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This aim of this is to draw together the different threads and summarise what we can learn from the chapters in this volume and also attempt to identify ways forward in both research and teaching. The conclusions I draw aim to be instructive and reflective rather than didactic. The purpose of this volume has been to investigate the potential of using literature to develop awareness of spoken language or speaking skills and, as noted, there have only been a limited number of studies in this area. These findings then need to be developed by other researchers or taken forward and adapted by teachers in their own contexts. Despite these caveats, I feel there are some useful conclusions we can draw from the chapters presented.
This chapter takes the following form: it first lists and discusses five implications for teaching and then five for research. As each implication is discussed, explicit reference will be made to the chapters in this book and their findings, and it is hoped that these implications provide suggestions for teaching and research.
This concluding chapter reviews the main findings of the book and situates these in the literature of authoritarian legislatures. It then discusses the implications for long-term growth by looking at how selective property rights may affect innovation, corruption and property security in China. The book ends with the question of whether we are witnessing an entrepreneurial source of democratization. I suggest that Chinese entrepreneurs still pose no immediate threat to the regime, but the common interest of property security is strong enough to provide a sufficient condition for a unified class and initiate institutional change when the opportunity arises.
Chapter 10 sums up the main findings from the book, draws together the threads that run through the various chapters and presents a set of conclusions outlining what this analysis of variation has told us about the nature of embodied metaphor. It discusses the societal implications of variation in the experience of embodied metaphor.
The oases of Kharga and Dakhla have been linked administratively from ancient times into the present. This chapter presents a study of the two main physical routes that connected the two oases: the Darb al-Ghubari and the Darb Ain Amur. Cairns, tracks, rock art, inscriptions, ceramics, and other small finds serve to identify the tracks and stopping points along the way. These paths, particularly the Darb Ain Amur, evolved over time, reflecting the changing environment and modes of transport that were used to make the journey from pharaonic to Roman times.
This chapter concerns the different approaches (statistic, spatial analysis) using ceramic and amphoras as markers of the “culture materielle” in the Great Oasis. Starting from the Duch (ancient Kysis) material, the studies, in collaboration with geomorphologists and young scholars involved in the Project Partner University Fund, have focused on El-Deir in Kharga and Amheida (ancient Trimithis) in Dakhla. The first results are revealing some aspects, specially for the Roman and Byzantine periods, of the economic (production, trade), social, and cultural environment of the Great Oasis and the connectivity of the oasian populations.
This chapter pulls together the discussions in the monograph and summarizes and categorizes all the research propositions developed in the previous chapters. It then demarcates the charateristics that are unique to family firms and those that are more likely in family firms in making such firms have a greater propensity to undertake patient long-term investments in developing proactive environmental strategies. It then deveops a framework showing how appying the family business lens changes what we know about drivers and influences of proactive environmental strategy and how non-family firms can learn from family firms to undertake patient capital investments in addressing sustainability challenges. The chapter concludes with avenues for future research and measure development, for business education, and for public policy.
Industry 4.0 is a great opportunity and a great challenge for enterprises. Nowadays, how to adjust the strategy according to the new situation to deal with the opportunities and challenges brought by Industry 4.0 is a hot topic. The paper investigates what is Industry 4.0 and compares the different fourth industry revolution programs in various countries and takes advantage of bibliometric to investigate which technologies play an important role in Industry 4.0. What is more, the status quo, challenges and development directions faced in various fields in the industrial 4.0 era are elaborated. The paper not only combs the research direction for researchers, but also presents the status quo of practical application for enterprises. The paper contributes to showing a leading role for theory and practice of industry 4.0.
Customer preference modeling provides quantitative assessment of the effects of engineering design attributes on customers’ choices. Utility-based approaches, such as discrete choice model (DCM), and network analysis approaches, such as exponential random graph model (ERGM), have been developed for customer preference modeling. However, no studies have compared these two approaches. Our objective is to identify the distinctions and connections between these two approaches based on both the theoretical foundation and the empirical evidence. Using the vehicle preference modeling as an example, our study shows that when network structure effects are not considered, results from ERGM are consistent with DCM in most of the test cases. However, in one case where customers have varying choice set with multiple alternatives, inconsistencies are observed, possibly due to the discrepancies of the two models in taking different information when calculating choice probabilities. The insights will lead to valuable guidance for choosing the technique for customer preference modeling and co- developing the two frameworks to support engineering design.
This study is an exploratory analysis of enabling technologies’ influence on the trajectory of industry development using a co-evolutionary model of technology development. When combined, enabling technologies can create new technology-market industry cycles, resulting in transformative innovation. The research approach of this empirical study is to use both primary and secondary data to create a history of the robotics industry and to explore the pre and post changes in the industry from the inclusion of enabling technologies over multiple generations. We propose a new model for understanding the theoretical and practical study of technology development through the lens of enabling technologies and their development and maturity cycles.
This chapter recapitulates the key theoretical claims and empirical findings in this book. It then situates these claims and findings within two strands of literature in Comparative Politics – on autocratic institutions and on regime transitions and democratic consolidation. The chapter then concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of the findings in this book. Legislative strengthening programs are an important part of global democracy promotion initiatives. This book’s findings emphasize the need to invest in both organizational legislative strengthening as well as the political independence of individual legislatures.
Numerous health benefits are attributed to the n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA); EPA and DHA. A systematic literature review was conducted to investigate factors, other than diet, that are associated with the n-3 LCPUFA levels. The inclusion criteria were papers written in English, carried out in adult non-pregnant humans, n-3 LCPUFA measured in blood or tissue, data from cross-sectional studies, or baseline data from intervention studies. The search revealed 5076 unique articles of which seventy were included in the qualitative synthesis. Three main groups of factors potentially associated with n-3 LCPUFA levels were identified: (1) unmodifiable factors (sex, genetics, age), (2) modifiable factors (body size, physical activity, alcohol, smoking) and (3) bioavailability factors (chemically bound form of supplements, krill oil v. fish oil, and conversion of plant-derived α-linolenic acid (ALA) to n-3 LCPUFA). Results showed that factors positively associated with n-3 LCPUFA levels were age, female sex (women younger than 50 years), wine consumption and the TAG form. Factors negatively associated with n-3 LCPUFA levels were genetics, BMI (if erythrocyte EPA and DHA levels are <5·6 %) and smoking. The evidence for girth, physical activity and krill oil v. fish oil associated with n-3 LCPUFA levels is inconclusive. There is also evidence that higher ALA consumption leads to increased levels of EPA but not DHA. In conclusion, sex, age, BMI, alcohol consumption, smoking and the form of n-3 LCPUFA are all factors that need to be taken into account in n-3 LCPUFA research.
Terrorism is a complex problem that is highly relevant in contemporary society, underscoring the need for greater understanding as well as cross-disciplinary and international research in this area. Controversies surround potential associations between mental illness and terrorism, many due to the limited and conflicting existing research, and mental health professionals’ duties to their patients versus society and the state. In this article, we review the literature, discuss clinical implications and the role of psychiatrists in anti-terrorism efforts. We also propose a simplified framework that may be incorporated into clinical practice to screen for potential terrorist tendencies.
•Understand the landscape and recent advances in the research of terrorism
•Appreciate the importance and role of mental health professionals in preventing patients from engaging in terrorist activities
•Understand how to assess risk of patients engaging in terrorist activities
Cognitive dysfunction is a symptomatic domain identified across many mental disorders. Cognitive deficits in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) contribute significantly to occupational and functional disability. Notably, cognitive subdomains such as learning and memory, executive functioning, processing speed, and attention and concentration are significantly impaired during, and between, episodes in individuals with MDD. Most antidepressants have not been developed and/or evaluated for their ability to directly and independently ameliorate cognitive deficits. Multiple interacting neurobiological mechanisms (eg, neuroinflammation) are implicated as subserving cognitive deficits in MDD. A testable hypothesis, with preliminary support, posits that improving performance across cognitive domains in individuals with MDD may improve psychosocial function, workplace function, quality of life, and other patient-reported outcomes, independent of effects on core mood symptoms. Herein we aim to (1) provide a rationale for prioritizing cognitive deficits as a therapeutic target, (2) briefly discuss the neurobiological substrates subserving cognitive dysfunction, and (3) provide an update on current and future treatment avenues.
This article focuses on the variability in developmental outcomes of foster children and the implications for foster care research and practice. We first provide a brief overview of our previous work, where we have shown by means of meta-analysis and a longitudinal study that foster children greatly vary with respect to their developmental functioning. We then discuss that it is both the heterogeneity of developmental trajectories and the lack of an accurate model for predicting foster children's development that make the screening and monitoring of foster children's development important. We provide suggestions for screening and monitoring, and discuss the Brief Assessment Checklist as an example of a specific instrument available for screening and monitoring of vulnerable children exposed to severe social adversity. We conclude our article with directions to improve foster care and research on foster care, including a discussion of the effectiveness of and foster children's susceptibility to interventions, support for foster parents and the potential of large national and international studies.
We are delighted to dedicate an edition of the Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine to the topic of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD accounts for the majority of clinical presentations to Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services, both in terms of new assessments and ongoing attendances. Papers presented in this edition reflect on the evolving construct of ADHD, drawing from science, clinical practice and public opinion. Current and evidenced-based assessment and treatment practice guidelines are reviewed. International longitudinal studies allow us to understand the personal and societal cost, which can persist for many years post-diagnosis. Despite continuation to adulthood in many young people, follow on adult services are lacking. It is fitting that submissions, by way of personal reflections and opinion pieces, are also included from adult colleagues as they reflect on their experiences in this area. Given the recent development of a national clinical programme in ADHD in Ireland, coupled with a growing evidence for effective interventions, it is hoped that this special edition will highlight the need for appropriate and accessible ADHD treatments across the lifespan.
Using unique data about capital flows from the public social security institute ZUS (Zakład Ubezpieczeń Społecznych) to private pension funds OFEs (Otwarte Fundusze Emerytalne) in Poland, we find that their impact, as a group of large institutional investors, on stock returns is statistically significant in short-term but no such effect exists in the long-run. This result is consistent with the temporary price pressure hypothesis of Ben-Rephael et al. (2011). We analyze the capital transfers, in the form of the aggregated pension contributions collected from all employees in the entire Polish economy, from the ZUS to the private pension funds, which further invest this capital on the stock market. The average time for the subsequent reaction of stock prices is found to be 4 days. The trading strategy based on this result generates superior outcomes in comparison with the passive strategy, which further confirms the price impact of capital inflows. Our findings are not only relevant for stock market investors but they also have broader policy implications for stock market regulators and for the national pension regulators.