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The author understands solidarity primarily as a legal concept of co-operative projects of forming an ever further expanded democratic legal community (Rechtsgenossenschaft). Solidarity is complementary to justice, and principle of democracy that is self-legislated includes both sides. Self-legislation, solidarity and justice are equally universal concepts. The first section of the chapter is a brief diagnosis of modern society under conditions of global crisis. Democratic solidarity must stand up to two crucial experimental checks, one is normative and the other factual. The second section of the chapter draws some political conclusions related to the most fundamental problems of the present world society. The final section tries to specify four changes political agencies need to adopt to save democratic solidarities under stress from globalisation.
The contrast, then, of the success of this group of merchants with a political dynasty in decline and with many educated men feeling that their learning and values were threatened by the ascendance of these merchants and a great number of other late Ming changes provides a suitable beginning to a book concerned in part with the trouble Huizhou merchants had in gaining public, official, and social recognition of their changed place in the Chinese economy by the end of the Ming.
For a developing economy transitioning into knowledge-intensive sectors, the lack of capacity for advanced education poses a natural challenge. Many successfully industrialized countries used high-skilled foreign teachers to overcome this challenge. I present a stylized quantitative model of trade in high-skilled human capital, in which colleges in a developing country can hire high quality teachers from a developed country. In the model, the use of foreign teachers is proposed as a possible mechanism to build domestic capacity for advanced education. Quantitative calibrations of the model show two main results. First, there are significant frictions in human capital trade, as measured by the wedge between the level of human capital observed in the data versus the level simulated under the assumption of no frictions. Removal of the wedge can narrow the average income gap between the USA and other countries by about 14–24%. Second, relative to countries with the lowest and highest incomes, middle-income countries appear to gain the most from removing the wedge.
The aim is to determine the disparity between the overweight and obesity prevalence of Chinese American school-aged children and adolescents as measured by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth reference and the prevalence as measured by international and ethnic-specific-growth references.
This retrospective, cross-sectional study measured overweight and obesity prevalence among a paediatric population using the CDC, International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), World Health Organization (WHO) and an ethnic Chinese growth curve.
A community health centre in New York City, USA.
Chinese American children aged 6–17 years in 2017 (N 9160).
The overweight prevalence was 24 % (CDC), 23 % (IOTF), 30 % (WHO) and 31 % (China). The obesity prevalence was 10 % (CDC), 5 % (IOTF), 10 % (WHO) and 10 % (China). When disaggregated by age and sex, the difference was the most prominent in girls; using the China reference compared with using the CDC reference almost doubles the overweight prevalence (school-aged: 31 v. 17 %, P < 0·001, adolescent: 27 v. 14 %, P < 0·001) and the obesity prevalence (school-aged: 11 v. 5 %, P < 0·001, adolescent: 7 v. 4 %, P < 0·001).
Use of the CDC reference compared with the Chinese ethnic-specific reference results in lower overweight and obesity prevalence in Chinese American girls. Almost half of the girls who were overweight and half of the girls who were obese were not identified using the CDC reference. Using ethnic-specific references or ethnic-specific cut-points may help improve overweight identification for Chinese American children.
Quantifying the rate of wave attenuation in sea ice is key to understanding trends in the Antarctic marginal ice zone extent. However, a paucity of observations of waves in sea ice limits progress on this front. We deployed 14 waves-in-ice observation systems (WIIOS) on Antarctic sea ice during the Polynyas, Ice Production, and seasonal Evolution in the Ross Sea expedition (PIPERS) in 2017. The WIIOS provide in situ measurement of surface wave characteristics. Two experiments were conducted, one while the ship was inbound and one outbound. The sea ice throughout the experiments generally consisted of pancake and young ice <0.5 m thick. The WIIOS survived a minimum of 4 d and a maximum of 6 weeks. Several large-wave events were captured, with the largest recorded significant wave height over 9 m. We find that the total wave energy measured by the WIIOS generally decays exponentially in the ice and the rate of decay depends on ice concentration.
Precision feeding using real-time models to estimate daily tailored diets can potentially increase nutrient utilization efficiency. However, to improve the estimation of amino acid requirements for growing–finishing pigs, it is necessary to accurately estimate the real-time body protein (BP) mass. The aim of this study was to predict individual BP over time in order to obtain individual daily protein content of the gain (i.e., protein deposition/daily gain, PD/DG) to be integrated into a real-time model used for precision feeding. Two databases were used in this study: one for the development of the equations for the model and the other for model evaluation. For the equations, data from 79 barrows (25 to 144 kg BW) were used to estimate the parameters for a Gompertz function and a mixed linear-quadratic regression. Individual BP predictions obtained by dual X-ray absorptiometry were regressed as a function of BW. Individual pig BP estimates were obtained by linear-quadratic regression using the MIXED procedure of SAS, considering pig measurements repeated in time. Individual Gompertz curves were obtained using the NLMIXED procedure of SAS. Both procedures generate an average or a general model, which was assessed for accuracy with the database used to generate the equations. Coefficients of concordance and determination were both 0.99, and the RMSE was 0.21 kg for the linear-quadratic regression. The Gompertz curve coefficients of concordance and determination were both 0.99, and the RMSE was 0.36 kg. In sequence, the linear-quadratic regression and Gompertz curve were evaluated in an independent data set (488 observations; 21 to 126 kg BW). The linear-quadratic regression to predict BP mass was accurate (mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) = 2.5%; bias = 0.03); the Gompertz model performed worse (MAPE = 3.9%; bias = 0.04) than the linear-quadratic regression. When using the derivative of these equations to predict PD/DG, the linear-quadratic regression was more accurate (MAPE = 4.8%, bias = 0.17%) compared to the Gompertz (MAPE = 10.6%, bias = −0.99%) mainly due to the linear decrease in PD/DG in the observed data. Further analysis using individual pig data showed that the goodness of fit of PD/DG curve depends on the individual shape of the growth curve, with either the Gompertz or the linear-quadratic regression being more accurate for specific individuals. Therefore, both approaches are provided to allow end users to select the model that best fits their needs. The proposed update of the empirical component of the original model, using either linear-quadratic regression or the Gompertz function, is able to predict BP in real-time with good accuracy.
The description of the growth of the Japanese quails is necessary to characterize the genetic potential of these birds raised in different countries. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the genetic potential of Japanese quails by conducting a meta-analysis considering studies conducted in different countries. Only data about the subspecies Coturnix coturnix japonica were considered; studies regarding Coturnix coturnix coturnix were not examined. The criteria investigated were BW (W), age (t), year of publication and location of the study. Each set of genetic material within a publication was coded as one study. The Gompertz function was used to interpret the growth of laying quails; thus, each study was represented by Gompertz parameters. The W and t data were applied to estimate the values of Gompertz growth parameters, including BW at maturity (Wm), BW at birth (Wi), maturity rate (B) and inflection point (IP). The age at which the maximum growth rate was achieved (t*) was calculated considering the parameters Wm, Wi and B. To estimate these parameters, random regression was used to randomize the parameter Wm. The parameters estimated for each assay were used in exploratory, grouping, and principal component analyses. The values of Wi ranged from 4.1 to 11.6 g. The values of B ranged from 0.0393 to 0.1039/day, and consequently, the values of t* and IP ranged from 14 to 31 days and 9.21 to 31.03 g, respectively. These results show that there is considerable variability in the growth potential of Japanese quails. To better understand this variation, two groups were examined: Brazil and other countries, according to the grouping of Wi, Wm, B and t*; parameter B was the variable that presented the highest specificity, indicating that both groups modified the maturity rate. For the principal component analysis, the year of publication showed a relationship with the growth parameters but only for studies performed in Brazil. For studies carried out in other countries, the changes in growth parameters were not related to the year of publication. In Brazilian studies, there was a decrease in the maturity rate, but the weight at maturity was higher. Therefore, it appears that different strategies of genetic selection were adopted in Brazil compared to other countries.
Fat metabolism is an important and complex biochemical reaction in vivo and is regulated by many factors. Recently, the findings on high expression of fibroblast growth factor-16 (FGF16) in brown adipose tissue have led to an interest in exploring its role in lipogenesis and lipid metabolism. The study cloned the goat’s FGF16 gene 624 bp long, including the complete open reading frame that encodes 207 amino acids. We found that FGF16 expression is highest in goat kidneys and hearts, followed by subcutaneous fat and triceps. Moreover, the expression of FGF16 reached its peak on the 2nd day of adipocyte differentiation (P < 0.01) and then decreased significantly. We used overexpression and interference to study the function of FGF16 gene in goat intramuscular preadipocytes. Silencing of FGF16 decreased adipocytes lipid droplet aggregation and triglyceride synthesis. This is in contrast to the situation where FGF16 is overexpressed. Furthermore, knockdown of FGF16 also caused down-regulated expression of genes associated with adipocyte differentiation including CCAAT enhancer-binding protein beta (P < 0.01), fatty acid-binding protein-2 (P < 0.01) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (P < 0.05), but the preadipocyte factor-1 was up-regulated. At the same time, the genes adipose triglyceride lipase (P < 0.01) and hormone-sensitive lipase (P < 0.05) associated with triglyceride breakdown were highly expressed. Next, we locked the fibroblast growth factor receptor-4 (FGFR4) through the protein interaction network and interfering with FGF16 to significantly reduce FGFR4 expression. It was found that the expression profile of FGFR4 in adipocyte differentiation was highly similar to that of FGF16. Overexpression and interference methods confirmed that FGFR4 and FGF16 have the same promoting function in adipocyte differentiation. Finally, using co-transfection technology, pc-FGF16 and siRNA-FGFR4, siRNA2-FGF16 and siRNA-FGFR4 were combined to treat adipocytes separately. It was found that in the case of overexpression of FGF16, cell lipid secretion and triglyceride synthesis showed a trend of first increase and then decrease with increasing interference concentration. In the case of interference with FGF16, lipid secretion and triglyceride synthesis showed a downward trend with the increase of interference concentration. These findings illustrated that FGF16 mediates adipocyte differentiation via receptor FGFR4 expression and contributed to further study of the functional role of FGF16 in goat fat formation.
To identify a proper strategy for future feed-efficient pig farming, it is required to evaluate the ongoing selection scenarios. Tools are lacking for the evaluation of pig selection scenarios in terms of environmental impacts to provide selection guidelines for a more sustainable pig production. Selection on residual feed intake (RFI) has been proposed to improve feed efficiency and potentially reduce the associated environmental impacts. The aim of this study was thus to develop a model to account for individual animal performance in life cycle assessment (LCA) methods to quantify the responses to selection. Experimental data were collected from the fifth generation of pig lines divergently selected for RFI (low line, more efficient pigs, LRFI; high line, less efficient pigs, HRFI). The average feed conversion ratio (FCR) and daily feed intake of LRFI pigs were 7% lower than the average of HRFI pigs (P < 0.0001). A parametric model was developed for LCA based on the dietary net energy fluxes in a pig system. A nutritional pig growth tool, InraPorc®, was included as a module in the model to embed flexibility for changes in feed composition, animal performance traits and housing conditions and to simulate individual pig performance. The comparative individual-based LCA showed that LRFI had an average of 7% lower environmental impacts per kilogram live pig at farm gate compared to HRFI (P < 0.0001) on climate change, acidification potential, freshwater eutrophication potential, land occupation and water depletion. High correlations between FCR and all environmental impact categories (>0.95) confirmed the importance of improvement in feed efficiency to reduce environmental impacts. Significant line differences in all impact categories and moderate correlations with impacts (>0.51) revealed that RFI is an effective measure to select for improved environmental impacts, despite lower correlations compared to FCR. Altogether more optimal criteria for efficient environment-friendly selection can then be expected through restructuring the selection indexes from an environmental point of view.
Microvascular health is a main determinant of coronary blood flow reserve and myocardial vascular resistance. Extracardiac capillary abnormality has been reported in subjects at increased coronary heart disease risk, such as prehypertension, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis. We have reported cardiovascular dysfunction in a cohort of maternal nutrient reduction (MNR)-induced intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) baboon offspring. Here we test the hypothesis that there is oral capillary rarefaction associated with MNR-induced IUGR. Capillary density was quantified using in vivo high-power capillaroscopy on seven middle-aged (~10.7 yr; human equivalent ~40 yr) male IUGR baboons and seven male age-matched controls in the lateral buccal and inferior labial mucosa. While no difference was found between groups in either area by fraction area or optical density for these vascular beds derived from fetal preductal vessels, further studies are needed on post-ductal vascular beds, retina, and function.
Dietary chitosan (CS) supplementation could improve the growth rate, small intestinal morphology, nutrients apparent digestibility and digestive enzyme activities in pigs, broiler chickens, rats and fish, whereas no data has been reported about the effect of CS on the growing Huoyan geese. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of CS on growth rate, small intestinal morphology, nutrients apparent utilization and digestive enzyme activities of growing Huoyan geese. Three hundred and twenty (28 days of age, gender balance) Huoyan geese were randomly divided into control, CS100, CS200 and CS400 groups (based on BW) with 20 geese per pen and 4 replicates pen per group, and the feeding experiment lasted for 4 weeks. The 4 diets contained 0, 100, 200 and 400 mg CS per kg feed, respectively. The results showed that CS200 groups had higher average daily gain, final BW, apparent utilization of DM and CP, and lower feed/gain ratio compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, CS100 and CS200 groups had higher villus height, villus height/crypt depth ratio and lower crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum than those in the control group (P < 0.05). The geese in CS100 and CS200 groups had higher villus height, villus height/crypt depth ratio and lower crypt depth of ileum compared with those in control and CS400 groups (P < 0.05). In addition, compared with the control group, CS200 group has higher trypsin activities and lower lipase activities in duodenal, jejunal and ileal contents (P < 0.05). The results suggested that addition of 200 mg/kg CS had positive effects on growth rate, small intestinal morphology, nutrients apparent utilization and digestive enzyme activities of growing Huoyan geese.
A thermo-tolerant diatom species has been isolated from Tunisian hot spring water (40°C). The isolated diatom has been molecularly identified and classified into the genus Halamphora. The growth kinetics, lipid content and distribution of fatty acids were assessed at 20 and 30°C temperature levels and constant irradiance in controlled batch cultures (11 days). Halamphora sp. showed better growth (μ = 0.53 day−1) and a higher lipid yield (25% of the dry weight) at a higher temperature (30°C). Under the two temperatures tested, the highest lipid and fatty acid contents were mainly reached during the stationary growth phase. The fatty acid profile showed a significant content of two essential fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), reaching ~15% and ~21% of the total fatty acids, respectively, at 20°C and 30°C. The distribution of the different components of the fatty acids showed that EPA and AA were mainly located in the neutral lipid fraction in the stationary phase.
Demonstrates that rewriting was not restricted to versions or interpretations of biblical books. First shows how Jubilees and the Temple Scroll, two texts known for their rewriting of biblical texts, themselves were revised and reused, then demonstrates how the major compositions of the sectarian community associated with the Qumran site were also subject to rewriting. Rewriting must thus be seen as a broader component of early Jewish textuality, not something narrowly associated with biblical books.
The Ross Sea is known for showing the greatest sea-ice increase, as observed globally, particularly from 1979 to 2015. However, corresponding changes in sea-ice thickness and production in the Ross Sea are not known, nor how these changes have impacted water masses, carbon fluxes, biogeochemical processes and availability of micronutrients. The PIPERS project sought to address these questions during an autumn ship campaign in 2017 and two spring airborne campaigns in 2016 and 2017. PIPERS used a multidisciplinary approach of manned and autonomous platforms to study the coupled air/ice/ocean/biogeochemical interactions during autumn and related those to spring conditions. Unexpectedly, the Ross Sea experienced record low sea ice in spring 2016 and autumn 2017. The delayed ice advance in 2017 contributed to (1) increased ice production and export in coastal polynyas, (2) thinner snow and ice cover in the central pack, (3) lower sea-ice Chl-a burdens and differences in sympagic communities, (4) sustained ocean heat flux delaying ice thickening and (5) a melting, anomalously southward ice edge persisting into winter. Despite these impacts, airborne observations in spring 2017 suggest that winter ice production over the continental shelf was likely not anomalous.
In Chapter 2: Prepare Yourself, you will prepare yourself for your journey by exploring self-reflective practice and the role of mindfulness. Self-reflection and mindfulness are important skills that are integral to learning. You are given the opportunity to engage in self-reflection throughout the workbook. In this chapter, you will also consider the impact of instructor presence on your adult learners.
The surface flooding of Antarctic sea ice in summer covers 50% or more of the sea-ice area in the major summer ice packs, the western Weddell and the Bellingshausen-Amundsen Seas. Two CRREL ice mass-balance buoys were deployed on the Amundsen Sea pack in late December 2010 from the icebreaker Oden, bridging the summer period (January–February 2011). Temperature records from thermistors embedded vertically in the snow and ice showed progressive increases in the depth of the flooded layer (up to 0.3–0.35 m) on the ice cover during January and February. While the snow depth was relatively unchanged from accumulation (<10 cm), ice thickness decreased by up to a meter from bottom melting during this period. Contemporaneous with the high bottom melting, under-ice water temperatures up to 1°C above the freezing point were found. The high temperature arises from solar heating of the upper mixed layer which can occur when ice concentration in the local area falls and lower albedo ocean water is exposed to radiative heating. The higher proportion of snow ice found in the Amundsen Sea pack ice therefore results from both winter snowfall and summer ice bottom melt found here that can lead to extensive surface flooding.
Maternal depression is associated with instability within the family environment and increases in offspring substance use across adolescence. Rates of delay discounting, or the tendency to select smaller rewards that are immediately available relative to larger, but delayed rewards, are also associated with steeper increases in substance use among youth. Moreover, recent research suggests that early unstable environments may reinforce youths’ propensity towards opportunistic decision making and delay discounting specifically. The current prospective, longitudinal study examined links between maternal depressive symptoms, adolescent delay discounting, and subsequent substance use. Participants included 247 adolescents and their mothers who were assessed annually over a 6-year period (from ages 13 to 19 years). Results supported a small but significant mediation effect. Specifically, maternal depressive symptoms predicted increases in adolescent delay discounting, which, in turn, predicted steeper increases in adolescent substance use over time. Thus, youth decision making may represent a mechanism linking maternal depression and adolescent risk behaviors. Findings indicate the potential for interventions targeting parental psychopathology to prevent subsequent adolescent substance use.
This paper offers a framework for measuring global growth and inflation, built on standard index number theory, national accounts principles, and the concepts and methods for international macro-economic comparisons. Our approach provides a sound basis for purchasing power parity (PPP)- and exchange rate (XR)-based global growth and inflation measures. The Sato–Vartia index number system advocated here offers very similar results to a Fisher system but has the added advantage of allowing a complete decomposition with PPP or XR effects. For illustrative purposes, we present estimates of global growth and inflation for 141 countries over the years 2005 and 2011. The contribution of movements in XRs and PPPs to global inflation are presented. The aggregation properties of the method are also discussed.