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This chapter presents a macro perspective of the field of rule of law promotion, drawing on a ‘travelling models’ framework to illustrate the authoritative features that rule of law takes on as a model for development intervention and emphasise rule of law’s mediated necessities rather than its universalities. The framework does not claim that models are coherent and static; rather, that they are fluid, but always present a contrast to domestic worldviews and understandings, and thus are an intervention of some sort. Even when adapted and adjusted by skilled development workers, models need mediation and translation because they will never be fully promoted from the bottom up. The result of bringing in models in illiberal settings that are accompanied by decades of miscomprehensions and that have preconceived meanings in the specific locale is an adapted version of the substantive rule of law ideal that development assistance seeks to introduce. The chapter sets the scene for later understanding the ambiguous work and influence of rule of law intermediaries as they broker different worldviews and understandings between development counterparts in an authoritarian setting.
This article takes the challenges of global governance and legitimacy seriously and looks at new ways in which international organizations (IOs) have attempted to ‘govern’ without explicit legal or regulatory directives. Specifically, we explore the growth of global performance indicators as a form of social control that appears to have certain advantages even as states and civil society actors push back against international regulatory authority. This article discusses the ways in which Michael Zürn's diagnosis of governance dilemmas helps to explain the rise of such ranking systems. These play into favored paradigms that give information and market performance greater social acceptance than rules, laws, and directives designed by international organizations. We discuss how and why these schemes can constitute governance systems, and some of the evidence regarding their effects on actors’ behaviors. Zürn's book provides a useful context for understanding the rise and effectiveness of Governance by Other Means: systems that ‘inform’ and provoke competition among states, shaping outcomes without directly legislating performance.
The chapter presents the analysis of empirical data on scientific production in Africa, measured in terms of indicators such as scientific publications, separately for Africa and sub-Saharan Africa. The production of science, whether measured in terms of scientific publications, patents or any other scientific output, is not shaped by a single factor. The production of scientific publications in Africa and its relationship with relevant indicators such as research and development (R&D), gross domestic expenditure on research and development (GERD), and gross domestic product (GDP) are analysed. Drawing on data from multiple reliable sources, the production of scientific publications in Africa is compared with that of other relevant regions and the world. A huge gap exists between the scientifically productive and the less-productive countries in Africa. Also, a wide disparity between Africa and the rest of the world is obvious in the number of available researchers. Within Africa, regional disparities such as sub-Saharan Africa prevail. The analysis shows the trends in the allocation of GDP for R&D. The analysis indicates a positive correlation between the production of scientific publications and GDP and GERD.
It is suggested that instead of seeking to provide a reductive account of knowledge in general and treating particular kinds of knowledge, e.g., perceptual knowledge, in its light we should aim to shed light on knowledge in general by providing substantive accounts of the diverse ways in which subjects can be in cognitive contact with facts. Two cases are laid out: (i) a case of acquiring perceptual knowledge by exercising an ability to recognize things to be of a certain kind from the way they look; (ii) a case of acquiring knowledge from a perceived indicator (sign). It is claimed that the latter is a hybrid of perceptual and evidence-based knowledge. It is evidence-based because the knowledge is based on evidence provided by the indicator. It is perceptual because perceptual recognition is in play both in recognizing the indictor to be of a certain sort and in recognizing its indicative significance. Aspects of the metaphysics of recognitional abilities are outlined. It is argued that how a subject’s knowledge is acquired can be relevant to explaining why the knowledge counts as knowledge. The relation between knowledge and justified belief is addressed within a knowledge-first perspective.
This paper deals with modelling the performance of an air transport network operated by existing subsonic and the prospective supersonic commercial aircraft. Analytical models of indicators of the infrastructural, technical/technological, operational, economic, environmental, and social performance of the network relevant for the main actors/stakeholders involved are developed. The models are applied to the given long-haul air route network exclusively operated by subsonic and supersonic aircraft according to the specified “what-if” scenarios.
The results from application of the models indicate that supersonic flights powered by LH2 (Liquid Hydrogen) could be more feasible than their subsonic counterparts powered by Jet A fuel, in terms of about three times higher technical productivity, 46% smaller size of the required fleet given the frequency of a single flight per day, 20% lower sum of the aircraft/airline operational, air passenger time, and considered external costs, up to two times higher overall social-economic feasibility, and 94% greater savings in contribution to global warming and climate change. These flights could be less feasible in terms of about 70-85% higher aircraft/airline operational costs, 70% and 19% higher fuel consumption and emissions of Green House Gases, respectively, and 6-13% higher noise compared to the specified acceptable levels.
The chapter examines the evolution over the past twenty years of a complex transnational legal order or TLO around the 2000 Palermo Protocol on Trafficking. It elaborates on why despite the Protocol’s high rates of ratification, the anti-trafficking TLO is poorly institutionalized attributing it to the various phases of the TLO’s development, the discursive and ideological issues that are at its core, the factors for its institutionalization relating to concordance and issue alignment, and the varied regulatory fields that it has implicated. Paradoxically however, the criminal justice approach to trafficking inherent in the Palermo Protocol remains hegemonic. This hegemony however cannot be simply attributed to the unidirectional influence and dissemination of transnational (and Western) ideas about how to address the problem. Rather, using the example of the India, the chapter shows how national legal contexts are crucial to when and how the logic of criminalization is pursued. The recursive nature of the trafficking TLO is therefore significant and helps explain the normative basis for the authority of transnational law.
In 2017, the Global Fund Board revised its Eligibility Policy, which sets out the criteria for which countries are eligible for financing. This chapter considers the impact of decisions made using those indicators, and explores debates over use of Gross National Income per capita (GNIpc) to determine aid eligibility. It also shows the role of civil society and community representatives in these high-level policy debates. Reviewing the Global Fund’s history, this chapter shows it was not the only donor wrestling with these problems of prioritization, and that in many countries the Fund was the last remaining external HIV donor to transition out. When some middle-income countries with concentrated epidemics among key populations saw multiple donors divest, programs for key populations, such as harm reduction, were at risk. In revising the Fund’s Eligibility Policy, the high-stakes contest was focused on a brief document of just a few pages, in which changing a single indicator could have sweeping consequences for countries such as Russia, where the Fund supported civil society advocacy for key populations. This chapter shows how three civil society delegations worked together to advance a shared position on the policy.
Companies struggle with identifying relevant sustainability aspects strategically, assessing alternative solutions quantitatively, and making trade-offs. This paper reports results from a prescriptive study with an aerospace company, and presents the Sustainability Criteria And product life-cycle Data Simulation (SCADS) approach. Based on strategic integration of sustainability indicators, this approach aims to enable visualisation and comparison of the sustainability implications of different concepts in early design phases of product development.
In 2016, Venezuelans living with HIV asked the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria for emergency aid. But despite an economic catastrophe, Venezuela’s high national income made it ineligible. Data on HIV that might have helped was censored or had never been gathered. The public debate around this case highlighted the growing use of indicators and data in global health finance. Mathematical models had shown that ending HIV was achievable through rapid scale-up of testing and treatment to meet the Sustainable Development Goal of “ending AIDS” by 2030. But funding for the global HIV response has leveled off, and was not enough to meet the goals everywhere. Bilateral and multilateral donors were targeting funds where they could have the greatest impact, especially in Sub-Saharan African countries where HIV prevalence is high and national incomes low. Donors also needed to show progress to the politicians who approve their budgets. Yet how progress is measured through indicators and data is contested, including by civil society. As an example of how indicators can become sites of contest and levers of political power, the chapter examines Global Fund corporate Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) on lives saved, service coverage, and health systems strengthening.
The role of calculative practices such as goals and indicators in international environmental governance causes concern among many observers, who view them as promoting a reductivist approach to the non-human world and privileging economic understandings of environmental governance above all others. Yet they possess enormous potential to provide insights into the non-human world that could be of great benefit to governance. This article takes seriously critical perspectives of calculative practices, while exploring a weakness in much of the critical literature, namely a failure to examine assumptions about the nature of scientific knowledge and the manner in which it is, and ought to be, taken up by policy makers. I contend that both the design of environmental regimes and critical analyses of these regimes bear the marks of the influence, albeit indirect, of early 20th century views on the superiority of scientific knowledge and its unique capacity to ground decision making. I argue that a richer, more nuanced account of the co-production of ecological metrics such as goals and indicators and their potential contributions to ecosystem governance and sustainability is necessary. With such accounts, scholars and political authorities would be in a better position to address the very real pitfalls and dangers of calculative practices while not feeling compelled to forego these potentially powerful approaches.
In the global race to reach the end of AIDS, why is the world slipping off track? The answer has to do with stigma, money, and data. Global funding for AIDS response is declining. Tough choices must be made: some people will win and some will lose. Global aid agencies and governments use health data to make these choices. While aid agencies prioritize a shrinking list of countries, many governments deny that sex workers, men who have sex with men, drug users, and transgender people exist. Since no data is gathered about their needs, life-saving services are not funded, and the lack of data reinforces the denial. The Uncounted cracks open this and other data paradoxes through interviews with global health leaders and activists, ethnographic research, analysis of gaps in mathematical models, and the author's experience as an activist and senior official. It shows what is counted, what is not, and why empowering communities to gather their own data could be key to ending AIDS.
This research communication explores the value of routinely collected bulk tank milk quality data for estimating dairy cattle welfare at herd level. Selected bulk tank milk quality parameters (somatic cell count, total bacterial count, urea, protein and fat contents) recorded during the years 2014–2016 in 287 Italian dairy farms were compared with the animal welfare data of each farm. The welfare assessment data were extracted from the database of the Italian Reference Centre for Animal Welfare (CReNBA), which includes the outputs of the application of the CReNBA welfare assessment protocol for dairy cows, used at national level for on-farm controls. The statistical analysis was carried out using the correlation coefficient for Kendall's Tau ranks, in order to investigate the presence of a categoric relationship between the selected bulk tank milk quality parameters and the overall animal welfare score or the scores of the single areas A (farm management and staff training), B (housing) and C (animal-based measures). Somatic cell count, total bacterial count, urea and proteins demonstrated only a few statistically significant and very weak correlations with farm animal welfare data, while no significant correlations were obtained for milk fat content. Given the weak correlations found, the selected bulk tank milk parameters seems to be able to provide only limited information about the welfare level of the herd, thus it could be difficult to use them for drawing up a pre-screening model for identifying herds at risk of poor welfare.
The vulnerability of children is rather different from that of other vulnerable groups, in that at different stages of their development they are mostly dependent on others for their survival and cannot (or are not allowed to) partake in social or political life in the same way as adults. Unlike all other vulnerable persons, the well-being of children is entrusted to their parents and guardians and hence many of the issues facing children have traditionally been perceived through the lens of family relationships and family law, as opposed to human rights law.The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and its subsequent protocols has somewhat changed this state of affairs by introducing several principles which transform children from objects to real subjects of the law. Unless states take active and concerted measures to prevent and punish the perpetrators (and end-users) of such offences, the exploitation of children will remain a profitable enterprise. Without investment in the lives of children through the use of maximum available resources, states will remain weak and children disempowered. This chapter examines the emergence of a specialised human rights regime for children, as well as the guiding principles found in the CRC. It then goes on to illustrate how poverty and other factors exacerbate the vulnerabilities of children.
This chapter engages with existing literature and case studies to examine current challenges and ways forward for the sustainability assessment of urban agriculture. It identifies current conceptualisations of urban agriculture, and sustainability assessment methods, and discusses them in the light of normative, systemic, and procedural dimensions of sustainability assessment. The diversity of urban agriculture and its presence in different urban contexts worldwide, represent challenges for sustainability assessment. This chapter shows that there is a paucity of assessment methods that are both specifically developed for urban agriculture and flexible enough to be applicable for different forms of urban agriculture in the Global North and South. Sustainability assessment of agriculture has usually focused on agriculture for market production in relatively stable rural contexts. However, urban agriculture poses challenges of diversity, multi-functionality, contested framings, and knowledge integration, which manifest more acutely in urban than in rural contexts, and which many existing sustainability assessment approaches and methods fail to address. The chapter discusses opportunities to move the practice of sustainability assessment of urban agriculture forward. These include the adoption of inter- and transdisciplinary research strategies, and a critical and reflexive approach to urban agriculture practices, power relations, social norms, and institutional conditions.
Sustainability assessment initiatives at the local level have been increasing in number since the mid-1990s and are now plentiful. The definitions of sustainable development used in sustainability assessment instruments, however, vary widely. This chapter illustrates the diversity of sustainability assessment tools available at the local level by presenting two indicator-based instruments developed in Switzerland. The first one, Cercle Indicateurs, is an all-encompassing sustainability assessment tool; the second one, Swiss City Statistics, focuses on the well-being and quality of life dimensions of sustainability. The two instruments are presented and analysed according to the Bellagio Sustainability Assessment and Measurement Principles (Bellagio STAMP), which have been grouped into five categories: (1) conceptual framework, (2) time and spatial scale, (3) participation, (4) transparency and communication, and (5) continuity and capacity. We suggest that transparency about the rationale for setting up a sustainability assessment instrument and about its actual implementation is crucial, because these aspects influence how ‘sustainability’ is operationalised and therefore the result of the assessment.
Today we live in a world where the majority of wars are no longer interstate, a development that over the last few decades has often left the international community, in particular the United Nations as it was originally conceived, ill equipped to respond. The nimble action required for contemporary conflict resolution and peacebuilding now primarily lies in the hands of local actors and states, sometimes supported by international actors. But it is not always clear who these local actors are or what they need in order to achieve sustainable peace. As part of the roundtable “World Peace (And How We Can Achieve It),” this essay looks in more detail at what we mean by “local” in conflict-affected contexts and asks how local is local enough when resolving conflicts and building peace. It identifies tensions and concerns such as the need for the international community to have a well-defined and easily identified “local agenda” when, in reality, there are often several competing local agendas. The essay presents the Everyday Peace Indicators project as a vehicle that can be used to help communicate these local needs to international actors, and argues for the importance of understanding people's perceived realities in addition to, if not more than, their actual realities when trying to understand peace and conflict trends. In order to do this, we need to more effectively problematize peacebuilding for positive conflict disruption.
Do Global Performance Indicators (GPIs) influence the application of material power? While existing research has shown that GPIs can provoke reform through social mechanisms, material power is an important tool for influencing states resistant to social pressure. We investigate whether GPIs shape third-party policymakers’ decisions to employ material power in the fight against corruption, an important component of the good governance agenda. We theorize that GPIs influence policymakers by acting as focal points that provide information and establish standards of behavior. We test this argument for a highly visible GPI: Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index. We find that while this GPI garners significant media attention, it does not influence policymakers’ decisions to punish corruption offenders by withdrawing or altering foreign aid. Our results raise important scope conditions on the power of GPIs and suggest that their ability to alter state behavior through third-party material mechanisms may be limited.
Global performance indicators (GPIs), such as ratings and rankings, permeate nearly every type of human activity, internationally and nationally, across public and private spheres. While some indicators aim to attract media readership or brand the creator's organization, others increasingly seek to influence political practices and policies. The Power of Global Performance Indicators goes beyond the basic questions of methodological validity explored by others to launch a fresh debate about power in the modern age, exploring the ultimate questions concerning real-world consequences of GPIs, both intended and unintended. From business regulation to terrorism, education to foreign aid, Kelley and Simmons demonstrate how GPIs provoke bureaucracies, shape policy agendas, and influence outputs through their influence of third parties such as donors and market actors and, potentially, even broader global authority structures.
The aim of the study was to describe practices that support collaboration in interprofessional primary health care teams, and identify performance indicators perceived to measure the impact of this collaboration from the perspective of interprofessional health providers.
Despite the surge of interprofessional primary health care models implemented across Canada, there is little evidence as to whether or not the intended outcomes of primary health care teams have been achieved. Part of the challenge is determining the most appropriate measures that can demonstrate the value of collaborative care. To date, little remains known about performance measurement from the providers contributing to the collaborative care process in interprofessional primary care teams. Having providers from a range of disciplinary backgrounds assist in the development of performance measures can help identify measures most relevant to demonstrate the value of collaborative care on the intended outcomes of interprofessional primary care models.
A qualitative study; part of a larger mixed methods developmental evaluation to examine performance measurement in interprofessional primary health care teams. A stakeholder workshop was conducted at an annual association meeting of interprofessional primary health care teams in the province of Ontario, Canada. Six questions guided the workshop groups and participant responses were documented on worksheets and flip charts. All responses were collected and entered verbatim into a word document. Qualitative analytic strategies were applied to each question.
A total of 283 primary health care providers from 14 health professions working in interprofessional primary health care teams participated. Top three elements of interprofessional collaboration (total n = 628) were communication (n = 146), co-treatment (n = 112) and patient-based conferences (n = 81). Top three performance indicators currently used to demonstrate the value of interprofessional collaboration (total n = 241) were patient experience (n = 71), patient health status (n = 35) and within team referrals (n = 30).