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The early modern Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, usually just called “the Empire,” was a huge and complex political organization in central Europe. The emperorship was an elected office, and the emperor had the difficult task of ruling over a loose political union of mostly German and largely self-governing principalities and towns, collectively called “the imperial estates.” As a result, imperial politics cannot be neatly defined as either domestic or foreign; rather, dynastic, internal, and European considerations were closely intertwined in the politics of the emperors.
Paul's strange confession in Gal 2.19–20 poses a question: is the ‘I’ who was crucified with Christ and no longer lives the same self as the ‘I’ who now lives and in whom Christ lives? To ask this question is to be drawn into conversation with the reception history of Galatians and also to be invited to locate the Pauline ‘I’ in and across the movements from death to life. This article suggests, in dialogue especially with Martin Luther, that for Paul the movement from the state of creation to the state of sin is a movement from life to death; the movement from sin to salvation, conversely, is a movement from death to life. Within or across these ruptures, salvation is as radical as death and resurrection. In this sense, the no longer and now living selves are not identical: the ‘I’ is in another as a gift. And yet, the ‘I’ who lives by grace is also the ‘I’ who was, is and will be loved by the ‘Son of God who loved me and gave himself for me.’
Many pressing issues facing the church today require a deeper appreciation of Vatican I, marking its one hundred and fiftieth year. We can now return it to its context and accept its “incompleteness” rather than insist upon its “wrongness.” The distance provided by time shows that its teachings are not as rigid or extreme as they are often perceived to be, but rather stand open to significantly broader interpretations. Pastor Aeternus has faced Vatican II, the social leveling brought about by democracy and the mass media, and an erosion of confidence in hierarchical institutions. Yet the council cannot be left behind. This essay's goal is to contextualize Vatican I's voice so that we can hear what it intended to say in its own day and see how it might contribute to some of our own most urgent conversations today.
This study aimed to investigate whether arginine promotes porcine type I muscle fibers formation via improving mitochondrial biogenesis. In the in vivo study, a total of sixty DLY (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) weaning piglets with an average body weight of 6.55 ± 0.36 kg were randomly divided into four treatments and fed with a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% L-arginine, respectively, in a four-week trial. Results showed that dietary supplementation of 1.0% arginine significantly enhanced the activity of succinate dehydrogenase, upregulated the protein expression of myosin heavy chain I (MyHC I), and increased the mRNA levels of MyHC I, Tnni1, Tnnc1 and Tnnt1 in longissimus dorsi muscle compared with the control group. In addition, ATPase staining analysis indicated that 1.0% arginine supplementation significantly increased the number of type I muscle fibers and significantly decreased the number of type II muscle fibers. Furthermore, 1.0% arginine supplementation significantly upregulated PGC-1α, Sirt1 and Cytc protein expressions, increased PGC-1α, NRF1, TFB1M, Cytc and TP5G mRNA levels and increased mitochondrial DNA content. In the in vitro study, mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone (Rot) was used. We found that Rot annulled Arg-induced type I muscle fibers formation. Together, our results provide for the first time the evidence that Arg promotes porcine type I muscle fibers formation through improvement of mitochondrial biogenesis.
This chapter takes a foundational Muslim tradition known from early Arab sources and widespread in Muslim Southeast Asia, namely Adam’s banishment from paradise and his landing in Sarandib (the Arabic name for Sri Lanka), as a starting point to ask whether Adam’s fall to earth in this particular site mattered to, or shaped in some way, Malay perceptions of exile to colonial Ceylon, and if so, how? Based on references to Adam and his plight found in Malay sources from Sri Lanka, Arabic sources, among them Ibn Battuta’s Travels, and the Javanese Serat Menak Serandhil (a volume of Menak tales narrating the life of the Prophet’s uncle Menak Amir Hamza, which unfolds in Sarandib), the chapter argues that the ancient story of Adam’s banishment from paradise to earth, a paradigm for all future banishments, was deployed to frame and partially give meaning to exile to Ceylon. Recalling Adam’s fall shifted the temporal frame of political exile under colonial domination and located contemporary, worldly events within a divinely determined chronology.
This little-known work of the great Florentine artist has only recently been re-identified (by me) as the portrait of a professional canterino. It is of great interest both for the status accorded to the sitter, a well-dressed individual in the preoccupied act of tuning his lira da braccio, as if about to perform, and for the Petrarch inscription etched into the back of the instrument which faces the viewer. It dates from the early 1480s, and so dates from a period when both civic and humanist practices of singing to the lyre were in full flood in Florence. The sitter could be a practitioner of either, or perhaps the distinction did not matter at the time. This short essay explores this ambiguity.
The focus is on the subtle meanings of Stanislavsky’s ‘life of the human spirit’, demonstrating this idea’s seminal importance for his System and the latter’s roots in specific aspects of Russian Orthodoxy, primarily its holistic approach. The perspective offered here looks directly at Stanislavsky’s religious beliefs, which scholars either have not recognized or have avoided, and it runs counter to recent studies of the System, which promote yoga as its main influence. Key formulations intended to be of practical use to actors are shown to be integral to Stanislavsky’s worldview, which made his System far more than a matter of technique and actor training. The chapter indicates how lack of attention to his worldview, from which his religious and artistic views are inseparable, is bound up with inadequate translation into English of numbers of his principal terms.
Stanislavsky’s notion of the organic actor has Isadora Duncan’s natural dancing for reference, among others, and that of emotional experiencing is identified in respect of other types of acting central to Stanislavsky’s critique. His views on ethics and discipline are foregrounded – another neglected but indispensable facet of his worldview and of his understanding of the actor.
We present detailed petrography, geochemistry and zircon U–Pb–Hf isotopes of the Mante Aobao granite porphyry in East Ujimqin Banner, Inner Mongolia, with the aim of determining its age and petrogenesis, important for understanding the early Palaeozoic tectonic evolution of the Xing’an–Mongolian Orogenic Belt. The Mante Aobao granite porphyry consists of plagioclase, quartz and minor biotite, but without amphibole. Zircon U–Pb analyses yield ages of 450 ± 1 Ma and 445 ± 2 Ma for the granite porphyry, indicating that it formed during Late Ordovician time. The granite porphyry is metaluminous to slightly peraluminous (aluminous saturation index A/CNK = 0.98–1.11) with high SiO2, K2O and Na2O concentrations and differentiation index (DI = 85–90). Chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns display enrichment of light REEs (LREEs) with high ratios of (La/Yb)N and negative Eu anomalies. In the mantle-normalized multi-element variation diagrams, all samples are characterized by depletions of high-field-strength elements (HFSEs; Nb, Ta and Ti) and enrichments of large-ion lithophiles (LILEs; Rb, Th, U and K). These geochemical features indicate that the granite porphyry is a highly fractionated I-type granite and formed in a subduction-related setting. Zircon grains have positive εHf(t) values of +9.2 to +11.2, and TDM2(Hf) ages of 691–821 Ma, suggesting that the granite porphyry was generated by partial melting of Neoproterozoic juvenile crust with involvement of fractional crystallization during magmatic evolution. It is likely that underplating of mantle-derived magmas during Late Ordovician time provided the necessary heat to partially melt this juvenile crust. Combined with the regional geological data, we infer that the Mante Aobao granite porphyry was emplaced in an active continental margin setting that was probably related to the northwards subduction of the Paleo-Asian Plate beneath the South Mongolian Terrane along the Sonid Zuoqi–Xilinhot axis.
Integrins are large heterodimeric type 1 membrane proteins expressed in all nucleated mammalian cells. Eighteen α-chains and eight β-chains can combine to form 24 different integrins. They are cell adhesion proteins, which bind to a large variety of cellular and extracellular ligands. Integrins are required for cell migration, hemostasis, translocation of cells out from the blood stream and further movement into tissues, but also for the immune response and tissue morphogenesis. Importantly, integrins are not usually active as such, but need activation to become adhesive. Integrins are activated by outside-in activation through integrin ligand binding, or by inside-out activation through intracellular signaling. An important question is how integrin activity is regulated, and this topic has recently drawn much attention. Changes in integrin affinity for ligand binding are due to allosteric structural alterations, but equally important are avidity changes due to integrin clustering in the plane of the plasma membrane. Recent studies have partially solved how integrin cell surface structures change during activation. The integrin cytoplasmic domains are relatively short, but by interacting with a variety of cytoplasmic proteins in a regulated manner, the integrins acquire a number of properties important not only for cell adhesion and movement, but also for cellular signaling. Recent work has shown that specific integrin phosphorylations play pivotal roles in the regulation of integrin activity. Our purpose in this review is to integrate the present knowledge to enable an understanding of how cell adhesion is dynamically regulated.
Instead of distancing colonial authority figures from the African communities they governed, of seeing these groups as mutually exclusive, this chapter seeks to situate these officials in the communities they served and understand how their behavior was consequently affected. European teachers and colonial officers, as well as their intermediaries, consulted with the various communities which made up Bagamoyo and, in particular, paid respect to elders and parents. This focus on colonial-African relations complicates our image of imperial rule: far from a style of administration characterized by social distancing, some colonial officials ultimately became immersed in the social codes of the communities they were supposed to dominate. This chapter provides a comparative examination of this phenomenon through two rounds of European colonialism in Tanganyika: the German and British empires. It examines issues such as urban planning, taxation, slavery, racial identification, colonial administration, and school enrollment.
Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes that form the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes where they protect DNA from genomic instability, prevent end-to-end fusion and limit cellular replicative capabilities. Increased telomere attrition rates, and relatively shorter telomere length, is associated with genomic instability and has been linked with several chronic diseases, malignancies and reduced longevity. Telomeric DNA is highly susceptible to oxidative damage and dietary habits may make an impact on telomere attrition rates through the mediation of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to examine the association between leucocyte telomere length (LTL) with both the Dietary Inflammatory Index® 2014 (DII®) and the Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010). This is a cross-sectional analysis using baseline data from 263 postmenopausal women from the Alberta Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Prevention (ALPHA) Trial, in Calgary and Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. No statistically significant association was detected between LTL z-score and the AHEI-2010 (P = 0·20) or DII® (P = 0·91) in multivariable adjusted models. An exploratory analysis of AHEI-2010 and DII® parameters and LTL revealed anthocyanidin intake was associated with LTL (P < 0·01); however, this association was non-significant after a Bonferroni correction was applied (P = 0·27). No effect modification by age, smoking history, or recreational physical activity was detected for either relationship. Increased dietary antioxidant and decreased oxidant intake were not associated with LTL in this analysis.
The final chapter runs through and beyond the Armistice and into the 1920s, showing how the war, for many British subjects, did not end in 1918. The chapter emphasizes the anti-conscription movement in Ireland and the subsequent Irish war of independence. It explores how republican ideas like those in Ireland tried to solve the same crises of security that had plagued the empire. It finishes by discussing the Chanak Crisis of 1922, in which colonial pressure helped forestall a potential British war in Turkey, an important milestone marking shifts in the empire’s military and political hierarchy.
The book begins by placing the reader within the British Empire’s “crisis” of the early twentieth century, through the eyes of a few observers trying to warn their contemporaries of a forthcoming doom. It acquaints the reader with the book’s central contention – that this sense of crisis created an empire–wide preoccupation with security that sparked militarization and realigned imperial politics – before providing an overview of the book’s structure, sources, and methodology. The introduction will also contextualize this moment of crisis with some others in British imperial history, before transitioning the reader into the book’s narrative beginning with the South African War.
The book closes by looking at the British Empire’s path through the 1920s, including belated attempts at integrating India into the empire’s new military and diplomatic institutions. It reflects on several British colonies entering the international community as states, culminating in the Statute of Westminster in 1931 that renounced Britain’s legislative supremacy over their parliaments.
Chapter 5 takes the narrative to the outbreak of the First World War, and compares the colonial response to the mobilization for South Africa at the beginning of the book. The chapter focuses mainly on conscription, the ultimate expression of state sovereignty over individuals, and the way conscription forced a reckoning with unresolved political questions across the empire. It covers the fraught attempts by the British government to resolve the racial exceptions listed in Military Service Act 1916, and the debates in Australia, New Zealand, and Canada about whether to follow in Britain’s footsteps on their own unprecedented military manpower problems.
Russians under the late tsars and Bolsheviks enjoyed a century of literary and artistic genius that lives on in world culture and in the Russian national identity. Along with the rightly celebrated works are millions of ephemeral creations of the age: postcards, illustrations, prints, serialized potboilers, posters, and cartoons. The creators of both the lasting and the forgotten worked in interconnected cultural communities. Each drew on shared traditions and contended with transformative social, economic, and political change. In so doing, they created an imaginative ecosystem within which three themes recurred: (1) the tension between freedom and order; (2) the shifting importance of boundaries demarcating the Self and the Other, the Russian and the foreigner, and the audience for art; and (3) the evolving roles, privileges, and responsibilities of writers and artists. The Firebird and the Fox takes its name from two motifs and recurrent characters. The flamboyant Firebird, often accompanied by her human foil, the Fool, transited from folklore into many works over this period and represents the incandescence and transcendent power of art. The wily fox or vixen of fable and folklore embodies the agency of the formerly dispossessed and the survival of genius against formidable odds.
Marlowe’s play survives in the so-called A-Text of 1,517 lines, first printed in 1604, and in the B-Text of 2,121 lines, printed in 1616. The B-Text is not only the longer, but also the more overtly political play, providing more in-set spectacle that is reminiscent of court performance. The difference in length has often been explained with reference to cuts made to allow provincial acting during the plague of 1592–4 or to additions made to the play in 1602 (Greg 1950). However, Eriksen offers another solution, positing that, in fact, the longer and more politically informed B-text is the earlier and was intended for court performance by a dramatist who had already tried his hand at court drama in Dido. Doctor Faustus, Eriksen argues, would be his second attempt, written in support of the self-sovereignty of Elizabeth I before the attack of the Spanish Armada in August 1588. Its consistent staging of imperial iconography in the papal and imperial scenes, especially the use of the 'pillars' and Alexander the Great, portrays Charles V as a wise ruler in contrast to his aggressive son and the Pope as a usurper of imperial power, both posing threats to the queen.