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Is economic development a prerequisite for concern over environmental issues? The existing literature has yet to reach an empirical consensus on this question. To revisit this important topic, we offer new experimental evidence by conducting online survey experiments in one developed country (the United States) and one developing country (India). We investigate how providing information on the negative environmental costs of foreign direct investment (FDI) affects people’s support of FDI, and how these effects differ between residents of the United States and India. The results of our experiment show that among residents of the United States, being presented with information about the environmental costs of FDI sharply reduces support for FDI, while a substantially weaker effect of the environmental costs of FDI was observed among residents of India. Also, respondents from the United States are more concerned about environmental damage caused by FDI in their own city than in a distant location, while this pattern is not observed among respondents from India. These results are consistent with the claim that economic prosperity and wealth are prerequisites for environmental concern.
This chapter describes the export of the model of parliamentary public finance developed in the UK to the colonies, dominions and independent states which emerged from the British Empire. It opens by surveying the critical similarities and differences between public finance in the British and US constitutional traditions, before moving to explain how finance was treated in Canadian and Australasian colonial constitutions. Thereafter, the chapter explains how finance provisions became a form of 'constitutional boilerplate', adopted by independent dominions and republics in the twentieth century. By the conclusion of that constitutional itinerary, it is observed that the distribution of financial authority between Parliament and the executive government in nineteenth century Britain became the norm prevailing in the parliamentary constitutional world. Close attention is paid to the drafting history and provisions of constitutional documents from a number of parliamentary jurisdictions (including Australia, Canada, Indian, Malaysia, Nepal and Nigeria), as well as judicial decisions on public finance throughout the Commonwealth of Nations.
From the earliest decades of British colonisation of India to Indian independence in 1947, dictionaries of English in India focused exclusively on the English spoken by the British who were resident in India, and not on English as it was spoken by Indians. Not until the late twentieth century did dictionaries begin to document true Indian English. Yet despite the continuing role of English as an official language, as the language of choice in higher education, and as a lingua franca between speakers of different mother tongues, the lexicography of Indian English remains underdeveloped, and no current comprehensive dictionary of this variety exists, nor has any standard been established for Indian English.
Households were dynamic economic units organized for their collective well-being. The nature of this dynamic organization is discussed and illustrated using information on household diversification in 16th-century Central Mexico and the role of Indian households in trans-Asian textile exchange. Finally, the house model of society is discussed as a template for organizing formal institutions in early complex societies.
This chapter summarises the findings of a mixed methods research project carried out with 639 young women from across Rajasthan, India, in 2014. We examine the experiences of young women who progressed to tertiary level education despite having parents with little or no formal education. We classify this cohort as the ‘College’ group. We compare their experiences with other girls, matched by age, location and parental education level, who dropped out during lower secondary school. We identify the triggers of educational success, paying particular attention to how the two groups differ in individual and family characteristics. The College group reported higher perceived levels of emotional support from one or both parents, more flexible familial attitudes towards marriage arrangements, as well as some reductions in expectations for household work. In addition, the College group were more than two times less likely to have grandparents or extended family that strongly disapproved of their continuing education than their non-College counterparts. Despite parental engagement, the College group reported experiencing acute financial strain and difficulties navigating the educational system in areas such as institution and subject choice. These challenges were exacerbated by a lack of formal institutional supports for these first-generation learners.
There is growing recognition of the role of the mCessation service (MCS) in promoting tobacco cessation in India.
To examine the potential for expanding the utilization of the MCS for tobacco cessation in India after assessing the dimensions related to literacy, mobile phone access, intention to quit, and advice to quit from the second round of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey.
A cross-sectional analysis of the data collected during the second round of the nationally-representative Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) (2016–17) was conducted.
Current tobacco smokers, smokeless tobacco, and dual users compromised 10.7%, 21.4%, and 3.4% of the survey participants, respectively. Quit attempts were reported by 36.3% of the existing tobacco smokers, of whom nearly 72% tried to quit without any assistance, while only 0.3% used the MCS. However, the potential expansion of the MCS was likely among 11.2% tobacco users with an existing intention to quit, being literate, Hindi-speakers and having cell-phone access.
The utilization of the MCS can be considerably expanded among tobacco users in India by enabling multilingual usage and incorporation as standard care practice to allow the opportunistic promotion of tobacco cessation by healthcare providers at their health clinics.
Originated in China in December 2019 Corona virus disease (COVID-19) has rapidly spread to around 216 countries in the world by May 2020. Dentists being at a higher risk of contacting the disease, the present study assessed the fear and anxiety among dental practitioners of COVID-19.
An online cross-sectional questionnaire survey comprising of nine questions was conducted among dental practitioners of Telangana. Age, gender, qualification, type of practice, years of practice, place of residence were the demographic variables recorded. The response to each question was recorded in a YES or NO format, mean fear score calculated to categorize into low and high levels of fear. Comparison of mean fear score was done using t- test for two variables and ANOVA for three or more than three variables. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the levels of fear with demographic variables was done. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
The mean fear and anxiety score of this study population reported was high 6.57 +2.07, with 58.31% of the population presenting with a low level of fear and anxiety. Only qualification (p=0.045)and gender (p=0.035) revealed a significant difference in fear to Q7and Q8 respectively. Irrespective of the age, gender, qualification, type of practice and years of practices the levels of fear reported in the present study was high similar. Respondents between 41- 60 yrs age (6.70+ 2.01) and those with individual practices (6.70+2.06) exhibited high level of fear score.
The present study demonstrates a cross sectional data of fear and anxiety among dental practitioners during the COVID-19 outbreak. Heightened levels of fear observed call for a nationwide analysis of fear among dentists and deliberate management strategies for the same.
The COVID-19 has emerged as a global pandemic for public health due to large scale outbreak, therefore there is an urgent need to detect the infected cases quickly and isolate them in order to suppress the further spread of the disease. This study tries to identify a suitable pool testing method and algorithm for COVID-19.
This study tries to derive a general equation for the number of tests required for a pooled sample to detect every infected individual in the specific pool. The gain in pool testing over normal procedure is quantified by the percentage of tests required compared to individual testing.
The percentage of tests required by the pool testing strategy varies according to the different splitting procedures, the size of the pooled sample, and the probability of an individual being infected in the population. If the probability of infection is 0.05, then for a pool size of 32, only 14 tests, are sufficient to detect every infected individual.
The number of tests required to detect infected individuals by the pooling method is much lower than individual testing. This may help us in increasing our testing capacity for COVID-19 by testing a large number of individuals in less time with limited resources.
In the early eighteenth century, Pietist networks in Germany initiated missionary projects in South India and over the years in different parts of the world. Millenarian expectations and their distinctive concept of the future, shaped the Protestant mission to South India in every respect from planning and communication, medialization and fundraising, right down to the local missionary work. Four dynamics of the globalization of Protestantism are central to the contribution: (1) transregional and transnational network building with the participation of women and men in Protestant Europe; (2) the transfer of knowledge and objects from Europe to India and vice versa; (3) transcultural interactions and the importance of converted Indians for the local missionary work; (4) the consolidation of the European religious Identity through the medialization of the mission with the narrative of progress. The article examines letters between the organizers of the mission to South India in Halle, London, and at the Danish court; the correspondence between Halle and male and female donators for the mission in Europe; and the published mission journal.
This essay traces the evolution of Dutch Calvinists’ attitudes towards Islam in the East Indies. Initially, Calvinists went into the mission field with a dismissive attitude towards Islam, expecting large-scale conversions upon proclaiming the Word of God. After failing to attract a significant number of Muslims, theologians at the universities of Utrecht and Leiden in the mid-1600s undertook comprehensive investigations into Islamic theology in order to better equip pastors overseas. This academic impetus aimed at undermining the authority of the Qur’an through comparative analyses with the Old and New Testaments, which inaugurated a new phase in East Indies missions. To discredit the Qur’an, Calvinist and indigenous linguists worked assiduously to translate biblical texts, culminating in a Malay Bible in 1730. About this time, however, the Calvinist missionary enterprise seemed to run out of steam because of the failure to convert Muslims and because of the VOC’s economic contraction. A number of Calvinist theologians in the Netherlands and pastors in East Asia began to take a rather sympathetic attitude toward Islam, as they regarded religious boundaries as a marker of cultural difference.
We study the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in India and model the epidemic to guide those involved in formulating policy and building healthcare capacity.
This effect is studied using the SEIR compartmental model. We estimate the infection rate using a least square method with Poisson noise and calculate the reproduction number.
The infection rate is estimated to be 0.270 and the reproduction number to be 2.70. The approximate peak of the epidemic will be August 9, 2020. A 25% drop in infection rate will delay the peak by 11 days for a 1 month intervention period. The total infected individuals in India will be 9% of the total population.
The predictions are sensitive to changes in the behaviour of people and their practice of social distancing.
This article rethinks the relationship between trade and industry in the development of Indian capitalism, focusing on Tata, pioneers in textile and steel production. It shows how two little-known affiliated trading companies, R.D. Tata & Co. in Shanghai, Hong Kong, and Kobe, and Tata Limited in London, played a crucial intermediary role in securing financing and market access for the parent firm in Bombay while simultaneously increasing its exposure to the effects of global crises. Tata's ultimately dominant position in a protected national economy was due to the contingent failure of these trading companies rather than a foregone conclusion.
During the war, members of the women’s services were deployed with their ‘parent’ forces all around the world. This came to include such locations as the United States, Canada, the West Indies, Egypt, Palestine, Algeria, Kenya, South Africa, Italy, Gibraltar, Malta, Australia, India, Ceylon and north-west Europe. This chapter analyses the guidelines which governed their overseas service and the decision to post members of the ATS abroad compulsorily. It also covers their service life overseas. The dearth of female contact for servicemen overseas, for example, made them much sought after as off-duty companions.
In Calcutta in the 1860s, there was litigation in the newly established High Court over the rights of Indians who worked the land. Using English legal concepts, the chief justice saw the agriculturists as being little more than tenants-at-will. He arranged to sit with judges who supported his views until he went on a temporary visit to England. In his absence, two judges decided a case in which attention was given to the customs of Bengal and more extensive rights were accorded to numerous rural workers. After the return of the chief justice, the conflicting case law precipitated what contemporaries came to call The Great Rent Case. A Full Bench of the High Court now found, by a large majority, for those who worked the land. It was as if the new High Court had discovered sufficient self-confidence to assert itself within the colonial life of Bengal. The present study explains the process of judicial decision-making by reference to the influence of three colonial networks in Calcutta.
In recent years, there has been a growing scholarly interest in how International Relations theory can contribute to our understanding of the impact of technology on global politics, underpinned mainly by an engagement with Science and Technology Studies (STS). However, less attention has been paid to the ways in which international society shapes technology. Building on sociological and historical studies of science and technology, this article outlines one way through which international society has constituted technology by developing a synthetic account of the emergence of technological advancement as a ‘standard of civilisation’ in the nineteenth century that differentiated the ‘society of civilised states’ from non-European societies, with a particular focus on China and India. In doing so, this article also highlights how this process has had a powerful and enduring influence on Chinese and Indian conceptions about science and technology. Thus, by shifting the focus from how technology shapes global politics to how international society shapes technology, this article provides new insights into the relationship between technology, power, and modernity in an interdisciplinary context. It also offers a new way of thinking about the complex dynamics of today's global politics of technology.
The catastrophic declines of three species of ‘Critically Endangered’ Gyps vultures in South Asia were caused by unintentional poisoning by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac. Despite a ban on its veterinary use in 2006 (India, Nepal, Pakistan) and 2010 (Bangladesh), residues of diclofenac have continued to be found in cattle carcasses and in dead wild vultures. Another NSAID, meloxicam, has been shown to be safe to vultures. From 2012 to 2018, we undertook covert surveys of pharmacies in India, Nepal and Bangladesh to investigate the availability and prevalence of NSAIDs for the treatment of livestock. The purpose of the study was to establish whether diclofenac continued to be sold for veterinary use, whether the availability of meloxicam had increased and to determine which other veterinary NSAIDs were available. The availability of diclofenac declined in all three countries, virtually disappearing from pharmacies in Nepal and Bangladesh, highlighting the advances made in these two countries to reduce this threat to vultures. In India, diclofenac still accounted for 10–46% of all NSAIDs offered for sale for livestock treatment in 2017, suggesting weak enforcement of existing regulations and a continued high risk to vultures. Availability of meloxicam increased in all countries and was the most common veterinary NSAID in Nepal (89.9% in 2017). Although the most widely available NSAID in India in 2017, meloxicam accounted for only 32% of products offered for sale. In Bangladesh, meloxicam was less commonly available than the vulture-toxic NSAID ketoprofen (28% and 66%, respectively, in 2018), despite the partial government ban on ketoprofen in 2016. Eleven different NSAIDs were recorded, several of which are known or suspected to be toxic to vultures. Conservation priorities should include awareness raising, stricter implementation of current bans, bans on other vulture-toxic veterinary NSAIDs, especially aceclofenac and nimesulide, and safety-testing of other NSAIDs on Gyps vultures to identify safe and toxic drugs.
India is one of the severely affected countries by the Covid-19 pandemic at present. Within the stochastic framework of the SEQIR model, we studied publicly available data of the Covid-19 patients in India and analysed possible impacts of quarantine and social distancing as controlling strategies for the pandemic. Our stochastic simulation results clearly show that proper quarantine and social distancing should be maintained right from the start of the pandemic and continued until its end for effective control. This calls for a more disciplined social lifestyle in the future. However, only social distancing and quarantine of the exposed population are found not sufficient enough to end the pandemic in India. Therefore, implementation of other stringent policies like complete lockdown as well as increased testing of susceptible populations is necessary. The demographic stochasticity, which is quite visible in the system dynamics, has a critical role in regulating and controlling the pandemic.
Couple-level reports of contraceptive use are important as wives and husbands may report their use differently. Using matched couple data (N = 63,060) from India’s NFHS-4 (2015–16), this study examined concordance in spousal reports of current contraceptive use and its differentials. Reporting of contraceptive use was higher among wives (59.0%) than husbands (25.2%). Concordance was low; 16.5% of couples reported the current use of the same method, while 20.4% reported the current use of any method. Many husbands did not report female sterilization as a means of contraception being used by their wives. Reconstruction of contraceptive use among men, based on the ‘ever-use of sterilization’ question asked to men, increased concordance by 10%. Multivariate analyses showed that concordance was low in urban and southern India, among younger women and among women with a lower wealth index. Men’s control over household decision-making and negative attitudes towards contraception were associated with lower concordance. The findings highlight the importance of using couple-level data to estimate contraceptive prevalence, and the role of education programmes to inculcate positive attitudes towards contraception, fostering gender equality and involving men in family planning efforts. The results also raise the issue of data quality as the survey questions were asked differently to men and women, which might have contributed to the wide observed discordance.
This chapter highlights the primary features of politics and society in the Persian Gulf from the rise of civilization to World War I. It provides a survey of state-tribe relations in the Gulf from antiquity until the introduction of European powers. It will then turns to a consideration of the triangular relationship between states, tribes, and foreign powers in the Gulf, with an emphasis on the period of British supremacy. It identifies the appropriate theoretical tools pertaining to tribes and tribal politics in the Arabian Peninsula, which can be used to better understand how British intervention was viewed by the tribally organized societies situated around the Gulf's perimeter. The advent of nationalism in Iran and the consolidation of Iran's frontiers beginning in the late Qajar period are discussed as well as the waves of Iranian immigration that laid the foundations of politics and society in the Gulf Arab shaykhdoms. The chapter concludes with an analysis of the profound changes that were beginning to take shape in the regional system on the eve of World War I.
Adolescents, pregnant women and mothers of children under 2 years of age are in stages of life characterized by higher nutritional demands. The study measured the dietary diversity of 17,680 adolescent girls, pregnant women and mothers of children under age 2 years in the eastern Indian states of Bihar, Chhattisgarh and Odisha using data from the Swabhimaan baseline survey conducted in 2016. The association of women’s mean Dietary Diversity Scores with socioeconomic, health and nutrition service indicators was assessed. The sampled population was socioeconomically more vulnerable than the average Indian population. There was not much variation in the types of foods consumed daily across target groups, with diet being predominantly cereal (98%) and vegetable (83%) based. Nearly 30% of the mothers had low Dietary Diversity Scores, compared with 25% of pregnant women and 24% of adolescent girls. In each target group, more than half of the respondents were unable to meet the Minimum Dietary Diversity score of at least five of ten food groups consumed daily. Irrespective of their background characteristics, mean Dietary Diversity Scores were significantly lower in Bihar than in Chhattisgarh and Odisha for all target groups. Having at least 6 years of education, belonging to a relatively rich household and possessing a ration card predicted mean dietary diversity. Project interventions of participatory women’s group meetings improved mean Dietary Diversity Scores for mothers and adolescent girls. Considering the association between poverty and dietary diversity, the linkage between girls and women and nutrition-focused livelihoods and supplementary nutrition programmes needs to be tested.