Quality of pork depends on genotype, rearing and pre- and post-slaughter conditions. However, no information is available on rearing system changes and oleic acid supplementation on carcass characteristics and fatty acid (FA) profile of pork from the Alentejano (AL) pig, an obese breed. This study evaluates the effects of feeding low (LO) or high oleic acid diets (HO) to AL pigs reared in individual pens (IND) or outdoor (OUT) with access to pasture. Carcass composition was obtained and longissimus dorsi and semimembranosus samples were collected to analyse chemical composition and neutral and polar intramuscular lipids FA profile by gas chromatography. Statistical analysis was performed by a two-way ANOVA for rearing system and diet effects. OUT-reared pigs presented leaner carcasses than IND-reared ones. Both muscles presented lower intramuscular lipid content in OUT-reared pigs. Treatments affected the FA profile of muscles. Overall, OUT-reared pigs presented lower n-6/n-3 FA ratios, whereas pigs fed the HO diet exhibited lower saturated fatty acids (SFA), higher monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) levels and lower thrombogenic indexes on neutral intramuscular lipids than LO-fed pigs. On the polar fraction, OUT-reared pigs presented lower SAT and n-6/n-3 FA ratio, and higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) levels on both muscles. Pigs fed the HO diet exhibited higher MUFA and lower PUFA levels on both muscles, and lower SAT levels on semimembranosus. This study shows rearing system and oleic acid supplementation have complementary effects and influence carcass composition and the nutritional quality of meat.