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The main objective of the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System (EGNOS) is to improve the positioning accuracy by correcting several error sources affecting the Global Positioning System (GPS) and to provide integrity information to GPS signals for users in real time. This research presents analysis used to investigate improvement in the performance of single-frequency GPS positioning using EGNOS corrections in Algeria. In this study, we performed position measurements with two calculation approaches, the first based on GPS single-point positioning and the second using EGNOS differential corrections. Positioning accuracy was determined by comparison with the known precise coordinates of the sites; and then the improved ionospheric correction using EGNOS was investigated. The results revealed that GPS + EGNOS performance was significantly improved compared with GPS alone, when measurements of horizontal and vertical accuracy were taken into account, and that the EGNOS corrections improved east and north components slightly, and the up component significantly.
Inter-system code double differencing is an effective method for improving the positioning accuracy of low-cost receivers in complex environments. Due to the adoption of Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Globalnaya Navigazionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) code observations are affected by the Inter-Frequency Code Biases (IFCBs), which makes it difficult to calculate the Differential Inter-System Code Biases (DISCBs) between GLONASS and the Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) systems directly. In this contribution, the focus is on the performance of tightly combined Global Positioning System (GPS) and GLONASS code Double Difference (DD) positioning. After analysing the relationship between IFCBs and GLONASS channel numbers, an IFCB correction model and an inter-system code differencing model between GLONASS and GPS are proposed. Results show that even if there is no obvious relationship between IFCBs and channel numbers, the long-term stable IFCB values of each satellite can be obtained by using the proposed model. In addition, the GPS + GLONASS DISCB is also stable. Therefore, compared with the intra-system model, the inter-system model can benefit from prior IFCBs and DISCBs parameters and thus can significantly improve the positioning accuracy in obstructed environments.
The aim of this paper is to examine the current state of research on tolerance-induced costs in Germany. Through a literature research already existing approaches for the determination of costs related to tolerances during the specification of technical components are pointed out and possible approaches for the reduction of these costs are presented. In addition, the actuality of these approaches will be considered. One question that is supposed to be answered here is to what state of standard for the specification of components these approaches can be assigned to. On the other hand, it should be clarified whether the existing approaches are applicable to the currently valid standard system of the Geometrical Product Specification (GPS).
Can the economic efficiency of the specifications selected for tolerancing be determined in a technical drawing during the product development process in accordance with GPS on the basis of the current state of research?
The paper presents a new coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed rectangular patch antenna with a square-shaped ground plane that can be employed in modern advanced navigation systems. For realizing broad impedance bandwidth in the proposed antenna, a wide slot is introduced in the square ground plane and the rectangular patch is shifted toward the left edge of the ground surface. In addition, by means of introducing square-shaped stubs near the left and right edge of the ground plane, the circular polarization is achieved at L1, L2, and L5 satellite bands. As per the simulation results, the proposed antenna provides a wide impedance bandwidth (S11<−10 dB) of 123% (1.12–4.72 GHz) and 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth of 11% (1.15–1.29 GHz) and 18% (1.5–1.8 GHz) suitable for multipurpose wireless applications. The designed single feed circularly polarized antenna is low profile, small size, light weight and easily integrable with other high-frequency communication devices. To validate radiation performance of the proposed structure, the antenna is fabricated and integrated with the commercially available Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver and it is found that the measured values are in close agreement with the desired results.
Current Motion Compensation (MOCO) methods using Inertial Navigation System (INS)/Global Positioning System (GPS) integrated systems have provided an important advance in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery, but most of these methods only work well over a short imaging period. With the development of high-resolution SAR that provides image gathering over long periods, the need for higher levels of INS/GPS performance than normally available is desired. The higher requirement of INS/GPS for SAR MOCO is two-fold: (1) the accurate knowledge of location information, and (2) the smoothness of relative change in navigation error. In this paper, we design an INS/GPS architecture with dual-filter correction to obtain accurate absolute velocity and position measurement information with smooth low relative error noise over a long image gathering period. Real SAR data experimental results show that the proposed method effectively improves the MOCO performance of INS/GPS with long SAR imaging periods, in which the SAR azimuth resolution reaches 1·45 m, which is very close to the design value of 1 m.
Archaeologists have long recognized that precise three-dimensional coordinates are critical for recording objects and features across sites and landscapes. Traditionally, for relatively small areas, an optical transit or, more recently, an electronic distance measurement device (EDM) has been used to acquire these three-dimensional points. While effective, such systems have significant limitations in that they require a clear line of site. Real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS/GNSS systems (Global Positioning System/Global Navigation Satellite Systems) have been available for well over a decade, and can provide quick and accurate point measurements over a wide area without many of the limitation of older technologies. The cost of such systems, however, has generally been prohibitive for archaeologists, and so their use has been rare. Recently, a new generation of low-cost systems has become available, making this technology more accessible to a wider user base. This article describes the use, accuracy, and limitations of one such low-cost system, the Emlid Reach RS, to show why this is an important tool for archaeological fieldwork.
Robust positioning and navigation of a mobile robot in an urban environment is implemented by fusing the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) data with the aid of a motion estimator. To select and isolate malicious satellite signals and guarantee the minimum number of GPS signals for the localization, an enhanced fault detection and isolation (FDI) algorithm with a short-term memory has been developed in this research. When there are sufficient satellite signals for positioning, the horizontal dilution of precision (HDOP) has been applied for selecting the best four satellite signals to localize the mobile robot. Then, the GPS data are fused with INS data by a Kalman filter (KF) for a straight path and a curved motion estimator (CME) for a curved path. That is, the INS data are properly fused to the GPS data through the KF or CME process. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, experiments using a mobile robot have been carried out on a university campus.
This paper first investigates the influencing factors of between-receiver Differential Inter-System Bias (DISB) between overlapping frequencies of the Global Positioning System (GPS), Galileo and the Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS). It was found that the receiver reboot and the type of observations may have an impact on DISBs. The impact of receiver firmware upgrades and the activation of anti-multipath filters are also investigated and some new results are presented. Then a performance evaluation is presented of tightly combined relative positioning for a short baseline with GPS/Galileo/QZSS L1-E1-L1/L5-E5a-L5 observations with the current constellations, in which the recently launched Galileo and QZSS satellites will also be included. It is demonstrated that when DISBs are a priori calibrated and corrected, the tightly combined model can deliver a much higher empirical ambiguity resolution success rate and positioning accuracy with respect to the classical loosely combined model, especially under environments where the observed satellites for each system are limited and only single-frequency observations are available. The ambiguity dilution of precision, bootstrapping success rate, and ratio values are analysed to illustrate the benefits of the tightly combined model as well.
Seafloor geodetic studies such as Global Positioning System (GPS)-Acoustic experiments often require the measurement platform on the sea surface to be positioned accurately to within a few centimetres. In this paper, we test the utility of Precise Point Positioning (PPP) for this application with two experiments. The first fixed platform experiment is a comparison between three independent processing software packages: Positioning and Navigation Data Analyst (PANDA), Global Navigation Satellite System-Inferred Positioning System and Orbit Analysis Simulation Software (GIPSY-OASIS), and the Canadian Spatial Reference System (CSRS)) and a more accurate solution based on conventional differential processing of a remote GPS station in the Aleutian Islands. The second moving platform experiment is a comparison among the three PPP software packages using 40 hours of ship navigation data collected during the Roger Revelle RR1605 cruise 170 nautical miles southwest of Palau in May 2016. We found the PPP solutions were repeatable to 5·49 cm in the horizontal components and 12·4 cm in the vertical component. This demonstrates not only that PPP is a useful tool for positioning marine platforms in remote locations, but also that modern ship navigation instruments such as the Kongsberg Seapath 330 + are suitable for seafloor geodetic application.
A conventional Differential GPS (DGPS) techniques-based velocity and acceleration method (named here as ‘DVA’) may be difficult to implement in the Antarctic as there is a sparse distribution of reference stations over Antarctica. Thus, in order to overcome the baseline limitations and to obtain highly accurate and reliable velocity and acceleration estimates for airborne gravimetry, a network-based velocity and acceleration determination approach (named here as ‘NVA’), which introduces a wide network of stations and is independent of precise clock information, is applied. Here its performance for velocity and acceleration determination is fully exploited by using Global Positioning System (GPS), GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou observations. Additionally, a standalone receiver-based method named ‘SVA’, which requires precise clock information, is also implemented for comparison. During static tests and a flight experiment over Antarctica, it was found that the NVA method yields more robust results than the SVA and DVA methods when applied to a wide area network. Moreover, the addition of GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou systems can increase the accuracy of velocity and acceleration estimates by 39% and 43% with NVA compared to a GPS-only solution.
With the evolving Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) landscape, the International GNSS Service (IGS) has started the Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) to produce precise products for new generation systems. Various analysis centres are working on the estimation of precise orbits, clocks and bias for Galileo, Beidou and Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) satellites. However, at the moment these products can only be used for post-processing applications. Indeed, the IGS Real-Time service only broadcasts Global Positioning System (GPS) and Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) corrections. In this research, a simulator of multi-GNSS observations and real-time precise products has been developed to analyse the performance of GPS-only, Galileo-only and GPS plus Galileo Precise Point Positioning (PPP). The error models in the simulated orbits and clocks were based on the difference between the GPS Real-Time and the Final products. Multiple scenarios were analysed, considering different signals combined in the Ionosphere Free linear combination. Results in a simulated open area environment show better performance of the Galileo-only case over the GPS-only case. Indeed, up 33% and 29% of improvement, respectively, in the accuracy level and convergence time can be observed when using the full Galileo constellation compared to GPS. The dual constellation case provides good improvements, in particular in the convergence time (47% faster than GPS). This paper will also consider the impact of different linear combinations of the Galileo signals, and the potential of the E5 Alternative Binary Offset Carrier (AltBOC) signal. Even though it is significantly more precise than E5a, the PPP performance obtained with the Galileo E1-E5a combination is either better or similar to the one with Galileo E1-E5. The reason for this inconsistency was found in the use of the ionosphere free combination with E1. Finally, alternative methods of ionosphere error mitigation are considered in order to ensure the best possible positioning performance from the Galileo E5 signal in multi-frequency PPP.
Finding one's geographical position (fix) without the use of a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), which was common place before the establishment of the latter, could be tedious and/or inaccurate. Apart from sound knowledge of spherical trigonometry and navigational methods, it also requires the knowledge of the navigator's approximate or assumed position, the use of the current year's celestial bodies' ephemeris (Nautical Almanac), and graphical methods (Lines of Position – LOP) which sometimes can prove wanting in accuracy and/or challenging for the unaccustomed user. The method proposed here is based on sight reduction from two celestial bodies, and directly calculates the geographical position, both for stationary and moving observers (“running fix”) using easily available modern programmable calculating devices, without the need of the assumed position, graphical methods (LOP) or the current year's ephemeris, hence the term “stand-alone”. This self-contained method is implemented by the author in a software application, which can be easily used in a portable computer (for example, a smartphone). The results are considered satisfactorily accurate.
To examine the potential links between activity spaces, the food retail environment and food shopping behaviours for the population of young, urban adults.
Participants took part in the Canada Food Study, which collected information on demographics, food behaviour, diet and health, as well as an additional smartphone study that included a seven-day period of logging GPS (global positioning system) location and food purchases. Using a time-weighted, continuous representation of participant activity spaces generated from GPS trajectory data, the locations of food purchases and a geocoded food retail data set, negative binomial regression models were used to explore what types of food retailers participants were exposed to and where food purchases were made.
Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Edmonton and Halifax, Canada.
Young adults aged 16–30 years (n 496). These participants were a subset of the larger Canada Food Study.
Demographics, household food shopper status and city of residence were significantly associated with different levels of exposure to various types of food retailers. Food shopping behaviours were also statistically significantly associated with demographics, the activity space-based food environment, self-reported health and city of residence.
The study confirms that food behaviours are related to activity space-based food environment measures, which provide a more comprehensive accounting of food retail exposure than home-based measures. In addition, exposure to food retail and food purchasing behaviours of an understudied population are described.
This paper proposes a model for combined Global Positioning System (GPS) and BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) positioning. The approach uses only one common reference ambiguity, for example, that of GPS L1, and estimates the pseudo-range and carrier phase system and frequency biases. The validations show that these biases are stable during a continuous reference ambiguity period and can be easily estimated, and the other estimated double-differenced ambiguities, such as those of GPS L2, BDS L1, and BDS L2, are not affected. Therefore, our approach solves the problems of a frequently changing reference satellite. In addition, because all the carrier phase observations use the same reference ambiguity, a relationship is established between the different systems and frequencies, and the strength of the combined model is thus increased.
A Position and Orientation System (POS) integrating an Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS) is a key component of remote sensing motion compensation. It can provide reliable and high-frequency high-precision motion information using a Kalman Filter (KF) during GPS availability. However, the performance of a POS significantly degrades during GPS outages. To maintain reliable POS outputs, this paper proposes a new hybrid predictor based on modelling the nonlinear time-series data-driven INS-errors using Noisy Input Gaussian Process Regression (NIGPR), which takes the input noise into account. The proposed approach is used to learn the nonlinear INS-errors model when GPS signals are available. When GPS outages occur, it starts to predict the observation measurement, and then feeds it to a KF as a virtual update to estimate all the INS errors. The proposed approach is verified in a real airplane, which combines a POS and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Experimental results show that the proposed approach significantly improves the performance of the POS, with improvements more than 90% better than a KF and 10% better than a Gaussian Process Regression (GPR/KF) combination during various GPS outages.
The importance of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and related electronic systems continues to increase in a range of environmental, engineering and navigation applications. However, civilian GPS signals are vulnerable to Radio Frequency (RF) interference. Spoofing is an intentional intervention that aims to force a GPS receiver to acquire and track invalid navigation data. Analysis of spoofing and authentic signal patterns represents the differences as phase, energy and imaginary components of the signal. In this paper, early-late phase, delta, and signal level as the three main features are extracted from the correlation output of the tracking loop. Using these features, spoofing detection can be performed by exploiting conventional machine learning algorithms such as K-Nearest Neighbourhood (KNN) and naive Bayesian classifier. A Neural Network (NN) as a learning machine is a modern computational method for collecting the required knowledge and predicting the output values in complicated systems. This paper presents a new approach for GPS spoofing detection based on multi-layer NN whose inputs are indices of features. Simulation results on a software GPS receiver showed adequate detection accuracy was obtained from NN with a short detection time.
In this paper, a compact tri-band asymmetric coplanar strip (ACS)-fed meander-line antenna for wireless communications is proposed. Two inverted-L-shaped resonators are added to a simple meandered radiator for standard tri-band operation. Parametric studies indicate that operating frequencies of the proposed antenna are determined by the dimensions of the two inverted-L-shaped resonators. The measured results show that the proposed antenna can achieve three frequency bands; i.e. 1.48–1.63, 2.25–2.48, and 4.22–6.0 GHz. These bands can successfully cover the global positioning system L1, wireless local area network (WLAN), and HIPERLAN/2 operation bands, respectively. The proposed antenna exhibits good radiation patterns with reasonable gain and high radiation efficiency across the operating bands. In addition, the proposed antenna has compact size and simple feeding scheme, which make it suitable to be integrated within the portable device for wireless communications.
In this work we present a method for detecting the activity of the ionosphere (TEC) and we illustrate the signature of the solar activity on the vertical total electron content VTEC, during 02 to 08 November 2015, using GPS measurements obtained from two stations in Morocco, the first one in Marrakech at Observatory of Oukaimeden OUCA (31°12′23.3″ N 7°51′58.8″ W), the second in Rabat, Rabt (33.9981°N;353.1457°E, geographic).
One of the limitations of Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS) is that accuracy decreases as the distance between the user and a base station increases. We have developed a new DGPS positioning strategy that is less affected by baseline length and enables better accuracy. We found correlations between satellite elevation angle and Pseudo-Range Correction (PRC) through extensive tests. As a result, better PRC values were obtained by considering differences in satellite elevation angles at a reference site and the user location. We tested the model for a variety of baseline lengths greater than 250 km, and the positioning accuracy improved by 29–66% compared with traditional DGPS based on a single reference station. Positioning accuracies comparable to those of multi-reference DGPS were achieved in some cases.
In this case study, we evaluated a point-mapping method for simultaneously collecting data while controlling three invasive woody plant species: black locust, Chinese privet, and hardy orange. The study in Arkansas Post National Memorial included seven project areas ranging in size from 2.7 to 27.3 ha and spanned six field seasons (2010 to 2015). The control techniques varied depending on plant size and always included the application of herbicide, which also varied over the course of the study to include glyphosate, imazapyr, and triclopyr. Each person responsible for controlling plants simultaneously collected global positioning system point data to estimate the foliar cover of the plants treated. The resulting data demonstrated evidence of decreases in all three plant species in most project areas during the 6-yr period. Initial increases in area treated for some species–area combinations reflected differences in the preliminary efforts required to control invasive plants in entire project areas, but by 2012 six of seven project areas were treated in their entirety. Despite a high level of reduction, in some cases, the plants persisted at low levels even during the sixth year of the project. Our findings support the ability of this method to granularly detect changes in plant abundance while simultaneously controlling invasive plants. With several acknowledged limitations, this streamlined project-based monitoring approach provides data that allow managers to assess the effectiveness of weed control treatments.