in the north of the UK.
Opportunistic sample of mixed ethnicity families with infants approximately 18 months old from the Born in Bradford birth cohort.
All homes had at least one type of fruit, vegetable and snack available. Fresh fruits commonly available were oranges, bananas, apples, satsumas and grapes. Commonly available fresh vegetables included potatoes, cucumber, tomatoes and carrots. The single greatest non-fresh fruit available in homes was raisins. Non-fresh vegetables contributing the most were frozen mixed vegetables, tinned tomatoes and tinned peas. Ethnic differences were found for the availability of fresh fruits and sugar-sweetened beverages, which were both found in higher amounts in Pakistani homes compared with White homes.
These data contribute to international data on availability and provide an insight into food availability within family homes in the UK. They have also supported a needs assessment of the development of a culturally specific obesity prevention intervention in which fruits and vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages are targeted.
This study analyzes the relationship between lexical and grammatical development in Spanish children. The (European) Spanish version of the MacArthur-Bates CDI was used and administered to 593 Spanish-speaking children between the ages of 16 and 30-months-old. Regression analysis was applied to evaluate the relationship between age, vocabulary (total vocabulary, nouns, and verbs) and grammatical scores on two subsections of the Grammar Part. Total vocabulary explained a significantly greater proportion of variance in grammatical outcomes than age did. However, noun and verb vocabularies did not explain a greater proportion of variance in their respective morphologies than total vocabulary did. Additionally, the predictive relationship between vocabulary and grammar was found to be weaker for children whose scores were below the 10th percentile, although this could be due to the minor variability in this group and to extreme cases. We discuss the implications of these results in relation to the question of continuity between early vocabulary and grammar development in children.
Land managers must set weed management priorities if limited resources are to be utilized effectively. Weed surveys and inventories assist land managers in this process by providing information regarding the identity, location, and relative abundance of weeds on their land. Although this information is vital, it can be challenging to select a method that provides the necessary data to meet management objectives while remaining accurate and cost effective. This paper critically evaluates four wildland weed mapping methods. These methods were defined as (1) paper-drawn, (2) buffered-point, (3) screen-drawn, and (4) perimeter-walked. Polygons were drawn by hand on topographic maps in the paper-drawn method. The other methods utilized handheld geographic positioning system (GPS) technology to digitally record infestations. Six experienced weed mappers independently recorded the location and size of eight sagebrush patches using each method. Time and accuracy were evaluated for each method based upon mapping time, distance walked, horizontal precision error, estimated size error, and shape error. The paper-drawn method was significantly less accurate than GPS-based methods at recording patch size and location. There was no significant difference in the accuracy of the buffered-point, screen-drawn, and perimeter-walked methods at reporting patch size and location. The need to cover land area quickly and efficiently favors the selection of the buffered-point or screen-drawn method because of time and distance factors. However, if patch shape is an important factor, the perimeter-walked or buffered-point methods may be the best choices of methods tested.
Inuit dialects with palatalization all distinguish between “strong i” and “weak i”: instances of surface [i] that cause palatalization and those that do not, respectively. All dialects that have completely lost this contrast also lack palatalization. Why are there no /i, a, u/ dialects in which all instances of surface [i] trigger palatalization? We propose that this typological gap can be explained using a contrastivist analysis whereby only contrastive features can be phonologically active, palatalization is triggered by [coronal], and contrastive features are assigned in an order placing [low] and [labial] ahead of [coronal]. In a three-vowel inventory only [low] and [labial] are contrastive, while in the four-vowel inventory [coronal] must also be contrastive to distinguish strong and weak i. It follows from these assumptions that [i] can trigger palatalization only if it is in contrast with a fourth vowel.
There is a wide international consensus that there is an urgent need to compile national inventories of animal genetic resources, supported by periodic monitoring of trends and threats, to underpin their effective management. This paper gives an overview of how to set about this task, primarily through national strategies but also through ad hoc surveys. It is important to establish stakeholder involvement at an early stage of setting up the national strategy so that the surveys can be made more effective and the emergent actions can be more readily implemented. There are a wide variety of tools available for surveying and monitoring, ranging from mapping expeditions to household surveys and censuses, encompassing methods associated with rapid rural appraisals. Tools have different strengths and weaknesses and their relative cost effectiveness will depend on objectives. Performing a baseline survey is a key step because it serves as a reference point for future monitoring; however, to be cost effective, more rudimentary surveys may be needed beforehand to establish reliable design parameters. Calibration of one method to another is an important task when several methods are being used for monitoring. Planning and design, communication, sensitive field work, data management and an analysis appropriate to the objectives are all necessary elements of a successful survey.
Introduction. The conservation status of many wild fruit tree species that
support rural people in Africa remains poorly documented despite its importance for their
management. We compared the viability of tamarind (Tamarindus indica)
populations, a dry land species that has nutritional, medicinal and cultural importance
for rural communities, under different human-pressure levels. Materials and
methods. The data relative to the tree diameter and height as well as the number
of adults and stems were collected in plots of inventory and made it possible to calculate
the dendrometric parameters for each targeted population, and to establish their diameter
distribution. The dendrometric characteristics were analyzed by using nonparametric tests
and the diameter distribution was adjusted to a truncated normal distribution.
Results and discussion. Numbers of mature tamarind trees per hectare and
regeneration (expressed as stem·ha–1) were relatively low, suggesting tamarind
populations may not be self-rejuvenating. Nonetheless, significant variation occurred
between habitat types (P < 0.001). Mature tree density in gallery
forests [(18.2 ± 10.1) trees·ha–1] was three to eight times higher than that of
savannah woodlands [(5 ± 4.5) trees·ha–1] and farmlands
[(2.5 ± 0.4) trees·ha–1]. Young plants followed the same trend, with
(11.2 ± 9.3) plants·ha–1, (1.1 ± 0.6) plants·ha–1, and
0.00 plants·ha–1, respectively. Diameter size class distributions departed
from normality (P < 0.0001) and coefficient of skewness was
positive irrespective of habitat type, indicating declining populations. However, median
diameter values would suggest the species’ populations in farmlands and savannah woodlands
to be more vulnerable than those occurring in gallery forests. These findings would
suggest that gallery forests best suit tamarind in situ conservation. The
observed severe reduction of trees and juveniles in farmlands and woodlands may negatively
impact the long-term viability of tamarind populations. Juveniles’ introduction into
farmlands may be needed to ensure conservation in agroforestry systems.
The vegetation of the treeline ecotone of the southern declivity of arid High Asia (Hindu Kush, northern areas of Pakistan; Himalaya, northern central Nepal) is dominated by hedgehog-like open dwarf shrublands of thorny cushions. Since climatically sensitive ecotones are always also sensitive to human impact, the question arises whether the current lack of forests is a result of the Subboreal climate decline or of human impact. Due to inadequate knowledge of the pollen flora and of ecological indicator values of the plants, pollen analyses in High Asia have mainly been limited to the regional verification of globally known climatic impulses. However, the role of human impact on regional vegetation patterns has been widely neglected. We postulate that today's open dwarf shrublands replace woodlands and forests. Isolated vigorous juniper trees and successful reforestation appear to confirm our hypothesis. An abrupt decline of Pinus forests before 5700 and 5400 ka cal yr BP can be demonstrated. As the first indicator pollen of human impact appeared at both sites synchronous with the forest pollen decline, we infer human impact to be a more decisive cause for this environment change superimposing the effects of a climatic deterioration. The forests were displaced by open dwarf shrublands.
The study of monetary phenomena in Argentina between 1810 and 1850 is complicated by the lack of historical sources and the coexistence of various currencies. According to previous research, the north of the country and specially Tucumán have been strongly influenced by Bolivian monetary policy and its currency devaluation throught the issue of coins Know as «feble». However, so far, a quantitative analysis of the circulation of money in this region for this period does not exist. This article shows that probate inventories have a great potential for advancing the exploration of these issues and presents an analysis of all the inventories available for Tucumán between 1820 and 1850. With this information the demand for money for this period is estimated and we confirm that money in circulation would have become more abundant in the 1840s, the period of highest levels of issue of «feble» coins, but without an obvious break with previous decades.
This paper uses Theil's (1979) entropy-based measure of inequality and farm-level data to examine changes in farm business wealth (farm equity) of farm households. The farms associated with farm households are grouped by state into ten regions of the United States. The Theil entropy measure is then calculated and used to decompose total inequality of farm wealth into within-state and across-states (between states) inequalities for each region. Results show that since the enactment of the 1996 Federal Agricultural Improvement and Reform (FAIR) Act, inequality in farm wealth among farms within a state has decreased relative to the number of farms per state, across all regions. Further, most of the reduction in farm wealth inequality is attributed to increased equality in the distribution of real estate assets of the farm households, a major component of farm wealth.
Given the frequent socioeconomic, political and concomitant ecological failures of science-driven marine protected area (MPA) programmes, it is now important to design MPAs by integrating natural and social science research more comprehensively. This study shows how indigenous peoples assisted in the design of MPAs by identifying marine substrates and related resident taxa on aerial photos, information which was then incorporated into a geographical information system (GIS) database, along with dive survey data. Two questions were asked: (1) Is indigenous ecological knowledge accurate enough for mapping the benthos and associated taxa? (2) Is such an approach an appropriate way for assisting in the biological and social design of MPAs in Oceania? Conventional quadrat field dive surveys were used to measure the accuracy of substrate identification by local informants and a visual survey was used to test hypotheses formulated from local knowledge regarding the spatial distribution and relative abundance of non-cryptic species within certain benthic habitats. Equivalence rates between indigenous aerial photo interpretations of dominant benthic substrates and in situ dive surveys were 75–85% for a moderately detailed classification scheme of the benthos, which included nine locally-defined abiotic and biotic benthic classes for the MPA seabed. Similarly, the taxa inventory showed a strong correspondence between the qualitative predictions of local fisherfolk and the quantitative analysis of non-cryptic species distribution, including their relative abundance and geophysical locations. Indigenous people's predictions about the presence or absence of fish in different benthic habitats corresponded 77% and 92% of the time (depending on scoring schema) with in situ visual measurements. These results demonstrate how incorporating local knowledge of benthic heterogeneity, existing biological communities, and particular spatio-temporal events of biological significance into a GIS database can corroborate the production of scientifically reliable base resource maps for designing MPAs in an environmentally and culturally sound fashion. This participatory approach was used to design and then establish MPAs in the Roviana and Vonavona region of the Western Solomon Islands. Under appropriate conditions, interdisciplinary work can complement the design of scientific fishery management and biodiversity conservation prescriptions for coastal Oceania.
Introduction. L’objectif de notre étude a été de promouvoir, dans la forêt classée de Niangoloko, d’autres activités moins destructrices des écosystèmes que l’exploitation du bois. Quatre espèces fruitières (Detarium microcarpum Guill. & Perr., Flacourtia flavescens Willd., Maranthes polyandra Benth. et Parinari curatellifolia Planch. ex Benth.) y sont abondamment réprésentées. La pulpe de chacune de ces quatre espèces est comestible et peut être transformée en confiture. Les graines de Parinari curatellifolia et Maranthes polyandra sont oléagineuses et sont utilisées dans de nombreux secteurs de l’industrie. Malheureusement, si ces fruits sont utilisés dans l’industrie d’autres pays africains, ils ne sont pas connus des populations du Burkina Faso. Notre étude a donc cherché à constituer une base de données sur la localisation des peuplements d’espèces fruitières, leur écologie et leur potentiel de production en fruits afin de mieux valoriser ces ressources. Matériel et méthode. À l’aide d’une carte pédologique et d’un GPS, une carte des groupements végétaux a pu être réalisée. Des relevés ont permis de mesurer la densité et la hauteur des arbres des espèces fruitières dans chaque groupement. La production moyenne de fruits par arbre pour chaque espèce a également été mesurée. Résultats. Onze groupements végétaux ont été recensés et cartographiés. Chaque espèce fruitière a une localisation bien précise dans un ou plusieurs groupements. Des peuplements de Detarium microcarpum, Flacourtia flavescens, Maranthes polyandra et Parinari curatellifolia ont été recensés avec des densités respectives pouvant atteindre (1486 ± 110 ; 160 ± 33 ; 313 ± 32 et 392 ± 39) individus·ha–1. La quantité de fruits produite par individu a été respectivement de (2,1 ± 0,6 ; 0,5 ± 0,2 ; 0,4 ± 0,2 et 1,0 ± 0,4) kg de fruits secs. La hauteur moyenne des arbres fruitiers ne dépasse guère (3,7 ± 0,3) m, cela permet une collecte facile des fruits sans risque d’accidents. Conclusion. Les conditions écologiques permettent une exploitation commerciale des fruits. Le potentiel fruitier de la forêt classée de Niangoloko est très important et présente d’intéressantes perspectives financières pour les populations riveraines.
Introduction. Although some of the non-formal food items consumed in Southeastern Nigeria are exotic, the indigenous products are becoming increasingly popular. There is also a growing interest among scientists in various disciplines to conduct research on nutritional, medicinal, industrial and other uses of the less studied and largely indigenous plants. Unlike the exotic fruits and seeds literature on the purely indigenous species is scanty. This paper is aimed at the documentation of some of the readily identified species producing fruits and seeds, which are considered to be endangered. Materials and methods. Selected plants producing edible fruits and seeds and considered to be endangered in Southeastern Nigeria were compiled in a list. Mature forms of the fruits and seeds were covered by means of color photographs and further categorized according to their families, growth habits, state of domestication, local names and methods of utilization. Results and discussion. Thirty plant species belonging to 19 families were recorded. The list includes 19 trees, 3 shrubs, 4 climbers and 2 rhizomatous monocots. About 27% of the species listed enjoy some degree of cultivation, while about 70% may still be found protected or wild. Up to 16% are still harvested only from the wild plants. The factors predisposing most of the species to extinction would be: loss of habitat due to deforestation and other forms of population pressure on the ecosystem; lack of interest in tree planting due to rather long gestation periods of existing genetic stock; increasing pressure and demand from few surviving stands; unsustainable harvesting methods. Conclusion. Ex situ conservation strategies, genetic and other tree improvement studies, encouragement of home garden and village forest settlement practices, and the introduction of incentives for tree planting are recommended strategies for conservation and sustainable production of the highly prized indigenous edible fruit and seeds in the area.
Introduction. The genus Saissetia has 47 described species in the world, four of them in Mexico (S. oleae, S. miranda, S. neglecta and S. tolucana). These species attack different crops, including citrus, olives and ornamentals. Most introductions of natural enemies against S. oleae have been undertaken in North and South America, Australia and the Mediterranean countries. However, no natural enemy species have been purposedly introduced into Mexico against Saissetia spp. Materials and methods. During 1998–2003, samples of Saissetia spp. were collected in the States of Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Oaxaca and Guanajuato; all the emerged parasitoids were determined. Appropriate scientific publications were consulted to find out about any other Saissetia parasitoids recorded from Mexico. Results and discussion. Seventeen parasitoid species from five families of Chalcidoidea (Aphelinidae, Encyrtidae, Eupelmidae, Pteromalidae and Signiphoridae) were reared from Saissetia spp. in Mexico. Conclusions. In Mexico, the species of Saissetia prefer ornamental plants and are usually heavily parasitized by several chalcidoids. Native biological control of Saissetia spp. by different parasitoids has been effective for many years in Mexico. As a result, the species of Saissetia are not considered as primary or secondary pests of citrus and ornamentals.