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This prospective, epidemiological British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit study into ophthalmic complications of functional endoscopic sinus surgery aimed to determine the minimum incidence, presenting features and management throughout the UK.
Cases of ophthalmic complications of functional endoscopic sinus surgery, between February 2016 and February 2018, were identified through the British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit reporting card system. Reporting ophthalmic consultants were sent an initial questionnaire, followed by a second questionnaire at six months.
Twenty-six cases of ophthalmic complications of functional endoscopic sinus surgery were reported. The majority (16 cases (62 per cent)) had limitations of ocular motility at presentation. The most common final diagnosis was rectus muscle (33 per cent) and nasolacrimal duct trauma (27 per cent). Using national data, this study reports a minimum incidence of ophthalmic complications of functional endoscopic sinus surgery in the UK of 0.2 per cent over two years.
In terms of ophthalmic complications, functional endoscopic sinus surgery is shown to be safe. Ophthalmic complications are rare, but when they do occur, they commonly result in rectus muscle trauma, often requiring surgical intervention.
Soccer is the most popular sport worldwide and is the only sport where athletes purposely use their head to deflect the ball during play, termed “heading” the ball. These repetitive head impacts (RHI) are associated with worse neuropsychological function; however, factors that can increase risk of injury following exposure to such head impacts have been largely unexamined. The present study provided a novel examination of the modifying role of sleep on the relationship between RHI exposure and neuropsychological function in college-age soccer players.
Fifty varsity and intramural college soccer players completed questionnaires assessing recent and long-term heading exposure, a self-report measure of sleep function, and a battery of neuropsychological tests.
A high level of recent heading exposure was significantly associated with poorer processing speed, independent of concussion history. With reduced sleep duration, a high level of recent heading exposure was related to worse sustained attention. However, with greater hours of sleep duration, heading exposure was related to preserved neuropsychological outcome in sustained attention.
We replicated our earlier finding of an association between recent head impact exposure and worse processing speed in an independent sample. In addition, we found that sleep may serve as a risk or protective factor for soccer players following extensive exposure to head impacts. Ultimately, this study furthers the understanding of factors impacting neuropsychological function in soccer players and provides empirical support for sleep interventions to help ensure safer soccer play and recovery from injury.
The Sydney City-2-Surf (Australia) fun run is the world’s largest annual run entered by around 80,000 people. First aid planning at mass-participation running events such as the City-2-Surf is an area in the medical literature that has received little attention. Consequently, first aid planning for these events is based on experience rather than evidence. The models for predicting casualties that currently exist in the literature are either dated or not statistically significant.
The aim of this study was to characterize patterns of injuries linked to geographic location across the course of the City-2-Surf, and to explore relationships of injury types with location and meteorological conditions.
Records for formally treated casualties and meteorological conditions were obtained for the race years 2010-2016 and statistically analyzed to find associations between meteorological conditions, geographic conditions, casualty types, and location.
The most common casualties encountered were heat exhaustion or hyperthermia (39.2%), musculoskeletal (25.4%), and physical exhaustion (10.2%). Associations were found between gradient and the location. Type of casualty incidence with the individual distribution trends of casualty types were quite clear. Clusters of musculoskeletal casualties emerged in the parts of the course with the steepest negative gradients, while a cluster of cardiovascular events was found to occur at the top of the “heartbreak hill,” the longest climb of the race. Regression analysis highlighted the linear relationship between the number of heat and physical exhaustion casualties and the apparent temperature (AT) at 12:00pm (R2 = 0.59; P = .044). This linear equation was used to formulate a model to predict these casualties.
The findings of this study demonstrate the relationship between meteorological conditions, geographic conditions, and casualties. This will assist planners of other similar events to determine optimum allocation of resources to anticipated injury and illness burden.
This study focuses on the dolphins populating the water between Gibraltar and Algeciras in the south Iberian Peninsula, an area subjected to pressure due to high human activity. The area is considered an important feeding and breeding ground for common dolphins (Delphinus delphis). Due to the degree of residence of some specimens, and the large gap in knowledge about the evolution of wounds in D. delphis specimens with lacerations, this work sought to perform the following analyses: identify lacerated individuals; characterize sequences of ‘before – during – after’ with respect to the occurrence of lacerations; and associate the type of injury with its severity. This work will inform future studies by expanding a database on injured individuals and contribute to periodical monitoring of specimens that frequent these geographic areas. Between 2013 and 2017, we were able to track the healing process of five injured individuals of common dolphins from a whale-watching platform thanks to photo identification. The animals exhibited fresh external wounds from different sources. In the majority of individuals, the wound-healing processes lasted 3–21 weeks. The frequency with which sightings are made and knowledge about the local population will help track injured animals, follow their wound evolution, and document their survival rates. The documented injuries inflicted by human interactions described in this paper may include fishing interactions and propeller strikes, probably as a consequence of the high intensity of recreational fishing and whale-watching activities in the area.
Research exploring the longitudinal course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has documented four modal trajectories (low, remitting, high, and delayed), with proportions varying across studies. Heterogeneity could be due to differences in trauma types and patient demographic characteristics.
This analysis pooled data from six longitudinal studies of adult survivors of civilian-related injuries admitted to general hospital emergency departments (EDs) in six countries (pooled N = 3083). Each study included at least three assessments of the clinician-administered PTSD scale in the first post-trauma year. Latent class growth analysis determined the proportion of participants exhibiting various PTSD symptom trajectories within and across the datasets. Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined demographic characteristics, type of event leading to the injury, and trauma history as predictors of trajectories differentiated by their initial severity and course.
Five trajectories were found across the datasets: Low (64.5%), Remitting (16.9%), Moderate (6.7%), High (6.5%), and Delayed (5.5%). Female gender, non-white race, prior interpersonal trauma, and assaultive injuries were associated with increased risk for initial PTSD reactions. Female gender and assaultive injuries were associated with risk for membership in the Delayed (v. Low) trajectory, and lower education, prior interpersonal trauma, and assaultive injuries with risk for membership in the High (v. Remitting) trajectory.
The results suggest that over 30% of civilian-related injury survivors admitted to EDs experience moderate-to-high levels of PTSD symptoms within the first post-trauma year, with those reporting assaultive violence at increased risk of both immediate and longer-term symptoms.
We analyzed characteristics of tornado-related injuries and medical impact on a county-level hospital in China in June 23, 2016. The objective of this study was to describe and analyze local government rescue responses following the tornado.
County hospital medical records of 288 tornado-related injury patients were collected. Descriptive analyses to study injury characteristics and associated risk factors were performed.
Of the studied population, 84% of the wounded were older than 45 years. Only 30 (10.4%) people were sent to the hospital for treatment within 3 hours following the disaster. Heavy objects or collapsing houses accounted for 191 (66.3%) of the documented injuries. The proportion of people with resulting brain injuries was 46.2% of the entire injured population, and the incidence of lower extremity injuries was 27.8%. A total of 89.6% of the wounded had skin and soft tissue injuries. Multiple injuries were found in 129 (44.8%) people and 156 had a single injury (54.2%), and 3 cases with acute stress disorder were admitted to the hospital.
Preparation plans, including tornado warnings, prevention, and rescue, are a basic requirement for the mitigation of tornado-related injuries. Protection awareness of tornado disasters is also critical to ensure injury prevention.
The role of the ophthalmologist in the field hospital is important and irreplaceable; ocular injuries during a disaster can result in considerable disability and often require the care of an ophthalmologic surgeon. The ophthalmology field is a high technology area with the need for expensive equipment that are not available in the field hospital. The working scenario for the ophthalmologist in the delegation is very different than the one existing in a hospital in developed countries; therefore, first and foremost, a change in mental attitude is needed.
Understanding the characteristics of ocular injuries during various types of disasters in different geographical areas is important to be able to prepare for them properly, both mentally and practically.
Another dominant factor is time: the nature of ophthalmology patient’s varies significantly as time passes.
While in the first days after the disaster most ocular injuries are related to disaster, as time passes most of the referral patients are nondisaster related injuries such as chronic ocular problems of the local population.
This chapter covers the preparation needed for treating ocular injuries during disasters and the ophthalmology layout in the field hospital scenario.
Treating burn patients in the battlefield is one of the biggest challenges that military doctors and medical personnel can face. Wound patterns have been changed over time due to the introduction of new weapons, and many different aspects play a major role in the management of those burns nowadays. There is a potential gap in care of burn patients in war zones.
A thorough literature search in PubMed, scientific journals, and Internet sites was conducted in regard to burn patients and trauma in war zones.
It is crucial for military surgeons to be able to stabilize burn patients during wartime conflicts, especially those patients who suffer from extreme burn injuries, as specialized treatment should be given. Medical personnel should be aware of all medication types used, the ways to minimize the risk of bacterial infection, and the ways to keep the injured safe.
Injured civilians with burn trauma in the field of battle are deserving care, and special recognition should be given to the non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that strive to ease human suffering in war zones. Proper management of burn patients in war zones is crucial, and military medical staff and NGOs can play a key role in that purpose.
Interest in neurofeedback therapies (NFTs) has grown exponentially in recent years, encouraged both by escalating public interest and the financial support of health care funding agencies. Given NFTs’ growing prevalence and anecdotally reported success in treating common effects of acquired brain injury (ABI), a systematic review of the efficacy of NFTs for the rehabilitation of ABI-related cognitive impairment is warranted.
Eligible studies included adult samples (18+ years) with ABI, the use of neurofeedback technology for therapeutic purposes (as opposed to assessment), the inclusion of a meaningful control group/condition, and clear cognitive–neuropsychological outcomes. Initial automated search identified n = 86 candidate articles, however, only n = 4 studies met the stated eligibility criteria.
Results were inconsistent across studies and cognitive domains. Methodological and theoretical limitations precluded robust and coherent conclusions with respect to the cognitive rehabilitative properties of NFTs. We take the results of these systematic analyses as a reflection of the state of the literature at this time. These results offer a constructive platform to further discuss a number of methodological, theoretical, and ethical considerations relating to current and future NFT–ABI research and clinical intervention.
Given the limited quantity and quality of the available research, there appears to be insufficient evidence to comment on the efficacy of NFTs within an ABI rehabilitation context at this time. It is imperative that future work increase the level of theoretical and methodological rigour if meaningful advancements are to be made understanding and evaluating NFT–ABI applications.
Treatment enactment, a final stage of treatment implementation, refers to patients’ application of skills and concepts from treatment sessions into everyday life situations. We examined treatment enactment in a two-arm, multicenter trial comparing two psychoeducational treatments for persons with chronic moderate to severe traumatic brain injury and problematic anger.
Seventy-one of 90 participants from the parent trial underwent a telephone enactment interview at least 2 months (median 97 days, range 64–586 days) after cessation of treatment. Enactment, quantified as average frequency of use across seven core treatment components, was compared across treatment arms: anger self-management training (ASMT) and personal readjustment and education (PRE), a structurally equivalent control. Components were also rated for helpfulness when used. Predictors of, and barriers to, enactment were explored.
More than 80% of participants reported remembering all seven treatment components when queried using a recognition format. Enactment was equivalent across treatments. Most used/most helpful components concerned normalizing anger and general anger management strategies (ASMT), and normalizing traumatic brain injury-related changes while providing hope for improvement (PRE). Higher baseline executive function and IQ were predictive of better enactment, as well as better episodic memory (trend). Poor memory was cited by many participants as a barrier to enactment, as was the reaction of other people to attempted use of strategies.
Treatment enactment is a neglected component of implementation in neuropsychological clinical trials, but is important both to measure and to help participants achieve sustained carryover of core treatment ingredients and learned material to everyday life.
Deep learning using convolutional neural networks represents a form of artificial intelligence where computers recognise patterns and make predictions based upon provided datasets. This study aimed to determine if a convolutional neural network could be trained to differentiate the location of the anterior ethmoidal artery as either adhered to the skull base or within a bone ‘mesentery’ on sinus computed tomography scans.
Coronal sinus computed tomography scans were reviewed by two otolaryngology residents for anterior ethmoidal artery location and used as data for the Google Inception-V3 convolutional neural network base. The classification layer of Inception-V3 was retrained in Python (programming language software) using a transfer learning method to interpret the computed tomography images.
A total of 675 images from 388 patients were used to train the convolutional neural network. A further 197 unique images were used to test the algorithm; this yielded a total accuracy of 82.7 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval = 77.7–87.8), kappa statistic of 0.62 and area under the curve of 0.86.
Convolutional neural networks demonstrate promise in identifying clinically important structures in functional endoscopic sinus surgery, such as anterior ethmoidal artery location on pre-operative sinus computed tomography.
To evaluate the healing and hearing outcomes related to the everted or inverted edge area on slap- and fist-induced large tympanic membrane perforations.
A total of 120 patients with slap- or fist-induced tympanic membrane perforations, with inverted or everted edges, affecting 50–75 per cent of the entire tympanic membrane, were randomly divided into 2 groups: an edge approximation group and a spontaneous healing group. The edge approximation group was divided into subgroups A and B based on the reversed edge area (reversed edge was more or less than 50 per cent of the total perforation, respectively). Healing outcomes and hearing improvements at six months were compared.
The data of 118 patients were analysed. The closure rate of perforations in subgroup A, subgroup B, and the spontaneous healing group was 90.9 per cent, 92.1 per cent and 84.5 per cent, respectively; the difference between the three groups was not significant (p = 0.393).
The area of reversed edges for slap- or fist-induced tympanic membrane perforations did not seem to affect healing and hearing outcomes, regardless of edge approximation and everted or inverted edges.
Psychologists’ adherence with evidence-based guidelines based on the biopsychosocial premise in the management of musculoskeletal injuries is influenced by the actions by General Practitioners (GPs), insurers, and injured patients’ actions. For data collection, we interviewed GPs (n = 6), insurers (n = 6), and injured people (n = 15) from the two personal injury compensation schemes in New South Wales. Thematic analysis yielded the following: GPs were reticent to access psychological services that represented a poor fit between their practice and treatment guidelines, insurers lacked trust in the validity of “secondary psychological injury” claims’. Injured peoples’ willingness to engage with treatment was impaired by a poor fit between the treatment guidelines and their experience of insurers’ and psychologists’ practices.
Psychotic experiences (PEs) may be associated with injuries, but studies focusing specifically on low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs) are scarce. Thus, the current study examined the link between injuries and PEs in a large number of LAMICs.
Cross-sectional data were used from 242 952 individuals in 48 LAMICs that were collected during the World Health Survey in 2002–2004 to examine the association between traffic-related and other (non-traffic-related) forms of injury and PEs. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were used to examine associations while controlling for a variety of covariates including depression.
In fully adjusted analyses, any injury [odds ratio (OR) 2.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.85–2.31], traffic injury (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.53–2.21) and other injury (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.84–2.37) were associated with higher odds for PEs. Results from a country-wise analysis showed that any injury was associated with significantly increased odds for PEs in 39 countries with the overall pooled OR estimated by meta-analysis being 2.46 (95% CI 2.22–2.74) with a moderate level of between-country heterogeneity (I2 = 56.3%). Similar results were observed across all country income levels (low, lower-middle and upper-middle).
Different types of injury are associated with PEs in LAMICs. Improving mental health systems and trauma capacity in LAMICs may be important for preventing injury-related negative mental health outcomes.
The aim of this study is to describe the risk factors of injured children’s posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in China and provide the scientific data for PTSD prevention and control in children.
Electronic databases, including Medline, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), were searched for articles published on or before October 30, 2018, searching for the words, “PTSD,” “child”/“children,” “injury”/“injuries,” and “China”/“Chinese.” Forty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria and were meta-analyzed using random-effect models.
The total sample size in our meta-analysis was 65 298, and there were 13 402 children diagnosed with PTSD. The prevalence of PTSD after suffering from injury was 20.52% (95% CI = 17%–23%). PTSD occurrence was higher in girls than boys (24.61% vs 19.36%, P < 0.001). The PTSD rate for students was 51.82%, 37.12%, and 14.02% in senior, junior high school children, and primary school student, respectively. PTSD prevalence was 58.93% in rural children and higher than the urban children (57.36%). The prevalence of PTSD in ethnic minority children was significantly higher than that of Han Chinese children (35.38% vs 13.50%).
PTSD in injured children is significantly higher in girls, senior high school children, in rural areas, and in ethnic minority children. PTSD prevention and control should be focused on these 4 subgroups.
Blunt neck trauma can cause serious morbidity and mortality rates of up to 40 per cent, but there is a paucity of literature on the topic.
A retrospective case note review was performed for all blunt neck trauma cases managed at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham between 1st January 2011 and 31st December 2017.
Seventeen cases were managed, with no mortality and limited morbidity. Most patients were male (70.6 per cent) and road traffic accidents were the most common cause of injury (41.2 per cent). The median age of patients was 40.6 years (range, 21.5–70.3 years). Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the neck was performed in 9 patients (52.9 per cent) with ‘hot’ reports made by on-duty radiology staff matching consultant reports in all but 1 case. Six patients underwent operative exploration yielding a negative exploration rate of 33.3 per cent. Imaging reports matched operative findings in 3 cases (60 per cent).
Blunt neck trauma is uncommon but usually presents in polytrauma. Imaging has inaccuracies when compared with operative findings, regardless of radiological experience.
Mass gatherings (MGs) are held throughout the world. The aim of this review was to assess and identify the health threats based on the type of the MG, type of diseases, and injuries. Research platforms such as Web of Science, Medline, and Scopus were searched through June 2017. All epidemiologic studies that investigated the health threats during the MGs, such as communicable diseases, injuries, high-risk behaviors, and environmental health problems, were included in this review. Out of 1264 references, 45 articles were included in the review.
Three main types of MGs include religious, festival, and sporting event; and fairs such as trade, book, and agricultural types were also reported in the selected studies. In the religious MGs, infectious diseases were the most common health threat. Road traffic accidents and environmental health problems were additional health threats. At MG sporting events, injuries were the most common health problems. Infectious diseases and alcohol and drug-related disorders were other reported public health concerns. In the festival MGs, alcohol and drug-related problems were commonly reported. This review showed that health threats vary, based on the type of mass gathering. The health organizers of MGs should consider the type of the MG and the health needs and safety of the participants to help them plan their action and provide the needed health care services.
The aim of this study is to characterize the injury profiles and outcomes of victims of a tornado in Jiangsu Province, China.
This study retrospectively investigated the clinical records of 144 patients treated at a teaching hospital due to a tornado. Each patient’s demographic data, diagnosis, injury types, causes of injury, infection status, and outcomes were all reviewed.
Of the 144 patients, 64 (44.4%) were male, and 80 (55.6%) were female. The patients’ ages ranged from 2 months to 94 years; 91 (63.19%) were admitted within the first 12 h after the disaster. The most frequently injured sites were the body surfaces (24.48%), followed by the limbs and pelvis (21.79%) and chest (20.3%). Soft-tissue injuries and fractures were the most frequent injuries. Traumatic brain injuries were the main causes of death. Tornado-related injuries were primarily caused by flying/falling bricks, wood, and glass. Twenty-three (15.9%) patients suffered from infections, which consisted mainly of skin/soft tissue infections and pneumonia.
Destructive tornadoes often cause heavy casualties with little warning. Medical aid agencies must be prepared to accommodate the massive numbers of injured patients after a catastrophe. Proper triage and prompt treatment of injured victims may decrease mortality. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;xx:xxx-xxx).
Large-scale mass-sporting events are increasingly requiring greater prehospital event planning and preparation to address inherent event-associated medical conditions in addition to incidents that may be unexpected. The Bank of America Chicago Marathon (Chicago, Illinois USA) is one of the largest marathons in the world, and with the improvement of technology, the use of historical patient and event data, in conjunction with environmental conditions, can provide organizers and public safety officials a way to plan based on injury patterns and patient demands for care by predicting the placement and timing of needed medical support and resources.
During large-scale events, disaster planning and preparedness between event organizers, Emergency Medical Services (EMS), and local, state, and federal agencies is critical to ensure participant and public safety.
This study looked at the Bank of America Chicago Marathon, a significant endurance event, and took a unique approach of reviewing digital runner data retrospectively over a five-year period to establish patterns of medical demand geographically, temporally, and by the presenting diagnoses. Most medical complaints were musculoskeletal in nature; however, there were life-threatening conditions such as hyperthermia and cardiac incidents that highlight the need for detailed planning, coordination, and communication to ensure a safe and secure event.
The Chicago Marathon is one of the largest marathons in the world, and this study identified an equal number of participants requiring care on-course and at the finish line. Most medical complaints were musculoskeletal in nature; however, there were life-threatening conditions such as hyperthermia and cardiac incidents that highlight the need for detailed planning, multi-disciplined coordination, and communication to ensure a safe and secure event. As technology has evolved, the use, analysis, and implementation of historical digital data with various environmental conditions can provide organizers and public safety officials a map to plan injury patterns and patient demands by predicting the placement and timing of needed medical support, personnel, and resources.
Background: A previous clinical trial of training communication partners of people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) demonstrated positive outcomes [Togher, Power, McDonald, Tate, & Rietdijk (2009). Brain Impairment, 10(2), 188-204]. Adapting communication partner training for delivery via telehealth could improve access to this intervention.
Objectives: To compare outcomes across in-person communication partner training, telehealth communication partner training and a control group
Method: Protocol for a partially randomised controlled trial. People with moderate-severe TBI will be allocated to either an in-person or telehealth-based training program. Comparison data will be drawn from the original trial control group, which was recruited using the same eligibility criteria as this protocol. Outcomes after training will be compared between the in-person training group, the telehealth training group and the historical control group.
Discussion: This protocol uses specific design features with the aim of maximising the study’s power, including a partially randomised allocation process and a historical control group. The results will inform about the feasibility and effectiveness of delivering TBI rehabilitation via telehealth.
Trial registration: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12615001024538.