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Region- and system-specific research is needed to understand the viability of delayed cover-crop termination (i.e., planting green) as an integrated weed management (IWM) tactic in no-till soybean. In a 3-yr field experiment, we evaluated the potential for planting green to facilitate elimination of soil-applied, preemergence residual herbicides within a soybean phase of a 6-yr grain–forage cropping systems experiment in Pennsylvania. This IWM tactic was contrasted with a Standard treatment, which included 14 to 21 d pre-plant termination of cereal rye and a two-pass herbicide program with preemergence herbicides. A 63% increase in cereal rye biomass production was observed within the IWM treatment in 2019, but only a 22% and 33% increase in 2020 and 2021, respectively. In 2020, significantly lower volumetric water content (%VWC) was observed within the IWM treatment in dates closest to planting and greater %VWC at multiple dates in June and July compared to the Standard treatment. No differences occurred in soybean populations, but soybean biomass at the V4 growth stage was reduced in the Standard treatment compared to the IWM treatment, which we attribute to injury from preemergence applications. The Standard treatment resulted in greater soybean yield (2,590 kg ha–1) than the IWM treatment (1,870 kg ha–1) in 2020, but yields were similar in other years. The IWM treatment resulted in 58% fewer herbicide inputs, as measured by the number of active ingredients applied, compared to the Standard over the 3-yr study. Yet, peak weed biomass did not differ between treatments. However, the IWM treatment resulted in greater total horseweed density and the number of horseweed plants that exceeded recommended size-based height thresholds (10 cm) compared to the Standard treatment just prior to postemergence applications (35–42 d after planting) in 2020 and 2021, underscoring the importance of integrating surface mulch residues with effective herbicide sites of action.
In the Mid-Atlantic United States, there is increasing interest in delaying cereal rye termination until after soybean planting (i.e., planting green). Improved understanding of cereal rye seeding rate effects is needed to balance weed and agronomic management goals. We investigated the effects of cereal rye seeding rates on weed control and crop performance when planting green in complementary experiments in two Mid-Atlantic regions. The Pennsylvania experiment was replicated at three site-years and the Delaware experiment at two site-years. In both experiments, population-level weed responses were evaluated across four cereal rye seeding rates: 0, 51, 101, and 135 kg ha−1. The Delaware experiment also implemented a nitrogen treatment factor (0 and 34 kg N ha−1; spring applied). Both experiments showed that integrating cereal rye in the fall significantly improved winter- and summer-annual weed suppression compared with the fallow control, but no differences in total cereal rye biomass production or weed suppression were found among alternative cereal rye seeding rates (51 to 135 kg ha−1). Soybean yield did not differ among treatments in any of the studies. These results show there is no reason to increase cereal rye seeding rates for weed suppression services or to decrease seeding rates for agronomic reasons (i.e., soybean population and yield) when employing planting-green tactics in no-till soybean production within the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States.
Limited information exists on the global economic impact of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds. The objective of this manuscript was to estimate the potential yield and economic loss from uncontrolled GR weeds in the major field crops grown in Ontario, Canada. The impact of GR weed interference on field crop yield was determined using an extensive database of field trials completed on commercial farms in southwestern Ontario between 2010 and 2021. Crop yield loss was estimated by expert opinion (weed scientists and Ontario government crop specialists) when research data were unavailable. This manuscript assumes that crop producers adjust their weed management programs to control GR weeds, which increases weed management costs but reduces crop yield loss from GR weed interference by 95%. GR volunteer corn, horseweed, waterhemp, giant ragweed, and common ragweed would cause an annual monetary loss of (in millions of Can$) $172, $104, $11, $3, and $0.3, respectively, for a total annual loss of $290 million if Ontario farmers did not adjust their weed management programs to control GR biotypes. The increased herbicide cost to control GR volunteer corn, horseweed, waterhemp, giant ragweed, and common ragweed in the major field crops in Ontario is estimated to be (in millions of Can$) $17, $9, $2, $0.1, and $0.02, respectively, for a total increase in herbicide expenditures of $28 million annually. Reduced GR weed interference with the adjusted weed management programs would reduce farm-gate monetary crop loss by 95% from $290 million to $15 million. This study estimates that GR weeds would reduce the farm-gate value of the major field crops produced in Ontario by Can$290 million annually if Ontario farmers did not adjust their weed management programs, but with increased herbicide costs of Can$28 million and reduced crop yield loss of 95% the actual annual monetary loss in Ontario is estimated to be Can$43 million annually.
The extensive and intensive use of herbicides has resulted in the spread of herbicide-resistant weeds in many crop production systems; therefore, it is imperative to devise new organic weed control methods. Recently, the application of spent coffee grounds (SCG) in agricultural fields has been found to inhibit plant growth and germination and is thus considered a potentially effective weed control measure. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different amounts and methods of SCG application on weed growth through field experiments. The field experiments were conducted in an upland field converted from a paddy in western Japan. The results show that the plow-in application of over 10 kg m−2 of SCG and mulching application of 20 kg m−2 decreased the weed dry weight compared with the control. In addition, the growth of weed species of families other than Gramineae, such as wingleaf primrose-willow and horseweed, was not significantly affected by SCG application. Weed species of families other than Gramineae are dominant in some upland fields. Hence, the inhibitory effect of SCG on weeds may be lower in original upland fields than in the upland field converted from paddy field that was investigated in the present study. Overall, this study demonstrated that the plow-in application of 10 kg m−2 of SCG every 4 mo was effective for weed control in an upland field converted from a paddy field. Because SCG worked against grass weeds under the specific conditions in this study, it would be valuable to explore other potential applications of this novel means of weed control.
Horseweed is a North American indigenous plant species commonly found in Nebraska cropping systems. Horseweed management is challenging because of horseweed’s prolific seed production, long-distance seed dispersal via wind, competitiveness, and rapid evolution of herbicide resistance. Understanding the horseweed emergence pattern across Nebraska can contribute to implementing effective and more sustainable tactics to minimize its impact on cropping systems. Field studies were conducted during fall and spring from 2016 to 2018 in Lincoln (corn and soybean), North Platte (wheat stubble and soybean), and Scottsbluff (corn and fallow) to investigate the emergence pattern of horseweed accessions from Lincoln, North Platte, and Scottsbluff, NE. Results show that most horseweed seedling emergence occurred in fall (99%) and only a few seedlings emerged in spring across locations, except in the wheat stubble experiment at North Platte, where higher spring emergence was detected (3% to 22%). In four out of six experiments, the density of total emerged seedlings of each accession was greatest when established in their site of origin. Our results suggest that late fall and/or early spring is likely the best timing for horseweed management across Nebraska.
The objectives of this study were to determine if the level and consistency of glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed control prior to soybean planting can be improved by (i) adding halauxifen-methyl, 2,4-D ester, saflufenacil, metribuzin, or dicamba to glufosinate, (ii) increasing the rate of glufosinate from 500 to 1,000 g ai ha–1, and (iii) adding 28% urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) as the carrier solution. During a 2-yr period (2020–2021), four field trials were conducted on commercial farms located in southwestern Ontario, Canada, with confirmed GR horseweed. Glufosinate controlled GR horseweed 65%, 66%, and 63% at 2, 4, and 8 wk after application (WAA), respectively, and reduced density and biomass 46% and 33% at 8 WAA, respectively. There was no improvement in GR horseweed control from the addition of halauxifen-methyl, 2,4-D ester or saflufenacil to glufosinate and no decrease in density and biomass, with the exception that the addition of saflufenacil to glufosinate reduced density 30% compared to glufosinate alone. The addition of metribuzin to glufosinate improved GR horseweed control by 22%, 22%, and 28% at 2, 4, and 8 WAA, respectively, and further reduced density and biomass 50% and 47%, respectively, at 8 WAA, respectively. The addition of dicamba to glufosinate improved GR horseweed control by 19%, 26%, and 30% at 2, 4, and 8 WAA, respectively, and further reduced density and biomass 54% and 60%, respectively, at 8 WAA. There was no improvement in GR horseweed control by increasing the rate of glufosinate from 500 to 1,000 g ai ha–1 or when using 28% UAN as the carrier solution. The addition of all herbicides to glufosinate, increasing the rate of glufosinate, or using 28% UAN as the carrier solution improved the consistency of GR horseweed control.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed interference in soybean can reduce soybean yield up to 93%. Glyphosate plus dicamba, 2,4-D ester, halauxifen-methyl or pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D applied preplant (PP) provide variable GR horseweed control in soybean. The objective of this study was to determine if the addition of saflufenacil or metribuzin to glyphosate plus dicamba, 2,4-D ester, halauxifen-methyl, or pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D will improve the level and consistency of GR horseweed control. Four trials were conducted over the 2020 and 2021 field seasons in fields with GR horseweed populations. Glyphosate plus dicamba, 2,4-D ester, halauxifen-methyl, or pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D controlled GR horseweed 96%, 77%, 71%, and 52%, respectively, at 8 wk after application (WAA). When saflufenacil or metribuzin was added to glyphosate plus dicamba or 2,4-D ester, GR horseweed control was not improved at 8 WAA. When saflufenacil or metribuzin was added to glyphosate plus halauxifen-methyl, GR horseweed control improved by 27% and 25%, respectively, at 8 WAA. When saflufenacil or metribuzin was added to glyphosate plus pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D, GR horseweed control was improved by 47% and 37%, respectively, at 8 WAA. The consistency of GR horseweed control was improved when saflufenacil or metribuzin was added to glyphosate plus dicamba, 2,4-D ester, halauxifen-methyl, or pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D compared to each herbicide applied alone. Synergism was observed when metribuzin was added to glyphosate plus halauxifen-methyl and when saflufenacil or metribuzin was added to glyphosate plus pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D at 8 WAA. Though GR horseweed control was improved with the addition of saflufenacil or metribuzin to glyphosate plus halauxifen-methyl or pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D, all treatments including saflufenacil resulted in the highest level and most consistent control.
Glyphosate and paraquat are effective preplant burndown herbicide options for multicrop vegetable production that uses plastic mulch, but problematic weeds such as wild radish, cutleaf evening primrose, annual morningglory, or horseweed may not be adequately controlled with these herbicides alone. The herbicides 2,4-D and dicamba could help control these troublesome weeds prior to planting if they can be removed from plastic mulch and thus avoid crop damage. Treatments included 2,4-D (1,065 and 2,130 g ae ha−1) and dicamba (560 and 1,120 g ae ha−1) applied broadcast over plastic mulch a day before transplanting. Just before transplanting, treatments received either 0.76 cm of water via overhead irrigation or no irrigation. Plastic mulch samples were collected at application and planting to determine herbicide presence using analytical techniques, and cantaloupe and zucchini squash were subsequently transplanted on the plastic beds. Analytical ultra-high performance liquid chromatography revealed that 88% to 99% of the initial herbicide concentration was present at crop planting when irrigation was not implemented. At most, a 1/50 rate of dicamba and a 1/500 rate of 2,4-D was present at planting when overhead irrigation was applied prior to transplanting. Maximum cantaloupe and squash injury from 2,4-D with irrigation was 10% and did not influence plant growth, biomass, or yield. For dicamba with overhead irrigation, cantaloupe injury was 35%, vine lengths were reduced by 24%, and maturity was delayed, whereas squash injury ranged from 9% to 12%, with no influence on growth or yield. Without irrigation to wash herbicides from the mulch prior to planting, 60% to 100% injury of both crops occurred with both herbicides. Zucchini squash was more tolerant to dicamba than cantaloupe. Results demonstrated that 2,4-D can be adequately removed from the surface of plastic mulch with irrigation, whereas a single irrigation event was not sufficient to remove dicamba.
Glyphosate resistance in weed species has presented immense challenges for farmers in Ontario. The co-application of burndown plus residual herbicides provides control of glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed in soybean. Pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D is a premixed herbicide formulation sold under the tradename Blackhawk®. Five field experiments were conducted over a 2-yr period (2019, 2020) in fields in southwestern Ontario to ascertain the biologically effective dose of pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D, applied alone, or mixed with metribuzin, for GR horseweed control when applied preplant to soybean. Soybean visible injury for all treatments was <15%. At 8 wk after application (WAA), the calculated doses of pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D for 50%, 80%, and 95% control of GR horseweed were 390, 1,148, and >2,108 g ha−1, respectively. The addition of metribuzin to pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D reduced the doses of pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D for 50%, 80%, and 95% control of GR horseweed to 19, 46, and 201 g ha−1, respectively. Pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D + metribuzin controlled GR horseweed by 97%, which is comparable to the current industry standards. Based on these results, pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D + metribuzin (527 + 400 g ha−1) applied preplant can be used for GR horseweed control in soybean.
Four field experiments were completed in commercial corn fields during 2019 and 2020 to determine glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed control in corn with tiafenacil alone or in combination with bromoxynil, dicamba, or tolpyralate applied preplant (PP). Corn planted 1 to 10 d after herbicide application was not injured with any of the herbicides tested. GR horseweed interference reduced corn grain yield 32% when left uncontrolled. Herbicides reduced GR horseweed interference and resulted in corn grain yield that was similar to the weed-free control. Glyphosate (900 g ae ha−1) + tiafenacil at 12.5, 25, and 37.5 g ha−1 controlled GR horseweed 63%, 68%, and 72% at 4 wk after treatment (WAT) and decreased GR horseweed density 64%, 43%, and 83% and dry biomass 69%, 55%, and 83%, respectively. Glyphosate + tiafenacil at 12.5, 25, and 37.5 g ha−1 plus bromoxynil (280 g ai ha−1) controlled GR horseweed 81%, 88%, and 87% at 4 WAT and reduced GR horseweed density 82%, 94%, and 93% and dry biomass 93%, 93%, and 98%, respectively. Glyphosate + tiafenacil at 12.5, 25, and 37.5 g ha−1 plus dicamba (300 g ai ha−1) controlled GR horseweed 86%, 88%, and 88% at 4 WAT and decreased GR horseweed density 76%, 89%, and 86% and dry biomass 94%, 98%, and 98%, respectively. Glyphosate + tiafenacil at 12.5, 25, and 37.5 g ha−1 plus tolpyralate (30 g ai ha−1) controlled GR horseweed 90%, 90%, and 91% at 4 WAT and decreased GR horseweed density 93%, 91%, and 95% and dry biomass 98%, 97%, and 97%, respectively. The industry standards in Ontario, glyphosate + dicamba/atrazine and glyphosate + saflufenacil/dimethenamid-p controlled GR horseweed 95% and 100% at 4, 8, and 12 WAT and caused 99% and 100% density or biomass reduction, respectively.
Tiafenacil is a recently developed protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicide from the pyrimidinedione chemical class that is proposed for use as a preplant (PP) burndown in soybean. Glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed is a troublesome weed often found in no-till systems that can dramatically reduce soybean yield; control in soybean has been variable. Five field experiments were conducted over 2019 and 2020 in commercial soybean fields with GR horseweed to determine the biologically effective dose (BED) of tiafenacil and tiafenacil + metribuzin and to compare their efficacy to currently accepted industry standard herbicide treatments in identity-preserved (IP, non-GMO), GR, and glyphosate/dicamba-resistant (GDR) soybean systems. There was no soybean injury with treatments evaluated. The calculated doses of tiafenacil for 50%, 80%, and 95% control of GR horseweed control were 21, 147, and >200 g ai ha−1, respectively, at 8 wk after application (WAA). Lower doses were calculated with the addition of metribuzin (400 g ai ha−1) to tiafenacil for 50% and 80% control, with no dose of tiafenacil + metribuzin providing 95% control. Tiafenacil + metribuzin at 25 + 400 and 50 + 400 g ai ha−1 controlled GR horseweed 88% and 93%, respectively, which was similar to the industry standards of saflufenacil + metribuzin (25 + 400 g ai ha−1) and glyphosate/dicamba + saflufenacil (1,200/600 + 25 g ai ha−1) that provided 98% and 100% control, respectively, at 8 WAA. This study presents the potential utility of tiafenacil + metribuzin as a GR horseweed management strategy in soybean.
Hairy fleabane and horseweed are pervasive weed species in agriculture. Glyphosate-resistant (GR) and glyphosate/paraquat–resistant (GPR) biotypes challenge current management strategies. These GR and GPR biotypes have non–target site resistance, which can confer resistance to herbicides with different sites of action (SOAs). This study’s objective was to characterize the response of GR, GPR, and glyphosate/paraquat–susceptible (GPS) biotypes of both weed species to herbicides with a different SOA. Whole-plant dose–response bioassays indicated a similar response among tested biotypes of both weed species to rimsulfuron, dicamba, hexazinone, glufosinate, flumioxazin, saflufenacil, or mesotrione. The hairy fleabane GR and GPR biotypes were 2.7- and 2.9-fold resistant to 2,4-D relative to the GPS biotype (GR50 766.7 g ai ha–1), confirming 2,4-D resistance in hairy fleabane for the first time in California. The GR and GPR biotypes were not cross-resistant to dicamba. No differences in response to 2,4-D were observed among horseweed biotypes with a GR50 ranging from 150.2 to 277.4 g ai ha–1. The GPR biotypes of both species were cross-resistant to diquat, with a 44.0-fold resistance in hairy fleabane (GR50 863.7 g ai ha–1) and 15.6-fold resistance in horseweed (GR50 563.1 g ai ha–1). The confirmation of multiple resistances to glyphosate, paraquat, and 2,4-D in hairy fleabane curtails herbicide SOA alternatives and jeopardizes resistance management strategies based on herbicide rotation and tank mixtures, underscoring the critical need for nonchemical weed control alternatives.
Glyphosate-resistant horseweed is difficult to manage in no-tillage crop production fields and new strategies are needed. Cover crops may provide an additional management tool but narrow establishment windows and colder growing conditions in northern climates may limit the cover crop biomass required to suppress horseweed. Field experiments were conducted in 3 site-years in Michigan to investigate the effects of two fall-planted cover crops, cereal rye and winter wheat, seeded at 67 or 135 kg ha−1, to suppress horseweed when integrated with three preplant herbicide strategies in no-tillage soybean. The preplant strategies were control (glyphosate only), preplant herbicide without residuals (glyphosate + 2,4-D), and preplant herbicide with residuals (glyphosate + 2,4-D + flumioxazin + metribuzin). Cereal rye produced 79% more biomass and provided 12% more ground cover than winter wheat in 2 site-years. Increasing seeding rate provided 41% more cover biomass in 1 site-year. Cover crops reduced horseweed density 47% to 96% and horseweed biomass by 59% to 70% compared with no cover at the time of cover crop termination. Cover crops provided no additional horseweed suppression 5 wk after soybean planting if a preplant herbicide with or without residuals was applied, but reduced horseweed biomass greater than 33% in the absence of preplant herbicides. Cover crops did not affect horseweed suppression at the time of soybean harvest or influence soybean yield. Preplant herbicide with residuals and without residuals provided at least 52% and 20% greater soybean yield compared with the control at 2 site-years, respectively. Cereal rye and winter wheat provided early-season horseweed suppression at biomass levels below 1,500 kg ha−1, lower than previously reported. This could give growers in northern climates an effective strategy for suppressing horseweed through the time of POST herbicide application while reducing selection pressure for horseweed that is resistant to more herbicide sites of action.
As herbicide-resistant weeds become more problematic, producers will consider the use of cover crops to suppress weeds. Weed suppression from cover crops may occur especially in the label-mandated buffer areas of dicamba-resistant soybean where dicamba use is not allowed. Three cover crops terminated at three timings with three herbicide strategies were evaluated for their effect on weed suppression in dicamba-resistant soybean. Delaying termination until soybean planting or after and using cereal rye or cereal rye + crimson clover increased cover-crop biomass by at least 40% compared to terminating early or using a crimson clover–only cover crop. Densities of problematic weed species were evaluated in early summer before a blanket POST application. Plots with cereal rye had 75% less horseweed compared to crimson clover at two of four site-years. Cereal rye or the mixed cover crop terminated at or after soybean planting reduced waterhemp densities by 87% compared to early termination timings of crimson clover and the earliest termination timing of the mix at one of two site-years. Cover crops were not as effective in reducing waterhemp densities as they were in reducing horseweed densities. This difference was due to a divergence in emergence patterns; waterhemp emergence generally peaks after termination of the cover crop, whereas horseweed emergence coincides with establishment and rapid vegetative growth of cereal rye. Cover crops alone were generally not as effective as was using a high-biomass cover crop combined with an herbicide strategy that contained dicamba and residual herbicides. However, within label-mandated buffer areas where dicamba cannot be used, a cover crop containing cereal rye with delayed termination until soybean planting combined with residual herbicides could be used to improve suppression of horseweed and waterhemp.
A field study was conducted in 2017 and 2018 to determine foliar efficacy of halauxifen-methyl, 2,4-D, or dicamba applied alone and in combination with glyphosate at preplant burndown timing. Experiments were conducted near Painter, VA; Rocky Mount, NC; Jackson, NC; and Gates, NC. Control of horseweed, henbit, purple deadnettle, cutleaf evening primrose, curly dock, purple cudweed, and common chickweed were evaluated. Halauxifen-methyl applied at 5 g ae ha−1 controlled small and large horseweed 89% and 79%, respectively, and was similar to control by dicamba applied at 280 g ae ha−1. Both rates of 2,4-D—533 g ae ha−1(low rate [LR]) or 1,066 g ae ha−1 (high rate [HR])—were less effective than halauxifen-methyl and dicamba for controlling horseweed. Halauxifen-methyl was the only auxin herbicide to control henbit (90%) and purple deadnettle (99%). Cutleaf evening primrose was controlled 74% to 85%, 51%, and 4% by 2,4-D, dicamba, and halauxifen-methyl, respectively. Dicamba and 2,4-D controlled curly dock 59% to 70% and were more effective than halauxifen-methyl (5%). Auxin herbicides applied alone controlled purple cudweed and common chickweed 21% or less. With the exception of cutleaf evening primrose (35%) and curly dock (37%), glyphosate alone provided 95% or greater control of all weeds evaluated. These experiments demonstrate halauxifen-methyl effectively (≥79%) controls horseweed, henbit, and purple deadnettle, whereas common chickweed, curly dock, cutleaf evening primrose, and purple cudweed control by the herbicide is inadequate (≤7%).
Field experiments were conducted in 2017 and 2018 at two locations in Indiana to evaluate the influence of cover crop species, termination timing, and herbicide treatment on winter and summer annual weed suppression and corn yield. Cereal rye and canola cover crops were terminated early or late (2 wk before or after corn planting) with a glyphosate- or glufosinate-based herbicide program. Canola and cereal rye reduced total weed biomass collected at termination by up to 74% and 91%, in comparison to fallow, respectively. Canola reduced horseweed density by up to 56% at termination and 57% at POST application compared to fallow. Cereal rye reduced horseweed density by up to 59% at termination and 87% at POST application compared to fallow. Canola did not reduce giant ragweed density at termination in comparison to fallow. Cereal rye reduced giant ragweed density by up to 66% at termination and 62% at POST application. Termination timing had little to no effect on weed biomass and density reduction in comparison to the effect of cover crop species. Cereal rye reduced corn grain yield at both locations in comparison to fallow, especially for the late-termination timing. Corn grain yield reduction up to 49% (4,770 kg ha–1) was recorded for cereal rye terminated late in comparison to fallow terminated late. Canola did not reduce corn grain yield in comparison to fallow within termination timing; however, late-terminated canola reduced corn grain yield by up to 21% (2,980 kg ha–1) in comparison to early-terminated fallow. Cereal rye can suppress giant ragweed emergence, whereas canola is not as effective at suppressing large-seeded broadleaves such as giant ragweed. These results also indicate that early-terminated cover crops can often result in higher corn grain yields than late-terminated cover crops in an integrated weed management program.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed is one of the most common and troublesome weeds in soybean production fields in several states in the United States, including Nebraska. The evolution of horseweed resistant to several herbicide sites of action has prioritized an integrated approach, including tillage, for effective management of this problem weed. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of tillage or herbicide applied in fall or spring followed by a PRE, POST, and PRE followed by a POST herbicide program for GR horseweed control as well as GR soybean injury and yield in Nebraska. Field studies were established in the fall 2014–2015 and 2015–2016 growing seasons using a factorial randomized complete block design with shallow tillage or herbicide applied at different timings as two factors. Shallow tillage was accomplished using a 50-cm-wide rototiller operated at a depth of 10 cm. At soybean harvest, tillage applied the previous year in fall or spring without any follow-up herbicide treatment provided 79% to 88% horseweed control compared with 27% and 56% control with 2,4-D plus carfentrazone applied in fall and spring, respectively. Tillage or herbicide applied in fall or spring followed by a PRE, POST, or PRE and POST herbicide provided 82% to 99% GR horseweed control at soybean harvest. Soybean yield in this study was similar in most treatments. Tillage or herbicide applied in fall or spring provided similar horseweed control and soybean yield when followed by a PRE, POST, or PRE and POST herbicide; therefore, fall- or spring-applied herbicides can be rotated with shallow tillage for integrated season-long horseweed management.
Horseweed, also known as marestail, is a problematic weed for no-till soybean producers that can emerge from late summer through the following spring. Overwintering cover crops can reduce both the density and size of fall-emerged weeds such as horseweed and reduce further spring emergence, although typically cover crops do not provide complete control. Cover crops may be integrated with additional spring herbicide applications to control emerged horseweed, and selective herbicides such as 2,4-D may be used to target horseweed while maintaining small grain cover crop growth. However, cover crops may affect herbicide deposition, which could reduce their efficacy to control weeds. The objective of this study was to determine how the amount and variability of 2,4-D ester spray solution deposition, measured with water-sensitive paper, was affected by a cereal rye cover crop and fall-applied saflufenacil. We also examined deposition at the soil surface relative to the cereal rye row position. In a year with greater cereal rye biomass accumulation, there was 44% less coverage and average deposit size was 45% smaller immediately adjacent to cereal rye rows compared with between rows and areas without cereal rye. Greater variability in these measurements was also noted in this position. Percent spray solution coverage was also 22% greater in plots that received saflufenacil in the fall, and deposits were 28% larger. In a year with less cover crop and winter weed biomass, no differences in spray deposition were observed. This suggests that small horseweed plants and other weeds immediately adjacent to cereal rye cover crop rows may be more likely to survive early spring herbicide applications, though the suppressive effects of cover crops may mitigate this concern.
Horseweed biotypes resistant to glyphosate and ALS-inhibiting herbicides are becoming more prevalent in Canada and the United States and present a significant management challenge in field crops. Tolpyralate is a recently commercialized herbicide for use in corn that inhibits 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), and there is little information regarding its efficacy on horseweed. Six field experiments were conducted in 2017 and 2018 at four locations in Ontario, Canada, to determine the biologically effective dose of tolpyralate and tolpyralate + atrazine and to compare label rates of tolpyralate and tolpyralate + atrazine to currently accepted herbicide standards for POST control of glyphosate and cloransulam-methyl resistant (MR) horseweed. At 8 wk after application (WAA), tolpyralate at 4.8 and 22.6 g ha–1 provided 50% and 80% control, respectively. When applied with atrazine at a 1:33.3 tank-mix ratio, 22.3 + 741.7 g ha–1 provided 95% control of MR horseweed. The addition of atrazine to tolpyralate at label rates improved control of MR horseweed to 98%, which was similar to the control provided by dicamba:atrazine and bromoxynil + atrazine. The results of this study indicate that tolpyralate + atrazine provides excellent control of MR horseweed POST in corn.
Timely herbicide applications for no-till soybean can be challenging given the diverse communities of both winter and summer annual weeds that are often present. Research was conducted to compare various approaches for nonselective and preplant weed control for no-till soybean. Nonselective herbicide application timings of fall (with and without a residual herbicide) followed by early-spring (4 wk before planting), late-spring (1 to 2 wk before planting), or sequential-spring applications (4 wk before planting and at planting) were compared. Spring applications also included a residual herbicide. For consistent control of winter annual weeds, two herbicide applications were needed, either a fall application followed by a spring application or sequential-spring applications. When a fall herbicide application did not include a residual herbicide, greater winter annual weed control resulted from early- or sequential-spring treatments. However, application timings that effectively controlled winter annual weeds did not effectively control summer annual weeds that have a prolonged emergence period. Palmer amaranth and large crabgrass control at 4 wk after planting was better when the spring residual treatment (chlorimuron plus metribuzin) was applied 1 to 2 wk before planting or at planting, compared with 4 wk before planting. Results indicate that in order to optimize control, herbicide application programs in soybean should coincide with seasonal growth cycles of winter and summer annual weeds.