To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Congenital cardiac disease is the most common birth defect, occurring in approximately 1 in 1000 live births. Congenital cardiac defects have associations, whether with gender, race, or specific chromosomal abnormalities, potentially allowing grouping of defects to be studied in an effort to develop an understanding of aetiological factors. The Baltimore-Washington Infant Study provides full ascertainment of a population of infants with congenital cardiac disease born in a defined geographic region. The fundamental hypotheses generated at the inception of the Baltimore-Washington Infant Study included the central idea that the outcome of birth, including the development of congenital cardiac malformations, was influenced by environmental factors and their route of introduction into a genetically susceptible host. Evidence exists that supports the concept that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of diseases of the left heart.
Several years ago, one of us described the difference in attitude to patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome in the United States of America and Europe as similar to that between Mars and Venus. Uncertainty remains with regard to the long-term prognosis for patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. This prognosis may be considered in terms of survival, functional performance, including exercise capacity and neurodevelopment, as well as psychosocial effects on the patient, family, and siblings. Counselling parents where either an antenatal or postnatal diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome has been made requires practitioners to give information on these prognostic aspects. We wanted to see how attitudes among European surgeons have changed over the last few years.
We performed a review of recent European data for hypoplastic left heart syndrome and conducted a survey among surgeons in major European centres to ascertain key aspects of their attitudes to the management of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and how they counsel parents.
Results and conclusions
As of January, 2011, 2392 citations in the PubMed database were available for the search string “hypoplastic left heart”. The majority of these were from the centres from the United States of America and Europe. The European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Congenital Heart Surgery Database shows an annual increase in the number of Norwood (Stage I) operations for hypoplastic left heart syndrome from 2003 to 2009, with a corresponding reduction in mortality. European rates of antenatal detection vary widely between centres, as do the rates of termination for a prenatal diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. We observed a wide variation in the estimates of surgeons for survival and quality of life for surgical palliation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome, as well as in their estimates for actual rates of termination of pregnancy in their centres. Further, there was marked inconsistency in the information given to parents as part of the process of counselling. These issues remain to be resolved if parents are to make a fully informed decision for their child.
Microcephaly is a marker of abnormal fetal cerebral development, and a known risk factor for cognitive dysfunction. Patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome have been found to have an increased incidence of abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes. We hypothesized that reduced cerebral blood flow from the diminutive ascending aorta and transverse aortic arch in the setting of hypoplastic left heart syndrome may influence fetal growth of the brain. The purpose of our study, therefore, was to define the prevalence of microcephaly in full-term infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and to investigate potential cardiac risk factors for microcephaly. We carried out a retrospective review of full-term neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Eligible patients had documented indexes of birth weight, and measurements of length, and head circumference, as well as adequate echocardiographic images for measurement of the diameters of the ascending aorta and transverse aortic arch. We used logistic regression for analysis of the data. A total of 129 neonates met the criterions for inclusion, with 15 (12%) proving to have microcephaly. The sizes of their heads were disproportionately smaller than their weights (p less than 0.001) and lengths (p less than 0.001) at birth. Microcephaly was associated with lower birth weight (p less than 0.001), lower birth length (p equal to 0.007), and a smaller diameter of the ascending aorta (p equal to 0.034), but not a smaller transverse aortic arch (p equal to 0.619), or aortic atresia (p equal to 0.969). We conclude that microcephaly was common in this cohort of neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, with the size of the head being disproportionately smaller than weight and length at birth. Microcephaly was associated with a small ascending aorta, but not a small transverse aortic arch. Impairment of somatic growth may be an additional factor in the development of microcephaly in these neonates.
Introduction: A recent modification to the Norwood procedure involving a shunt placed directly from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries may improve postoperative haemodynamics. Concerns remain, however, about the potential problems produced by the required ventriculotomy. Methods: We compared 76 patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome who underwent the Norwood procedure, 35 receiving a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt and the remaining 41 a shunt placed directly from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries. We reviewed their subsequent progress through the second stage of palliation. A single observer graded right ventricular function, and the severity of tricuspid regurgitation, based on blinded review of the most recent echocardiograms prior to the second stage of palliation. Results: At the time of catheterization prior to the second stage, patients with a shunt placed from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries, rather than a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt, had higher arterial diastolic blood pressure, at 44 versus 40 millimetres of mercury, p equal to 0.02, lower ventricular end diastolic pressures, at 8 versus 11 millimetres of mercury, p equal to 0.0002, and larger pulmonary arteries as judged using the Nakata index, at 270 versus 188 millimetres squared per metres squared, p equal to 0.009. There was no difference in qualitative ventricular systolic function or tricuspid regurgitation between groups. No differences were found between groups during the hospitalization following the second stage of palliation. A trend towards improved survival to the second stage was seen following the construction of a shunt from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries. Conclusions: Construction of a shunt from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries is associated with lower right ventricular end diastolic pressures, larger pulmonary arterial size, and higher systemic arterial diastolic pressures. No apparent deleterious effects of the right ventriculotomy were observed in terms of qualitative ventricular systolic function or tricuspid regurgitation.
The combination of hypoplastic left heart syndrome and a right-sided aortic arch is extremely rare and lethal. To the best of our knowledge, no patient with this combination has previously been reported as surviving initial palliation. The anatomic variant is associated with abnormalities in the arteries branching from the aortic arch, making it difficult to construct a reliable source of flow of blood to the lungs. We present here a patient with this combination who survived an initial Damus-Kay-Stansel procedure combined with placement of a conduit from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries, and who has subsequently undergone a successful bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis. We believe that the conduit placed from the right ventricle provides the most reliable source of flow of blood to the lungs at the time of initial palliation in this usual combination of cardiac lesions.
The hypoplastic left heart syndrome encompasses a spectrum of cardiac malformations that are characterized by significant underdevelopment of the components of the left heart and the aorta, including the left ventricular cavity and mass. At the severe end of the spectrum is found the combination of aortic and mitral atresia, when the left ventricle can be close to non-existent. At the mild end are the patients with hypoplasia of the aortic and mitral valves, but without intrinsic valvar stenosis or atresia, and milder degrees of left ventricular hypoplasia. Although the majority of the patients are suitable only for functionally univentricular repair, a small minority may be candidates for biventricular repair.
The nature of the syndrome was a topic for discussion at the second meeting of the International Working Group for Mapping and Coding of Nomenclatures for Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease, the Nomenclature Working Group, held in Montreal, Canada, over the period January 17 through 19, 2003. Subsequent to these discussions, the Nomenclature Working Group was able to create a bidirectional crossmap between the nomenclature initially produced jointly on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and the alternative nomenclature developed on behalf of the Association for European Paediatric Cardiology. This process is a part of the overall efforts of the Nomenclature Working Group to create a comprehensive and all-inclusive international system of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease, the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. In this review, we discuss the evolution of nomenclature and surgical treatment for the spectrum of lesions making up the hypoplastic left heart syndrome and its related malformations. We also present the crossmap of the associated terms for diagnoses and procedures, as recently completed by the Nomenclature Working Group.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.