Life expectancy in most developed countries has been rising over the past century. In the UK alone, there are about 12 million people over 65 years old and centenarians have increased by 85% in the past 15 years. As a result of the ageing population, which is due mainly to improvements in medical treatments, public health, improved housing and lifestyle choices, there is an associated increase in the prevalence of pathological conditions, such as metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, many types of cancer and others. Statistics suggest that nearly 54% of elderly people in the UK live with at least two chronic conditions, revealing the urgency for identifying interventions that can prevent and/or treat such disorders. Non-pharmacological, dietary interventions such as energetic restriction (ER) and methionine restriction (MR) have revealed promising outcomes in increasing longevity and preventing and/or reversing the development of ageing-associated disorders. In this review, we discuss the evidence and mechanisms that are involved in these processes. Fibroblast growth factor 1 and hydrogen sulphide are important molecules involved in the effects of ER and MR in the extension of life span. Their role is also associated with the prevention of metabolic and cognitive disorders, highlighting these interventions as promising modulators for improvement of health span.