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Suicide and cardiovascular disease rank among the leading causes of disability and premature mortality worldwide. Young adult suicide attempters are at increased risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease even compared to those with major depressive disorder suggesting an increased burden of cardiovascular risk factors. We compared the cardiovascular risk burden between youth attempters and other high-risk individuals.
Participants were from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), a U.S. population-based study, aged 18–30 years [suicide attempt (SA): n = 303; suicidal ideation (SI): n = 451; controls: n = 3671]; and psychiatric inpatients admitted for a SA (n = 38) or SI (n = 40) and healthy controls (n = 37) aged 15–30 years. We computed a cardiovascular risk score and high- and low-risk latent classes based on risk factors of high blood pressure, obesity, and smoking.
Suicide attempters showed an increased cardiovascular risk score (CPES: B = 0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31–0.54, p < 0.001; inpatient sample: B = 1.61, 95% CI 0.53–2.68, p = 0.004) compared to controls. They were also more likely to be classified in the high cardiovascular risk group (CPES: odds ratio (OR) 3.36, 95% CI 1.67–6.78, p = 0.001; inpatient sample: OR 9.89, 95% CI 1.38–85.39, p = 0.03) compared to those with SI (CPES: OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.55–2.39, p = 0.71; inpatient sample: OR 1.91, 95% CI 0.25–15.00, p = 0.53).
Youth attempters show an increased burden for cardiovascular risk compared to other high-risk individuals in inpatient and population-based samples. Clinicians should pay particular attention to cardiovascular risk factors among suicide attempters in order to reduce their risk for cardiovascular events.
This article considers the role that assessment of suicidal ideation may have in short-term prediction of suicide. Suicide risk assessment is a multifactorial process and it is assumed that assessment of suicidal ideation is one component. Denial that suicidal ideation has any useful role in risk assessment fails to allow for the marked ongoing short-term variability in severity of intent, which is a common feature of the suicidal state of mind. It is concluded that the assessment of suicidal ideation, provided it is carried out correctly and applied appropriately, should continue to be regarded as a central component of the overall prediction process. A ‘two-take’ approach to short-term risk assessment and mitigation is proposed that takes variability in severity of intent into account and includes anticipatory treatment planning for any problems that may occur in the near future.
In a pilot study, female emergency personnel showed increased paranoid ideation following a terror attack. This newly designed confirmatory study aims to replicate these previously found gender-specific results and investigate the progression of effects after 2 years. Participants were exposed and unexposed emergency personnel (n = 120). Exposed female versus exposed male personnel showed higher paranoid ideation at both time points. There was a group × time interaction effect in paranoid ideation: paranoid ideation increased over time in the exposed versus the unexposed female group. The same effect was observed with exposed female emergency personnel showing a significant 2-year post-deployment increase compared with the total group including unexposed female as well as exposed and unexposed male emergency personnel. There is, as yet, no conclusive explanation for this difference. Sexual harassment in a male-dominated profession may be a vulnerability factor. Differentiated preparation and follow-up for emergency responders is recommended moving towards health-related equality.
Suicide in the elderly is a complex and significant public health problem. The purpose of our study was to examine the role of loneliness and social integration as potential mediators in the relationship between physical pain and suicidal ideation in the elderly.
Descriptive, bivariate correlations, and moderated mediation analyses were performed.
Personal meetings were held with participants in their homes.
A total of 198 elderly men aged 65 and over.
Self-report measures: Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation, Physical pain subscale, Multidimensional Social Integration in Later Life Scale, and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale (Version 3).
Our findings showed that the association between physical pain and suicidal ideation was mediated by loneliness and social integration. Further analyses revealed that this mediation model was significant among single, but not married, men.
Physical pain and social factors are both important in understanding suicidality in late life. Elderly single men who experience physical pain may be lonelier and less socially integrated, and these factors may contribute to higher risk of suicidal ideation.
Since 1999, the rate of fatal prescription opioid overdoses and of suicides has dramatically increased in the USA. These increases, which have occurred among similar demographic groups, have led to the hypothesis that the opioid epidemic contributed to increases in suicidal behavior, though the underlying association remains poorly defined. We examine the association between nonmedical use of prescription opioids/opioid use disorder and suicidal ideation/attempts.
We used longitudinal data from a national representative sample of the US adult population, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Participants (n = 34 653) were interviewed in 2001–2002 (wave 1) and re-interviewed approximately 3 years later (wave 2). A propensity score analysis estimated the association between exposure to prescription opioids at wave 1 and prevalent/incident suicidal behavior at wave 2.
Heavy/frequent (⩾2–3 times a month) prescription opioid use was associated with prevalent suicide attempts [adjusted risk ratio (ARR) = 2.75, 95% CI 1.35–5.60]. Prescription opioid use disorder was associated with prevalent (ARR = 1.98, 95% CI 1.20–3.28) and incident suicidal ideation (ARR = 2.59, 95% CI 1.25–5.37), and prevalent attempts (ARR = 4.19, 95% CI 1.71–10.27). None of the exposures was associated with incident suicide attempts.
Heavy/frequent opioid use and related disorder were associated with prevalent suicide attempts; opioid use disorder was also associated with the incident and prevalent suicidal ideation. Given population increases in nonmedical use of prescription opioids and disorder, the opioid crisis may have contributed to population increases in suicidal ideation.
This chapter starts with basic definitions such as types of machine learning (supervised vs. unsupervised learning, classifiers vs. regressors), types of features (binary, categorical, discrete, continuos), metrics (precision, recall, f-measure, accuracy, overfitting), and raw data and then defines the machine learning cycle and the feature engineering cycle. The feature engineering cycle hinges on two types of analysis: exploratory data analysis, at the beginning of the cycle and error analysis at the end of each feature engineering cycle. Domain modelling and feature construction concludes the chapter with particular emphasis on feature ideation techniques.
Design fixation refers to the designers’ inability to avoid becoming stuck with preexisting ideas in order to generate new ones. With the recent fast advancements and developments, XR has emerged as a powerful promising technology that can shed new light on this issue. Consequently, this paper aims at: (1) investigating the underlying mechanisms of design fixation as reported in literature; (2) exploring the state-of-art in the use of XR technology in design; and (3) identifying ways to mitigate design fixation by employing XR technology.
Unit cohesion may protect service member mental health by mitigating effects of combat exposure; however, questions remain about the origins of potential stress-buffering effects. We examined buffering effects associated with two forms of unit cohesion (peer-oriented horizontal cohesion and subordinate-leader vertical cohesion) defined as either individual-level or aggregated unit-level variables.
Longitudinal survey data from US Army soldiers who deployed to Afghanistan in 2012 were analyzed using mixed-effects regression. Models evaluated individual- and unit-level interaction effects of combat exposure and cohesion during deployment on symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and suicidal ideation reported at 3 months post-deployment (model n's = 6684 to 6826). Given the small effective sample size (k = 89), the significance of unit-level interactions was evaluated at a 90% confidence level.
At the individual-level, buffering effects of horizontal cohesion were found for PTSD symptoms [B = −0.11, 95% CI (−0.18 to −0.04), p < 0.01] and depressive symptoms [B = −0.06, 95% CI (−0.10 to −0.01), p < 0.05]; while a buffering effect of vertical cohesion was observed for PTSD symptoms only [B = −0.03, 95% CI (−0.06 to −0.0001), p < 0.05]. At the unit-level, buffering effects of horizontal (but not vertical) cohesion were observed for PTSD symptoms [B = −0.91, 90% CI (−1.70 to −0.11), p = 0.06], depressive symptoms [B = −0.83, 90% CI (−1.24 to −0.41), p < 0.01], and suicidal ideation [B = −0.32, 90% CI (−0.62 to −0.01), p = 0.08].
Policies and interventions that enhance horizontal cohesion may protect combat-exposed units against post-deployment mental health problems. Efforts to support individual soldiers who report low levels of horizontal or vertical cohesion may also yield mental health benefits.
Issues concerning the association among attachment anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation among the elderly have rarely been explored. The present study investigated the relationship among attachment anxiety, depression and perceived support concerning suicidal ideation among older people.
Tertiary care settings
The authors recruited 191 elderly patients from 10 tertiary care settings in Thailand
Participants provided data on their suicidal ideation and suicidal attempt using Module C of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Their attachment anxiety was assessed using the revised Experience of Close Relationship questionnaire (ECR-R-18), while their level of depression was investigated using the Geriatric Depression Scale. In addition, their perception of being supported was ascertained using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. We performed two mediation analyses and moderation analyses separately using the product of coefficients approach. First, we created a mediation model to examine the role of attachment anxiety and depression on suicidal ideation. Second, a moderated mediation model was created to explore the relationship of perceived social support as a moderator of depression.
We found that depression significantly mediated the association between attachment anxiety and suicidal ideation. The association between depression and suicidal ideation was moderated by the level of perceived social support.
Findings of this study may broaden our understanding of how suicidal ideation develops among the elderly and further stimulate future research exploring the interaction of positive and negative factors of suicidality among the elderly. Implications of the findings were also discussed.
The current study sought to examine the relationship between documented social media use and suicidality and self-injurious behaviors in adolescents at the time of psychiatric hospitalization.
We retrospectively identified adolescents (aged 12-17 years) hospitalized on an inpatient psychiatric unit during 1 year. Abstracted information included documented social media use, demographic variables, documented self-injurious behaviors, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Suicide Status Form-II. Logistic regression was implemented to examine the effect of social media use on the risk of self-injurious behaviors and suicidality.
Fifty-six adolescents who used social media were identified and matched with 56 non-social media users. Those with reported social media use had significantly greater odds of self-injurious behaviors at admission (odds ratio, 2.55; 95% confidence intervals, 1.17-5.71; P = .02) vs youth without reported social media use. Adolescents with reported social media use also had greater odds of increased suicidal ideation and suicide risk than those with no reported use, but these relationships were not statistically significant.
Social media use in adolescents with a psychiatric admission may be associated with the risk of self-injurious behaviors and could be a marker of impulsivity. Further work should guide the assessment of social media use as part of a routine adolescent psychiatric history.
Physicians have a higher suicide rate than the general population or other academics. Little is known about the reasons for this. Analysing risk factors may be a valuable way of identifying reasons for the high suicide rate among physicians, thereby leading to preventive efforts. The present study is one of the first papers on suicidal thoughts and attempts among physicians. A questionnaire about suicidal thoughts (developed by E.S. Paykel) was completed by 1,063 of 1,476 active Norwegian physicians (72%). Lifetime prevalence ranged from 51.1% for feelings that life was not worth living to 1.6% for a suicide attempt. Risk factors were being female, living alone, and depression. Suicidal thoughts, however, were hardly attributed to working conditions. A high rate of suicide and a low rate of suicidal attempts support the hypothesis that physicians do not ‘cry for help,' but are inclined to act out their suicidal impulses.
Little is known about country-specific variations in suicidal ideation (SID) by sex and how they correspond with completed suicide rate. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess variations in SID prevalence rates by sex and its correlation to completed suicide rates across European countries.
SHARE is a cross-national European survey of individuals over the age of 50 and their spouse of any age. The present study relied on wave 4 conducted in 2010–2012 including 49,008 participants aged 55 to 104 years from 16 countries. SID was evaluated using a single item from the Euro-D. Data on completed suicide rates were taken from the WHO mortality database.
Of the study population (n = 49,008, 44.3% men, mean age 68.2 ± 9.1 years), a total of 4139 (8.5%, 95% CI 8.2–8.7) reported suicidal ideation within the last month. The women:men ratio in SID prevalence ranged from 1.30 in Estonia to 2.25 in Spain and Portugal. Regarding country-specific variation, the SID prevalence patterns of both men and women did not correspond to the completed suicide rates for males and females aged 55+ reported by the WHO (2013). Correlations were rather moderate in men (r = 0.45) and especially weak in women (r = 0.16).
The study showed remarkable differences in SID prevalence by sex. The most exciting finding was that SID rates did not correspond with completed suicide rates in each country under investigation. However, the strength of these patterns substantially differs across countries. This unexpected finding need to be further evaluated.
To examine relationships between suicidal ideation, self-harm, and suicide attempts, including the timing of the phenomena.
Subjects and methods
The British National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (NPMS) 2000, a randomised cross-sectional survey of the British population (n = 8,580), included detailed questions about suicidal phenomena.
Suicidal phenomena were common in the survey population: a fifth had experienced tedium vitae, and nearly one in six had had death wishes or considered suicide. 4.4% of the study population had attempted suicide at some time. The relationships between individual elements of suicidality, though not absolute, were strong. The relationships tended to be hierarchical. The results suggested that suicidal thinking represents a strong indicator of vulnerability to suicidal acts, less so to self-harm. Although suicidal phenomena were more common in women, the relationship of the different elements were not affected by gender.
Studies in non clinical populations allow full appreciation of the nature and burden of suicidality. The topic of suicide is sensitive, so there may have been under-reporting, although the level of missing data was around 0.1%. Nevertheless, the sample was large and closely representative of the whole British populace.
Suicidality is common in the British population. The strong relationships between elements of suicidality are clinically important.
Depression is commonly associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviour. The effect of the antidepressant, paroxetine, on suicidality in depressed patients has been assessed by retrospective analysis of the worldwide database of short-term clinical trials. Data were analysed on 2963 patients treated with paroxetine. 554 placebo patients, and 1151 patients treated with an active control. The results clearly demonstrate the beneficial effect of antidepressant therapy on suicidal ideation. Paroxetine was not associated with the emergence of suicidality, which appears to be a feature of depressive disorder unrelated to antidepressant therapy.
Many studies have enlightened the relevance of deepening our knowledge of suicidal ideation among adolescents. However, research has given insufficient attention to the impact of time perspective on suicidal ideation: the present study confirms this relationship in a large sample of adolescents.
A survey was conducted on a sample of 3700 Italian adolescents. We obtained data using a structured questionnaire addressing suicidal ideation, mental health status, self-esteem, individual and family characteristics, and time perspective (ZTPI) in three temporal frames: the past, present and future, and the attitude related to each one of them. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analyses.
Overall, 9.2% of the sample reported severe suicidal ideation during the past two weeks; 7.6% reported moderate suicidal ideation. Female adolescents were more likely to report severe suicidal ideation when compared to males (χ(2)2 = 13.38, P = .001). There were no differences regarding age (χ(1)2 = 2.81, P = .245) and SES (χ(2)2 = 8.67, P = .08).
The first discriminant function was mostly explained by psychopathological symptoms (General Global Index), self-esteem and two dimensions of the ZTPI (Negative Past and Fatalistic Present).
Differences in time perspective dimensions between moderate and severe ideators suggest that these groups should be considered and analyzed as two discrete groups in further research.
The authors conducted a home survey investigating the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of depression, suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts among a probability nationwide sample of 1316 adolescents aged 12-17 and 1114 young adults aged 18-24. Depressive symptoms were detected by the use of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. 20.3% of adolescents and 35.7% of young adults were characterized as being depressed. Similar differences between the two age groups in the prevalence rates of suicidal ideation and attempts were observed. Suicide attempters of both age groups reported a higher number of depressive symptoms compared with the non attempters. Characteristics that distinguished the suicide attempters from the total sample were low rates of school attendance, use of substances, previous psychiatric help-seeking and additional mental health problems in families.
It has been well established that suicidal behavior is familial. Twin studies provide a unique opportunity to distinguish genetic effects from other familial influences. Consistent with findings from previous twin studies, including case series and selected samples, data from the population-based Swedish Twin Registry clearly demonstrate the importance of genetic influences on suicide. Twin studies of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts also implicate genetic influences, even when accounting for the effects of psychopathology. Future work is needed to evaluate the possibility of age and gender differences in heritability of suicide and nonfatal suicidal behavior.
The general population prevalence and incidence of late-life agoraphobia was estimated and its clinical characteristics and risk factors described using data from the French ESPRIT study. One thousand nine hundred and sixty-eight persons aged 65 and above were randomly recruited from the electoral rolls of the district of Montpellier. Prevalent and incident agoraphobia diagnosed by a standardized psychiatric examination and validated by a clinical panel was assessed at base-line and over 4-year follow-up. The one-month prevalence of agoraphobia was estimated at 10.4% of whom 10.9% reported having the first-episode at age 65 or over. During the 4-year follow-up 11.2% of participants without agoraphobia at base line were classified as cases giving an incident rate of 32 per 1000 person-years. These 132 incident late-onset cases were associated with higher incident rates of anxiety disorders and suicidal ideation. Only two incident cases had past or concurrent panic attacks, which was not significantly different from non-cases. The principal base-line risk factors for incident cases derived from a multivariate model incorporating all significant risk factors were younger age of onset (OR = 0.94; 95% CI 0.90–0.99, P = 0.02), poorer visuospatial memory performance (OR = 1.60; 95% CI 1.02–2.49, P = 0.04), severe depression (OR = 2.62; 95% CI 1.34–5.10, P = 0.005) and trait anxiety (OR = 1.73; 95% CI 1.03–2.90, P = 0.04). No significant association was found with cardiac pathologies. We conclude that agoraphobia has high prevalence in the elderly and unlike younger cases, late-onset cases are not more common in women, and are not associated with panic attacks, suggesting a late-life subtype. Severe depression, trait anxiety and poor visuospatial memory are the principal risk factors for late-onset agoraphobia.
Little is known about the clinical characteristics and motivations for engaging in non-suicide self-injury (NSSI) behaviors in adolescence. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence, characteristics and functions of NSSI among adolescents in community settings, and to explore risk factors related to this behavior.
Subjects and methods
Two hundred and seventy-five adolescents aged 12 to 17 were recruited randomly from different High Schools in Israel. They completed self-report questionnaires assessing NSSI (Ottawa Self-Injury Inventory), depression (Children's Depression Inventory – CDI) and impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale – BIS-II).
In the past year, 20.7% of the participants reported engaging NSSI at least once. Among them, 42.1% declared they are still engaging in NSSI at the present. Motives for NSSI were internal emotion regulation reasons, external emotion regulation reasons for social influences. In addition, the NSSI group reported significantly higher levels of depressive, impulsivity and suicidal ideations. Depressive symptoms were found as significant predictors of NSSI in the future.
Discussion and conclusions
High rates of NSSI among community adolescents were found. Depression, impulsivity and suicidal ideation were found significantly related to NSSI. Mental health professionals in schools and in primary care should routinely assess NSSI among adolescents.