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We present the case of a 17-year-old boy with a cardiac venous malformation. This case highlights the diagnostic challenges of such tumours and demonstrates the potential efficacy of a watch-and-wait management approach.
Haemangioma of the adult larynx is an uncommon, benign lesion. The optimal surgical method of treating these lesions is controversial because only very limited case series are available. This paper reports the results of transoral robotic resection of a supraglottic haemangioma in an adult and reviews the literature.
Methods and results:
A 58-year-old woman presented having experienced a lump-in-the-throat sensation for 1 year. Investigations on laryngoscopy revealed a lobulated, dark red mass in the region of the supraglottis. This was successfully excised by transoral robotic excision without complications.
Adult supraglottic haemangiomas can be treated successfully with transoral robotic excision; this potentially allows more of the surrounding mucosal tissue to be spared and enables easy control of bleeding.
Treatment options for large subglottic haemangioma include steroids, laser ablation, open excision, tracheostomy and, more recently, propranolol. This article aims to present the Great Ormond Street Hospital guidelines for using propranolol to treat infantile isolated subglottic haemangioma by ENT surgeons.
The vascular malformations multidisciplinary team at Great Ormond Street Hospital has developed guidelines for treating infantile haemangioma with propranolol.
The Great Ormond Street Hospital guidelines for propranolol treatment for infantile subglottic haemangioma include investigation, treatment and follow up. Propranolol is started at 1 mg/kg/day divided into three doses, increasing to 2 mg/kg/day one week later. On starting propranolol and when increasing the dose, the pulse rate and blood pressure must be checked every 30 minutes for the first 2 hours. Lesion response to treatment is assessed via serial endoscopy.
Recent reports of dramatic responses to oral propranolol in children with haemangioma and acute airway obstruction have led to increased use. We advocate caution, and have developed guidelines (including pre-treatment investigation and monitoring) to improve treatment safety. Propranolol may in time prove to be the best medical treatment for subglottic haemangioma, but at present is considered to be still under evaluation.
Intramuscular haemangiomas of the digastric muscle are often misdiagnosed due to their low incidence and non-specific manifestation. Only two out of six previously reported cases were diagnosed correctly before excision. Ultrasound may not reveal their vascularity, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy is unhelpful as it reveals only blood.
A case of intramuscular haemangioma of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle is described. Previously reported cases are reviewed. Investigations used to diagnose the lesions and reasons for their common failure are discussed.
Core-needle biopsy led to the correct histological diagnosis, and magnetic resonance imaging precisely located the lesion within the digastric muscle.
Core-needle biopsy was safely used in the diagnosis of an intramuscular haemangioma. The combination of core-needle biopsy and meticulous review of magnetic resonance imaging enables accurate diagnosis pre-operatively.
We report the case of a rare angiosarcoma, retiform haemangioendothelioma, in an 18-year-old young man, which presented as a recurrent ulcerating lesion of the left pinna.
Case report and literature review of retiform haemangioendothelioma. This is a low grade angiosarcoma with a high local recurrence rate and low metastasis rate, and was first described in 1994 by Calonje et al.
This patient represents only the third report of lymph node metastasis in a case of retiform haemangioendothelioma. To date, 31 cases of the tumour have been reported. Histological diagnosis of this group of vascular neoplasms can be challenging, as their histopathological appearance is intermediate between haemangioma and angiosarcoma.
Surgical excision remains the primary treatment modality, with adjuvant radiotherapy recommended in patients with large tumour size, local recurrence and lymph node metastasis, as seen in this case.
To report the first case of mandibular branch haemangioma of the trigeminal nerve causing erosion of the petrous carotid canal. The radiological and histological findings in this case are reviewed.
A 60-year-old woman presented with severe, right-sided facial pain and paraesthesia. There were no associated symptoms of facial weakness or diplopia. A magnetic resonance imaging scan with gadolinium enhancement was performed. This showed a lesion slightly compressing the right Meckel's cave and eroding the right petrous carotid canal, occupying the foramen ovale and extending to the pterygoid muscle. The lesion was removed via a subtemporal approach.
Haemangiomas are usually found on the skin and in other soft tissues. However, this rare tumour should also be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions occupying Meckel's cave and the foramen ovale.
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