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Most previous research has handled the task of ship type recognition by exploring hand-craft ship features, which may fail to distinguish ships with similar visual appearances. This situation motivates us to propose a novel deep learning based ship type recognition framework which we have named coarse-to-fine cascaded convolution neural network (CFCCNN). First, the proposed CFCCNN framework formats the input training ship images and data, and provides trainable input data for the hidden layers of the CFCCNN. Second, the coarse and fine steps are run in a nesting manner to explore discriminative features for different ship types. More specifically, the coarse step is trained in a similar manner to the traditional convolution neural network, while the fine step introduces regularisation mechanisms to extract more intrinsic ship features, and fine tunes parameter settings to obtain better recognition performance. Finally, we evaluate the performance of the CFCCNN model for recognising the most common types of merchant ship (oil tanker, container, LNG tanker, chemical carrier, general cargo, bulk carrier, etc.). The experimental results show that the proposed framework obtains better recognition performance than the conventional methods of ship type recognition.
Aircraft conflict resolution is an important part of air traffic control operations. This study presents a mixed integer linear programming model (MILP) using a space discretisation technique to deal with aircraft conflict resolutions in en-route flight operations. The purpose of space discretisation is to concentrate on only the significant points of the airspace. The model integrates the multi entry point approach with an airspeed adjustment technique in the horizontal plane. The model aims to generate conflict-free trajectories while minimising the total changes in entry points and airspeed values. A new heuristic algorithm was developed due to the complexity of the problem. The computational results demonstrated that the proposed approach resolved aircraft conflicts for 450 different traffic scenarios in less than a minute. Considerable fuel savings were achieved with no significant increase in delay or flight time compared to conventional vectoring techniques in a fixed entry point airspace structure.
There are two ways to study how people make decisions. Decision-making under risk deals with well-defined situations where all possible outcomes and their probabilities are known for certain. Examples are playing roulette or buying a lottery ticket. Decision-making under uncertainty, by contrast, deals with ill-defined situations where this certainty is not attainable for humans or machines, such as how to invest your money, or whom to marry. Risk can be tamed by logic probability theory; uncertainty needs more smart heuristics. Many situations require both competencies. In this chapter, I introduce the tools for both forms of decision-making, the debates associated with the nature of rationality, and the link between decision-making and intelligence.
In the literature on judgment and decision making, a distinction is drawn between the effortless, fast, and automatic thinking of System 1 and the effortful, slow thinking of System 2, which requires deliberate attention and control. Owing to its cognitive ease, the uncritical thinking of System 1 operates by default. When the stakes are sufficiently high, we can engage in more critical thinking. We conceptualize critical thinking as scientific reasoning, an array of human inventions specifically designed to overcome the limitations and biases inherent to the efficient but error-prone System 1 thinking. We organize this discussion of critical thinking around five guidelines for scientific reasoning: consider alternative explanations to establish competing predictions, collect data as systematically and comprehensively as possible, establish a specific and reliable protocol, consider the role of chance, and weigh all available evidence. As a concrete illustration, running throughout this chapter is an examination of the power of sports momentum. We define the construct, attribute its appeal to aspects of System 1 thinking, and show how a more critical appraisal that follows the guidelines for scientific reasoning suggests that sports momentum may be little more than a cognitive illusion.
Behavioral paternalists often distinguish their views from harder forms of paternalism by emphasizing the moderate character of their proposals. Insights from the academic literature on slippery slopes suggest that behavioral paternalist policies are particularly vulnerable to expansion, which makes the claim to moderation unsustainable. This is true even if policymakers are rational (in the neoclassical sense), but the slippery-slope threat is even greater if policymakers share the behavioral and cognitive biases attributed to the people their policies are supposed to help. Rational slope mechanisms include altered incentive slopes, authority and simplification slopes, and expanding justification slopes. Behavioral slope mechanisms include action bias, overconfidence, confirmation bias, present bias, availability and salience effects, framing and extremeness aversion, and affect and prototype heuristics. The theoretical and empirical vagueness of behavioral paternalism creates gradients that encourage the gradual expansion of policies. Finally, the particular way in which leading behavioral paternalists have framed the issue of paternalism gives rise to an inherently expansionist dynamic, which we call the paternalism-generating framework.
Heading errors caused by gyroscope drift affect the positioning precision of pedestrian dead reckoning, and these errors are even greater for smartphone-based reckoning. In this study, an optimised improved heuristic drift elimination (O-iHDE) method is proposed to correct the heading errors on a smartphone gyroscope. Based on an analysis of the improved heuristic drift elimination (iHDE) and enhanced improved heuristic drift elimination (E-iHDE) algorithms, the quaternion method is used to update the attitude and angle threshold judgement conditions, and a method for correcting the quaternion is added to eliminate the heading errors caused by random gyro errors. The analysis of multiple sets of experiments shows that the new method improves the ability to discern and correct the walking route, and the heading accuracy is improved by more than 90%, which extends the effective operation time of pedestrian dead reckoning positioning based on the step-by-step system.
Sexually reproducing pathogens such as Cyclospora cayetanensis often produce genetically heterogeneous infections where the number of unique sequence types detected at any given locus varies depending on which locus is sequenced. The genotypes assigned to these infections quickly become complex when additional loci are analysed. This genetic heterogeneity confounds the utility of traditional sequence-typing and phylogenetic approaches for aiding epidemiological trace-back, and requires new methods to address this complexity. Here, we describe an ensemble of two similarity-based classification algorithms, including a Bayesian and heuristic component that infer the relatedness of C. cayetanensis infections. The ensemble requires a set of haplotypes as input and assigns arbitrary distances to specimen pairs reflecting their most likely relationships. The approach was applied to data generated from a test cohort of 88 human fecal specimens containing C. cayetanensis, including 30 from patients whose infections were associated with epidemiologically defined outbreak clusters of cyclosporiasis. The ensemble assigned specimens to plausible clusters of genetically related infections despite their complex haplotype composition. These relationships were corroborated by a significant number of epidemiological linkages (P < 0.0001) suggesting the ensemble's utility for aiding epidemiological trace-back investigations of cyclosporiasis.
Designing the boundary layer thickness and switching gain in the nonlinear part of sliding mode controller (SMC) is one of the main subjects in SMC design that needs human experience, knowledge on the amplitude of disturbances, and information about the bounds of system uncertainties. In this paper, to reduce the trial-and-error effort by the designer(s) two different fitness functions in the horizontal and vertical planes are presented and a heuristic method is used for their optimization. The optimal switching gain in the proposed approach properly compensates the unmodeled dynamics, model uncertainty, and external disturbances. Chattering phenomenon in control signals and noise measurement effect are reduced by the optimal selection of boundary layer thickness. This proposed method is applied to an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and evaluated through the real-time and cost-effective manner. The execution code is implemented on a single-board computer (SBC) through the xPC Target and is evaluated by the processor-in-the-loop (PIL) test. The results of the PIL test in the two different test cases indicate that the chattering phenomenon and amplitude of control signal applied to the actuators are reduced in comparison with the three conventional approaches in the AUV motion control.
Negative attitudes toward aging are common among formal healthcare providers, but have been infrequently assessed among informal caregivers providing assistance to older adults. The current study sought to identify factors associated with ageism toward older women.
Multivariate hierarchical linear regression model
Lower-income neighborhoods in an urban setting in the Midwestern USA
144 care network members of White and African American women aged ≥ 65 years
Age Group Evaluation and Description (AGED) Inventory assessed attitudes toward older women; CES-D scale measured depressive symptoms; Intergenerational Affectional Solidarity Scale assessed relationship closeness.
In bivariate analyses, African American caregivers endorsed more positive attitudes toward older women. In the multivariate regression model, attitudes toward older women were associated with care recipient health (β = 0.18, p < 0.05) and relationship closeness with the care recipient (β = 0.23, p < 0.05). However, these associations were fully mediated by care recipient-specific attitude ratings by the care network member. The association between person-specific attitudes and general attitudes was uniquely directional.
Findings from the present study are consistent with past research suggesting that ‘ageism’ may, at least in part, derive from bias against perceived poor health. Further, our findings of an association between attitude toward the care recipient and attitudes toward older women in general provide support for cognitive psychology theory which emphasizes the role of personal experience in stereotype formation through the availability heuristic. The current study underlines the necessity for development of interventions to address ageism in informal caregivers.
In this paper, we analyse the difference between two types of behavioural policies – nudges and boosts. We distinguish them on the basis of the mechanisms through which they are expected to operate and identify the contextual conditions that are necessary for each policy to be successful. Our framework helps judging which type of policy is more likely to bring about the intended behavioural outcome in a given situation.
ICAR-Directorate of Cashew Research is the nodal agency for conducting cashew research and manages the largest field gene bank in India. Cashew is a perennial tree and needs more land and other resources to maintain accessions. Conservation through seeds is not feasible because of cross-pollination. Tissue culture efforts to regenerate plants from mature explants are not successful. Therefore, efficient management of the filed gene bank particularly utilization requires designation of the core collection representing the spectrum of diversity present in the entire collection. In this study, a relatively new technique, the advanced M strategy with heuristic approach was deployed to develop the core collection. Sixty-eight morphometric characters of 478 accessions were subjected to analysis resulting in the core collection of 49 accessions. Further, another core collection of same number was constituted by K-Means clustering to compare the efficiency of two approaches. The validation parameters like mean difference, variance difference, coincidence rate, variable rate and class coverage among others were employed for comparative analysis. The results of these parameters revealed that the core collection designated by heuristic approach was better able to efficiently represent and retain the diversity of the entire collection compared with the core identified by clustering approach. Future conservation and breeding efforts will be focused on establishing a separate block in the field gene bank having 49 accessions of cashew core collection.
Objectives: Economic decision-support tools can provide valuable information for tobacco control stakeholders, but their usability may impact the adoption of such tools. This study aims to illustrate a mixed-method usability evaluation of an economic decision-support tool for tobacco control, using the EQUIPT ROI tool prototype as a case study.
Methods: A cross-sectional mixed methods design was used, including a heuristic evaluation, a thinking aloud approach, and a questionnaire testing and exploring the usability of the Return of Investment tool.
Results: A total of sixty-six users evaluated the tool (thinking aloud) and completed the questionnaire. For the heuristic evaluation, four experts evaluated the interface. In total twenty-one percent of the respondents perceived good usability. A total of 118 usability problems were identified, from which twenty-six problems were categorized as most severe, indicating high priority to fix them before implementation.
Conclusions: Combining user-based and expert-based evaluation methods is recommended as these were shown to identify unique usability problems. The evaluation provides input to optimize usability of a decision-support tool, and may serve as a vantage point for other developers to conduct usability evaluations to refine similar tools before wide-scale implementation. Such studies could reduce implementation gaps by optimizing usability, enhancing in turn the research impact of such interventions.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of food label nutrition colouring schemes in interaction with food category healthiness on consumers’ perceptions of food healthiness. Three streams of colour theory (colour attention, colour association and colour approach-avoidance) in interaction with heuristic processing theory provide consonant predictions and explanations for the underlying psychological processes.
A 2 (food category healthiness: healthy v. unhealthy)×3 (food label nutrient colouring schemes: healthy=green, unhealthy=red (HGUR) v. healthy=red, unhealthy=green (HRUG) v. no colour (control)) between-subjects design was used.
The research setting was a randomised-controlled experiment using varying formats of food packages and nutritional information colouring.
Respondents (n 196) sourced from a national consumer panel, USA.
The findings suggest that, for healthy foods, the nutritional colouring schemes reduced perceived healthiness, irrespective of which nutrients were coloured red or green (healthinesscontrol=4·86; healthinessHGUR=4·10; healthinessHRUG=3·70). In contrast, for unhealthy foods, there was no significant difference in perceptions of food healthiness when comparing different colouring schemes against the control.
The results make an important qualification to the common belief that colour coding can enhance the correct interpretation of nutrition information and suggest that this incentive may not necessarily support healthier food choices in all situations.
Past research shows that candidates' racial identities influence the assumptions that voters draw about how they will behave in office. In a national survey experiment examining televised candidate advertisements, we find evidence that stereotypes differ both in their potency and how vulnerable they are to disconfirmation. Consistent with previous work, black candidates are broadly assumed to be more liberal than white candidates, although the effect is notably small in magnitude. Yet when it comes to more specific stereotypes—how black candidates will behave on individual issues—effects are not only much larger, but also more contingent on what information is available. We find that by providing a small bit of ideological information, black candidates can overcome the assumption that they will enact liberal policies as concerns taxation and non-racialized aspects of social welfare policy. But it is much more difficult for them to overturn the assumption that they will prioritize aid to minorities while in office.
The class of restless bandits as proposed by Whittle (1988) have long been known to be intractable. This paper presents an optimality result which extends that of Weber and Weiss (1990) for restless bandits to a more general setting in which individual bandits have multiple levels of activation but are subject to an overall resource constraint. The contribution is motivated by the recent works of Glazebrook et al. (2011a), (2011b) who discussed the performance of index heuristics for resource allocation in such systems. Hitherto, index heuristics have been shown, under a condition of full indexability, to be optimal for a natural Lagrangian relaxation of such problems in which a resource is purchased rather than constrained. We find that under key assumptions about the nature of solutions to a deterministic differential equation that the index heuristics above are asymptotically optimal in a sense described by Whittle. We then demonstrate that these assumptions always hold for three-state bandits.
To evaluate heuristics (rules of thumb) for recognition of undetected vision loss in older patients in primary care.
Vision loss is associated with ageing, and its prevalence is increasing. Visual impairment has a broad impact on health, functioning and well-being. Unrecognised vision loss remains common, and screening interventions have yet to reduce its prevalence. An alternative approach is to enhance practitioners’ skills in recognising undetected vision loss, by having a more detailed picture of those who are likely not to act on vision changes, report symptoms or have eye tests. This paper describes a qualitative technology development study to evaluate heuristics for recognition of undetected vision loss in older patients in primary care.
Using a previous modelling study, two heuristics in the form of mnemonics were developed to aid pattern recognition and allow general practitioners to identify potential cases of unreported vision loss. These heuristics were then analysed with experts.
It was concluded that their implementation in modern general practice was unsuitable and an alternative solution should be sort.
We propose that human reasoning relies on an inherence heuristic, an implicit cognitive process that leads people to explain observed patterns (e.g., girls wear pink) predominantly in terms of the inherent features of their constituents (e.g., pink is a delicate color). We then demonstrate how this proposed heuristic can provide a unified account for a broad set of findings spanning areas of research that might at first appear unrelated (e.g., system justification, nominal realism, is–ought errors in moral reasoning). By revealing the deep commonalities among the diverse phenomena that fall under its scope, our account is able to generate new insights into these phenomena, as well as new empirical predictions. A second main goal of this article, aside from introducing the inherence heuristic, is to articulate the proposal that the heuristic serves as a foundation for the development of psychological essentialism. More specifically, we propose that essentialism – which is the common belief that natural and social categories are underlain by hidden, causally powerful essences – emerges over the first few years of life as an elaboration of the earlier, and more open-ended, intuitions supplied by the inherence heuristic. In the final part of the report, we distinguish our proposal from competing accounts (e.g., Strevens's K-laws) and clarify the relationship between the inherence heuristic and related cognitive tendencies (e.g., the correspondence bias). In sum, this article illuminates a basic cognitive process that emerges early in life and is likely to have profound effects on many aspects of human psychology.
The coupled tasks scheduling problem is a class of scheduling problems introduced for
beam steering software of sophisticated radar devices, called phased arrays. Due to
increasing popularity of such radars, the importance of coupled tasks scheduling is
constantly growing. Unfortunately, most of the coupled tasks problems are NP-hard, and
only a few practically usable algorithms for such problems were found. This paper provides
a survey of already known complexity results of various variants of coupled tasks
problems. Then, it complements previous results by providing experimental results of two
new polynomial algorithms for coupled tasks scheduling, which are: an exact algorithm for
and a fast heuristic algorithm for more general
1|(1,2k, 1), strictchains|Cmax
problem, where k ∈ ℕ.
This paper establishes relations between the stability and the high-order truncated corrections for modeling of the mass conservation equation with the two-relaxation-times (TRT) collision operator. First we propose a simple method to derive the truncation errors from the exact, central-difference type, recurrence equations of the TRT scheme. They also supply its equivalent three-time-level discretization form. Two different relationships of the two relaxation rates nullify the third (advection) and fourth (pure diffusion) truncation errors, for any linear equilibrium and any velocity set. However, the two relaxation times alone cannot remove the leading-order advection-d if fusion error, because of the intrinsic fourth-order numerical diffusion. The truncation analysis is carefully verified for the evolution of concentration waves with the anisotropic diffusion tensors. The anisotropic equilibrium functions are presented in a simple but general form, suitable for the minimal velocity sets and the d2Q9, d3Q13, d3Q15 and d3Q19 velocity sets. All anisotropic schemes are complemented by their exact necessary von Neumann stability conditions and equivalent finite-difference stencils. The sufficient stability conditions are proposed for the most stable (OTRT) family, which enables modeling at any Peclet numbers with the same velocity amplitude. The heuristic stability analysis of the fourth-order truncated corrections extends the optimal stability to larger relationships of the two relaxation rates, in agreement with the exact (one-dimensional) and numerical (multi-dimensional) stability analysis. A special attention is put on the choice of the equilibrium weights. By combining accuracy and stability predictions, several strategies for selecting the relaxation and free-tunable equilibrium parameters are suggested and applied to the evolution of the Gaussian hill.