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In the past 10 years the mature hydrocarbon province the West Netherlands Basin has hosted rapidly expanding geothermal development. Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous strata from which gas and oil had been produced since the 1950s became targets for geothermal exploitation. The extensive publicly available subsurface data including seismic surveys, several cores and logs from hundreds of hydrocarbon wells, combined with understanding of the geology after decades of hydrocarbon exploitation, facilitated the offtake of geothermal exploitation. Whilst the first geothermal projects proved the suitability of the permeable Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous sandstones for geothermal heat production, they also made clear that much detail of the aquifer geology is not yet fully understood. The aquifer architecture varies significantly across the basin because of the syn-tectonic sedimentation. The graben fault blocks that contain the geothermal targets experienced a different tectonic history compared to the horst and pop-up structures that host the hydrocarbon fields from which most subsurface data are derived. Accurate prediction of the continuity and thickness of aquifers is a prerequisite for efficient geothermal well deployment that aims at increasing heat recovery while avoiding the risk of early cold-water breakthrough. The potential recoverable heat and the current challenges to enhance further expansion of heat exploitation from this basin are evident. This paper presents an overview of the current understanding and uncertainties of the aquifer geology of the Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous strata and discusses new sequence-stratigraphic updates of the regional sedimentary aquifer architecture.
In my fourth chapter on Thomas Hardy’s The Well-Beloved, “A Wrinkle in Time,” I argue that the sexual escapades of an aging artist subvert the naturalist plot of decline. Instead of modeling the human lifespan on a parabola that begins with youthful possibility, reaches its apex in adulthood, and declines into senescence and death, The Well-Beloved demonstrates the opening of queer, non-normative desire as one ages. This chapter examines the discourses of evolutionary biology and geology as providing the late-nineteenth century with non-linear models for the human lifespan. These scientific models, I argue, have a narrative counterpart in the counterfactual, or the imagination of what might have occurred in the past but did not. The use of counterfactual thinking in narrative enables Hardy to construct an ambivalent attitude toward the aging of his protagonist, who inverts the horizon of possibility away from the future toward a past that he struggles to remake.
Glaciers once covered 30% of Earth’s land area, leaving diverse landforms; glacial geologists study glaciers to understand the formation of these landforms. Glacier ice is a metamorphic rock deforming at temperatures close to the melting point; structural geologists study glaciers to learn more about the origin of similar structures in other rocks. Ice cores from glaciers contain a well-dated record of climatic fluctuations over millennia, so climatologists study glaciers to understand the drivers of Earth’s climate. Failure of glacier dams can cause floods that engineers and town officials seek to prevent. Anthropogenically induced global warming is causing retreat of ice sheets and mountain glaciers; planners and policy makers want to know how to stop this retreat, and how fast it will raise sea level, impacting coastal infrastructure. A quantitative understanding of the physics of glaciers is essential for rigorous analysis of many of these problems. Glaciers occur in spectacular remote areas, unscarred by human activities; these environments appeal to many glaciologists.
Glacial erosion produces vast quantities of fine-grained sediment that has a far-reaching impact on Earth surface processes. To gain a better understanding of the production of glacial silt and clay, we use automated mineralogy to quantify the microstructure and mineralogy of rock and sediment samples from 20 basins in the St. Elias Mountains, Yukon, Canada. Sediments were collected from proglacial streams, while rock samples were collected from ice marginal outcrops and fragmented using electrical pulse disaggregation. For both rock fragments and sediments, we observe a log-normal distribution of grain sizes and a sub-micrometer terminal grain size. We find that the abrasion of silt and clay results in both rounding and the exploitation of through-going fractures. The abundance of inter- versus intragranular fractures depends on mineralogy and size. Unlike the relatively larger grains, where crushing and abrasion are thought to exploit and produce discrete populations of grain sizes, the comminution of fines leads to a grain size, composition and rounding that is continuously distributed across size, and highly dependent on source-rock properties.
Ramparted depressions (doughnut-shaped debris-cored ridges with peat- and/or sediment-filled central basins) are commonly perceived to represent the relict collapsed forms of permafrost ground-ice mounds (i.e. pingos or lithalsas). In Wales, UK, ramparted depressions of Late Pleistocene age have been widely attributed to permafrost-related processes. However, a variety of alternative glacial origins for these enigmatic landforms are also consistent with the available geological and geomorphological evidence, although previous studies have barely considered such alternative processes of formation. From detailed geophysical, sedimentological and remote-sensing studies at two field sites, we demonstrate that: (i) the wastage of stagnating glacier ice is a viable alternative explanation for the formation of ramparted depressions in Wales; (ii) the glacial geomorphology and geology of these landforms is analogous to supraglacial and subglacial landforms from the last Laurentide and Fennoscandian ice sheets; (iii) these landforms have significant potential for characterising the nature of deglaciation around the margins of the Irish Sea during the last glacial cycle, and may record evidence for the overextension and stagnation of the south-eastern margin of the Irish Sea Ice Stream; and (iv) investigations of ramparted depressions within formerly glaciated terrains must consider both glacial and periglacial mechanisms of formation.
Glacier-erosion rates range across orders of magnitude, and much of this variation cannot be attributed to basal sliding rates. Subglacial till acts as lubricating ‘fault gouge’ or ‘sawdust’, and must be removed for rapid subglacial bedrock erosion. Such erosion occurs especially where and when moulin-fed streams access the bed and are unconstrained by supercooling or other processes. Streams also may directly erode bedrock, likely with strong time-evolution. Erosion is primarily by quarrying, aided by strong fluctuations in the water system driven by variable surface melt and by subglacial earthquakes. Debris-bed friction significantly affects abrasion, quarrying and general glacier flow. Frost heave drives cirque headwall erosion as winter cold air enters bergschrunds, creating temperature gradients to drive water flow along premelted films to growing ice lenses that fracture rock, and the glacier removes the resulting blocks. Recent subglacial bedrock erosion and sediment flux are in many cases much higher than long-term averages. Over glacial cycles, evolution of glacial-valley form feeds back strongly on erosion and deposition. Most of this is poorly quantified, with parts open to argument. Glacial erosion and interactions are important to tectonic and volcanic processes as well as climate and biogeochemical fluxes, motivating vigorous research.
At its late Pleistocene maximum, the Laurentide Ice Sheet was the largest ice mass on Earth and a key player in the modulation of global climate and sea level. At the same time, this temperate ice sheet was itself sensitive to climate, and high-magnitude fluctuations in ice extent, reconstructed from relict glacial deposits, reflect past changes in atmospheric temperature. Here, we present a cosmogenic 10Be surface-exposure chronology for the Berlin moraines in the White Mountains of northern New Hampshire, USA, which supports the model that deglaciation of New England was interrupted by a pronounced advance of ice during the Bølling-Allerød. Together with recalculated 10Be ages from the southern New England coast, the expanded White Mountains moraine chronology also brackets the timing of ice sheet retreat in this sector of the Laurentide. In conjunction with existing chronological data, the moraine ages presented here suggest that deglaciation was widespread during Heinrich Stadial 1 event (~18–14.7 ka) despite apparently cold marine conditions in the adjacent North Atlantic. As part of the White Mountains moraine system, the Berlin chronology also places a new terrestrial constraint on the former glacial configuration during the marine incursion of the St. Lawrence River valley north of the White Mountains.
Chapter 6 documents inland cultivation strategies during the final two decades of the antebellum period. Using as a model the Biggin Basin, located at the headwaters of the Cooper River, this chapter discusses how a community of former inland rice planters revitalized the practice to supplement cotton production as a way to counter the fluctuating market. Revival of inland rice was a consequence of agricultural reform that took hold in select planter circles in the mid-nineteenth century. Lowcountry planters were part of this larger population having received the message through agricultural journals and societies, and scientific books. Promoters of agricultural reform called for a modern and scientific practice of agriculture to maintain soil fertility and crop output, halt westward migration, and curb the loss of status and political power by the South Atlantic states.
High-resolution digital elevation models of Finland and Sweden based on LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) reveal subglacial landforms in great detail. We describe the ice-sheet scale distribution and morphometric characteristics of a glacial landform that is distinctive in morphology and occurs commonly in the central parts of the former Scandinavian Ice Sheet, especially up-ice of the Younger Dryas end moraine zone. We refer to these triangular or V-shaped landforms as murtoos (singular, ‘murtoo’). Murtoos are typically 30–200 m in length and 30–200 m in width with a relief of commonly <5 m. Murtoos have straight and steep edges, a triangular tip oriented parallel to ice-flow direction, and an asymmetric longitudinal profile with a shorter, but steeper down-ice slope. The spatial distribution of murtoos and their geomorphic relation to other landforms indicate that they formed subglacially during times of climate warming and rapid retreat of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet when large amounts of meltwater were delivered to the bed. Murtoos are formed under warm-based ice and may be associated with a non-channelized subglacial hydraulic system that evacuated large discharges of subglacial water.
The chapter starts by explaining how petroleum reservoirs are formed and gives a brief introduction to various concepts from geology to non-geologists. Next, we discuss the continuum hypothesis and how flow through subsurface porous media is modeled on different spatial scales. An essential part is to develop a description of petrophysical properties like porosity and permeability. We explain how this is achieved in MRST, and outline a few examples of models that give realistic representations of reservoir rocks. This includes the popular SPE10 benchmark and a model of a shallow-marine formation.
Arcuate fold-and-thrust belts have been extensively studied in the literature. Less attention, however, has been paid to the characteristics of local-scale arcuate structures, meaning 5–10 km long fold or thrust traces that display map-view curvature. Nevertheless, detailed investigation of small arcuate structures hosted in major arcs can contribute to understanding the pervasiveness of deformation mechanisms. We performed a combined geological and palaeomagnetic study on 21 sites from a c. 60 km2 area in the Northern Apennines in order to analyse minor arcs at a kilometric scale. As evidenced by the geological and structural analysis performed on the 21 sites, the fold axial trend changes from N–S to NW–SE in the study area. The comparison with palaeomagnetic results shows the lack of correlation between vertical axis rotations and fold axial trends. As a consequence, the minor arcuate shapes of thrusts and related folds are interpreted as mostly primary features inherited from the geometry of the palaeomargin, represented by pre-orogenic faults, according to a context of inversion tectonics.
Characterising the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of hydraulic conductivity and its variability in the shallow subsurface is fundamental to understanding groundwater behaviour and to developing conceptual and numerical groundwater models to manage the subsurface. However, directly measuring in situ hydraulic conductivity can be difficult and expensive and is rarely carried out with sufficient density in urban environments. In this study we model hydraulic conductivity for 603 sites in the unconsolidated Quaternary deposits underlying Glasgow using particle size distribution and density description widely available from geotechnical investigations. Six different models were applied and the MacDonald formula was found to be most applicable in this heterogeneous environment, comparing well with the few available in situ hydraulic conductivity data. The range of the calculated hydraulic conductivity values between the 5th and 95th percentile was 1.56×10–2–4.38mday–1 with a median of 2.26×10–1 mday–1. These modelled hydraulic conductivity data were used to develop a suite of stochastic 3D simulations conditioned to existing 3D representations of lithology. Ten per cent of the input data were excluded from the modelling process for use in a split-sample validation test, which demonstrated the effectiveness of this approach compared with non-spatial or lithologically unconstrained models. Our spatial model reduces the mean squared error between the estimated and observed values at the excluded data locations over those predicted using a simple homogeneous model by 73 %. The resulting 3D hydraulic conductivity model is of a much higher resolution than would have been possible from using only direct measurements, and will improve understanding of groundwater flow in Glasgow and reduce the spatial uncertainty of hydraulic parameters in groundwater process models. The methodology employed could be replicated in other regions where significant volumes of suitable geotechnical and site investigation data are available to predict ground conditions in areas with complex superficial deposits.
The Glasgow area has a combination of highly variable superficial deposits and a legacy of heavy industry, quarrying and mining. These factors create complex foundation and hydrological conditions, influencing the movement of contaminants through the subsurface and giving rise locally to unstable ground conditions. Digital geological three-dimensional models developed by the British Geological Survey are helping to resolve the complex geology underlying Glasgow, providing a key tool for planning and environmental management. The models, covering an area of 3200km2 to a depth of 1.2km, include glacial and post-glacial deposits and the underlying, faulted Carboniferous igneous and sedimentary rocks. Control data, including 95,000 boreholes, digital mine plans and published geological maps, were used in model development. Digital outputs from the models include maps of depth to key horizons, such as rockhead or depth to mine workings. The models have formed the basis for the development of site-scale high-resolution geological models and provide input data for a wide range of other applications from groundwater modelling to stochastic lithological modelling.
Stratigraphic evidence and extensive optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) geochronology from an 18-km-long reach of the middle Rangitata Valley, South Island, New Zealand, provide evidence for at least six distinct glacial advances during the last glacial cycle. These include four well-constrained Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 and 2 advances at ca. 38 ka, ca. 27 ka, ca. 21 ka and at 18 ka, as well as less well-constrained advances in MIS 4 and/or early MIS 3. Ice occupied a farther downvalley reach of the Rangitata from 38 ka to after 18 ka, indicating that near-full glacial conditions persisted for most of the last 20 ka of the last glaciation, though the glacier still fluctuated significantly, as reflected by the numerous distinguishable advances. Global or regional cooling alone cannot explain the persistence of near-maximum glacial conditions for this extended period, nor can it explain the occurrence of the largest advances ca. 32 ka. Instead, we invoke the northward expansion of the westerlies during MIS 3 as the cause for the early widespread glaciation, wherein enhanced westerly flow under moderate cooling maximised glacial extents. Local insolation favoured extended MIS 3 glaciation until ca. 32 ka. Increasing summer insolation gradually reduced glacial extents after ca. 28 ka.
The shallow subsurface of Groningen, the Netherlands, is heterogeneous due to its formation in a Holocene tidal coastal setting on a periglacially and glacially inherited landscape with strong lateral variation in subsurface architecture. Soft sediments with low, small-strain shear wave velocities (VS30 around 200 m s−1) are known to amplify earthquake motions. Knowledge of the architecture and properties of the subsurface and the combined effect on the propagation of earthquake waves is imperative for the prediction of geohazards of ground shaking and liquefaction at the surface. In order to provide information for the seismic hazard and risk analysis, two geological models were constructed. The first is the ‘Geological model for Site response in Groningen’ (GSG model) and is based on the detailed 3D GeoTOP voxel model containing lithostratigraphy and lithoclass attributes. The GeoTOP model was combined with information from boreholes, cone penetration tests, regional digital geological and geohydrological models to cover the full range from the surface down to the base of the North Sea Supergroup (base Paleogene) at ~800 m depth. The GSG model consists of a microzonation based on geology and a stack of soil stratigraphy for each of the 140,000 grid cells (100 m × 100 m) to which properties (VS and parameters relevant for nonlinear soil behaviour) were assigned. The GSG model serves as input to the site response calculations that feed into the Ground Motion Model. The second model is the ‘Geological model for Liquefaction sensitivity in Groningen’ (GLG). Generally, loosely packed sands might be susceptible to liquefaction upon earthquake shaking. In order to delineate zones of loosely packed sand in the first 40 m below the surface, GeoTOP was combined with relative densities inferred from a large cone penetration test database. The marine Naaldwijk and Eem Formations have the highest proportion of loosely packed sand (31% and 38%, respectively) and thus are considered to be the most vulnerable to liquefaction; other units contain 5–17% loosely packed sand. The GLG model serves as one of the inputs for further research on the liquefaction potential in Groningen, such as the development of region-specific magnitude scaling factors (MSF) and depth–stress reduction relationships (rd).
The aim of this paper is to contribute to deciphering the evolutionary history of the Hellenides by the study of a large sector of the chain located between the front of the ophiolitic units and the external zones classically attributed to the continental margin of Adria. In particular, the tectonic units located in Boeotia – a key area located in Central Greece at the boundary between the Internal and External Hellenides – were studied from structural, stratigraphic and biostratigraphic points of view. Addressing the main debated aspects concerning the origin of the ophiolite nappe(s), the tectonic evolution of the Hellenic orogen was revised with a particular emphasis on the period between obduction and continental collision. New findings were compared with consolidated data concerning the main metamorphic events recorded in the more Internal Hellenides, geochemistry and age of the ophiolites and main stratigraphic constraints obtained in other sectors of the belt. Finally, a new reconstruction of the tectonic evolution of this area was introduced and, in the context of the dispute concerning the origin of the ‘ophiolitic belts’ as a possible record of multiple oceanic basins, we put forward for consideration a ‘single ocean’ tectonic model spanning from Triassic up to Tertiary times, and valid for the whole Hellenic–Albanian sector.
The study was performed in central-northern Anatolia (from Ankara to Amasya) to investigate the relationships of the Sakarya Zone units and the Izmir–Ankara–Erzincan suture (IAES) melange. It reveals that all the Sakarya Zone units are metamorphic and three main tectonostratigraphic units have been distinguished for the first time: the BAA (metasiliciclastic rocks capped by metacarbonates and varicoloured phyllite), the BKC (poly-metamorphic garnet-bearing micaschist and metabasite with a well-preserved relict HP–LT amphibole in a low-amphibolitic to greenschist-facies framework) and the AMC (meta-arkose passing vertically to carbonate–phyllitic alternations and, then, to a thick succession of prevailing acidic to intermediate–basic metavolcanites and volcanic-rich metasediments). The BAA and AMC, whose metamorphic frameworks are of Cimmerian age, underlie the Mesozoic carbonate cover sequences (e.g. t2-3, j3–k1) that often show tectonic detachments and slicing. The piling up of the BAA above the HP–LT BKC can be correlated to the tectonic superposition of two similar units (i.e. the Cimmerian Çangaldağ Complex and the Alpine Middle–Upper Cretaceous Domuzdağ Complex, respectively) defined by previous authors in other sectors of the Central Pontides front. The ophiolitic melange generally underlies the Sakarya Zone, but locally (e.g. SE of Amasya) tectonically rests above the latter, probably owing to back-thrusting that occurred during the Tertiary syn-collisional shortenings and the later strike-slip tectonics. We hypothesize that, also in these areas, the Sakarya Zone–IAES consists of a complex tectonic stack of different units, belonging to different palaeogeographic domains and orogenic events (Cimmerian versus Alpine orogenies), but originated within a single long-lived (since Late Triassic to Paleocene/Eocene times), prograding subduction–accretion system in front of the Laurasian continent.
Our study combines new geological and paleoecological information to reconstruct the glacial history and terrestrial paleoenvironments on Haida Gwaii during the advance phase of the Fraser glaciation (Marine Isotope Stage 2). At Cape Ball on eastern Graham Island, five accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages ranging from 23,200±280 to 26,650±390 14C yr BP (ca. 27,000–31,400 cal yr BP) record the earliest approach of mainland glaciers to Haida Gwaii. Abundant marine dinoflagellate cysts indicate isostatic depression by glacial ice in Hecate Strait to the east. At Mary Point on the north coast of Graham Island, similar outwash of a piedmont lobe advancing westward along Dixon Entrance preserves plant remains dated from 19,270±360 to 23,740±300 14C yr BP (22,500–28,600 cal yr BP). These sediments also contain marine indicators. Plant macrofossils, pollen, and invertebrates support the geological evidence of a proglacial environment under a colder-than-present macroclimate. Although some trees were likely present on Graham Island at this time, tundra-like plant communities dominated low-lying areas. A large area that appears to have been ice-free during this time is a portion of the continental shelf off the east coast of Moresby Island, referred to provisionally as the “Hecate Refugium.”
Fláajökull is a non-surging outlet glacier draining the south-eastern part of the Vatnajökull, southeast Iceland. Fláajökull was stationary or advanced slightly between 1966 and 1995 and formed a prominent end moraine. Glacial retreat since then has revealed a cluster of 15 drumlins. This study focuses on the morphology and sedimentology of the drumlins. They are 100–600 m long, 40–130 m wide, and have cores of glaciofluvial sediment or till. The drumlins are draped by ~1 m thick, massive subglacial traction till. The glacier forefield is characterized by a number of arcuate and saw-tooth, terminal and recessional moraine ridges, overridden moraines with fluted surfaces, and glaciofluvial outwash. Some of the drumlins extend towards the 1995 end moraine but terminate abruptly at the moraine and are not observed in front of it. This suggests that they were formed sub-marginally during the 1966–1995 terminal position. The sedimentary structure of the drumlins is best explained by the sticky spot model. Dating and dendrochronological analyses of birch logs found on the surface of one of the drumlins indicate that the valley was forested about 2100 calendar year BP, after which the glacier started to reform, possibly due to an abrupt change in climate.