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This chapter discusses the possibility of increasing intelligence by instruction. It considers the question of whether increasing intelligence should be a goal of education, assuming that intelligence can be taught. It then considers the question of whether intelligence can be taught. It reviews several organized attempts to teach intelligence, and proposes a perspective for viewing such attempts, given the mixed results they have produced.
There are individual differences in rational thinking that are less than perfectly correlated with individual differences in intelligence because intelligence and rationality occupy different conceptual locations in models of cognition. A tripartite extension of currently popular dual-process theories is presented in this chapter that illustrates how intelligence and rationality are theoretically separate concepts. Thus, individual differences in the cognitive skills that underlie rational thinking must be studied in their own right because intelligence tests do not explicitly assess rational thinking. We close the chapter by describing our attempt to develop the first prototype of a comprehensive test of rational thought, the Comprehensive Assessment of Rational Thinking (CART). With the CART, we aim to draw more attention to the skills of rational thought by measuring them systematically and by examining the correlates of individual differences in these cognitive skills.
This chapter reviews the literature on social intelligence (SI) as it has evolved over the century since Thorndike (1920) popularized the concept. Most research on SI has been guided by an ability view, and an analogy to IQ, as exemplified by the George Washington University Social Intelligence Test, and the “behavioral” contents in Guilford’s Structure of Intellect. The assessment of SI is important for the assessment of intellectual disability (mental retardation) and the autistic spectrum, but raises the question of whether SI is a qualitatively different form of intelligence, or simply general intelligence applied in social situations. The chapter proposes an alternative knowledge view of SI as the fund of declarative and procedural knowledge which the individual brings to bear on social interactions, especially in the pursuit of important life tasks.
We suggest that consumer and marketer intelligence is, in its essence, practical. It is derived from adapting to, selecting, and shaping external environments. We review research relating to marketers’ and consumers’ strategies for interacting, intelligently, with their environments. On adapting, illustratively we point to a trend toward more fine-tuned adaptations in marketing communication, enabled by the large amount of information consumers are leaving online. On selection, illustratively we report research relating to customer relationship management: “big data” has enabled more informed, consequently more intelligent, customer selection by marketers. On shaping, illustratively we describe research relating to online customer reviews and the sea change it has had on the retail environment. Taking perspective, we opine that while adapting, shaping, and selection intelligence enable important, immediate outcomes, wisdom is needed, in addition, to achieve longer-term outcomes. A quintessential longer-term outcome for marketers is brand equity and for consumers is psychological well-being.
For about a century there has been a modest research effort to explain the nature of prodigies and savants. Savant research emerged out of the medical field and centered on deficit/remediation. Research with prodigies generally consists of case studies by psychologists with an interest in the manifestation and development of extreme talent, sometimes as part of the “gifted child” movement in the United States, more recently as anomalies in developmental psychology.
Research into both phenomena evolved to incorporate new questions, including debates over the role of general versus specific intellectual abilities in talent development. This chapter summarizes and reviews research on prodigies and savants. It also reviews what, to date, has been found about the nature and interplay of general and specific intellectual strengths and weaknesses more generally, offering a possible role for both specific talent and general ability.
Where did our intelligence come from? That is, what evolutionary drivers caused such specialization in cognition among humans? Only by adopting a comparative approach, considering the brains and cognitive skills of other animal species, can we discover how, when, and even perhaps why human intellectual skills evolved. Here we apply a process of evolutionary reconstruction to ancestors we share with other species, from the earliest primates at 74 Ma (million years ago) to the relatively recent ancestor shared with chimpanzees. Doing so highlights the importance of both social and ecological (nutritional) pressures in evolving intellect. Complex sociality was supported by increased perception, learning, and memory skills, long before the development of any ability to understand other beings as causal agents with independent minds. The latter, we argue, was driven by a need to feed more efficiently in ancestors we share with all living great apes.
This chapter examines the reciprocal relation between intelligence and achievement, particularly within academic domains such as verbal ability and mathematical ability. In particular, the chapter examines the specific knowledge needed for successful performance on tests of verbal ability that focus on decoding or reading comprehension, and tests of mathematical ability that focus on solving arithmetic computation problems or arithmetic word problems.
Massive IQ gains over time showed that obsolete norms had inflated estimates of the effects of intervention, adoption, and aging; and misdiagnosis of whether individuals had met IQ cutting lines that affected everything from the administration of the death penalty to who should benefit from special education. There were also important studies cited in the literature as if they could be taken at face value – the adoption study by Skodak and Skeels, for example. In America, obsolete norms had turned the death penalty into a lottery: you survive if you took a current test and got sixty-eight; you die if you took an obsolete test and got seventy-five. Research on the causes of IQ gains showed that environmental factors had a potency hitherto unappreciated, illuminated the history of cognitive progress in the twentieth century and its social significance, and recast the debate about group differences in IQ.
In this chapter we discuss the link between intelligence and problem-solving. To preview, we argue that the ability to solve problems is not just an aspect or feature of intelligence – it is the essence of intelligence. We briefly review evidence from psychometric research concerning the nature of individual differences in intelligence, and then review evidence for how intelligence relates to complex problem-solving. We also consider the question of what mechanisms might underlie both problem-solving and intelligence, focusing on fluid intelligence and some of our own research on placekeeping ability. We then discuss the predictive validity of intelligence as it relates to job performance, mortality, expertise, and academic achievement. We also discuss practical uses of intelligence tests. Finally, we consider the question of whether intelligence as problem-solving ability can be improved through training. We close with directions for future research.
This chapter reviews conceptual and empirical work that attempts to establish the relation of intelligence to personality. It first offers a summary and critique of three dichotomies often used to distinguish intelligence from personality conceptually and then reviews empirical research on the relation of intelligence to a wide range of personality traits. Both conceptually and empirically, intelligence is most strongly related to the personality trait Intellect, which is measured in questionnaires through descriptions of intellectual engagement and perceived intellectual ability, and which is one of two major subfactors of the broad Openness/Intellect dimension of the Five Factor Model or Big Five. Nonetheless, various other personality traits are also related to intelligence, and the nature and implications of these associations are thoroughly discussed.
In this chapter, we argue that to understand intelligence one must understand motivation. In the past, intelligence was often cast as an entity unto itself, relatively unaffected by motivation. In our chapter, we spell out how motivational factors determine (1) whether individuals initiate goals relating to the acquisition and display of intellectual skills, (2) how persistently they pursue those goals, and (3) how effectively they pursue those goals, that is, how effectively they learn and perform in the intellectual arena. As will be seen, motivational factors can have systematic and meaningful effects on intellectual ability, performance, and accomplishment over time. Our discussion emphasizes that heritability is not incompatible with the malleability of intelligence and that motivation is the vehicle through which intellectual skills are successfully acquired, expressed, and built upon.
Leaders matter to organizational performance and adaptability. Effective leaders matter the most in a dramatic and positive manner. This chapter is really about the role of intelligence in leadership, not the claim that the capability to be an effective leader is a distinct individual characteristic or a type of intelligence. Intelligent leadership, therefore, is leadership in which a person uses many forms of intelligence: cognitive, practical, emotional, and social intelligence. The chapter also examines how the role of the unconscious motive of the Need for Power, a sense of purpose, values, style and the quality of relationships (in terms of shared vision, compassion, and energy) are essential to effective leadership. There is also a brief review of the dark side of leadership.
The ways in which women and men differ in intelligence and specific cognitive abilities are among psychology’s most heated controversies. Massive amounts of data show that although there are some on average differences in specific cognitive abilities, there is considerable overlap in the male and female distributions. There are no sex differences in general intelligence – standardized IQ tests were written to show no differences, and separate assessments that were not written with this criterion show no differences in general intelligence. There are more males in some categories of mental disability that are genetically linked, but there are no genetic explanations for differential achievement at the high end of the distributions. Average between-sex differences on specific cognitive abilities – notably reading and writing (female advantage) and some mathematical and visuospatial abilities (male advantage) – often show considerable cross-cultural variation in effect size. Additionally, there have been changes over time so that any conclusions about this controversial topic that we make today may need to be revised in the future.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a scientific discipline that seeks to understand intelligence through the design and construction of intelligent machines. AI and cognitive science have a strong two-way relationship: Cognitive psychology often has inspired AI theories, and AI research has led to new theories of cognition that have been tested through psychological experimentation. While AI theories of cognition often are under-constrained, cognitive theories of AI tend to be over-constrained. Nevertheless, AI is useful for cognitive psychologists both as a source of new ideas and insights, and an experimental testbed. In this chapter, we describe some of the basic concepts and methods of AI by taking robot navigation in a city as an illustrative example. We also briefly discuss the history of AI, methods for assessing progress in AI, and some of AI’s potential impacts on society.
Genetic studies provide a compelling story of gene influences on intelligence, and neuroimaging studies provide insights about relevant brain structure and function. Polygenetic scores based on DNA and brain connectivity patterns based on neuroimaging are beginning to show correlations with individual differences in intelligence. Imaging studies also provide insights on specific brain networks related to intelligence, especially the PFIT model. The concept of brain efficiency is now being explored at the network and the dendrite levels. As we push inexorably deeper into the brain from cortex to neurons to synapses, we are at the threshold of developing a molecular biology of intelligence based both on gene expression related to brain development and function, and on the cascades of neurobiological events at the neuron and synapse levels. As prediction advances and the biological mechanisms underlying intelligence are identified, a major step will be manipulation of those mechanisms to enhance intelligence. That is why the study of intelligence has never been more exciting or important.
This chapter presents an augmented theory of successful intelligence. Successful intelligence is (1) the ability to formulate, strive for, and, to the extent possible, achieve one’s goals in life, given one’s sociocultural context, (2) by capitalizing on strengths and correcting or compensating for weaknesses (3) in order to adapt to, shape, and select environments (4) through a combination of analytical, creative, and practical abilities. People who are successfully intelligent figure out what life opportunities are available or they can create, and then proceed to optimize on those opportunities. Successfully intelligent people figure out their strengths and weaknesses and then capitalize on the strengths and correct or compensate for their weaknesses.
How are intelligence and creativity related? Given the dynamic and complex nature of both constructs, this question is a nuanced one. This chapter first discusses how creativity is represented in intelligence theories (such as Guilford’s Structure of Intellect, CHC, and successful intelligence, and how intelligence is represented in creativity theories (such as systems and componential theories, domain-based theories, and cognitive theories). Next, empirical studies are reviewed. The threshold theory, which proposes that intelligence and creativity are related but only up to about an IQ of 120, has received mixed support. More recent studies using sophisticated statistical analyses have found more evidence. A reliance on measures of divergent thinking and g as the sole tests of creativity and intelligence may also limit much existing research.
From an evolutionary perspective, psychological factors that bear on reproductive success are of particular importance as such factors directly pertain to Darwin’s bottom line. The psychology surrounding human mating, then, is particularly important from a Darwinian perspective. Mating intelligence is a construct that integrates work on mating psychology with work on intelligence. This broad construct is divided into two general sets of abilities: cognitive mating mechanisms (such as the ability to detect romantic interest on the part of a potential mate) and mental fitness indicators (which are outward behavioral displays of intelligence that facilitate successful courtship).
Children provide a unique and valuable window onto understanding human intelligence. A key feature of childhood is the capacity to take in, organize, and process information in a manner that gives rise to a variety of intelligent behaviors and modes of reasoning. Although children lack content knowledge and experience, they are experts at learning – and sometimes demonstrate even better learning potential than adults. This learning is situated in the social world, which allows children to selectively learn from other people and engage in the process of cultural transmission. The study of children also deeply considers the reasons for children’s errors and the mechanisms underlying the development of more intelligent thought. The chapter is organized into five sections, each addressing a key theme of childhood intelligence: continuity amid developmental change, multiple modes of reasoning, when children outperform adults, the role of social context, and policy implications. Each section focuses on a few content areas that illustrate the theme and how it relates to intelligence. We draw on literature from the full childhood period from two years to eighteen years, though the primary focus is on children in preschool and elementary school (2–10), where the majority of research has been done.
The concept of expertise is discussed, in the context of fluid and crystallized intelligence. Methods for the study of individual differences in expertise are reviewed, along with the acquisition of open and closed skills. The theoretical and empirical basis for the role of intellectual abilities are considered, along with both deliberate practice and transfer, in the development and maintenance of expertise.