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Russians under the late tsars and Bolsheviks enjoyed a century of literary and artistic genius that lives on in world culture and in the Russian national identity. Along with the rightly celebrated works are millions of ephemeral creations of the age: postcards, illustrations, prints, serialized potboilers, posters, and cartoons. The creators of both the lasting and the forgotten worked in interconnected cultural communities. Each drew on shared traditions and contended with transformative social, economic, and political change. In so doing, they created an imaginative ecosystem within which three themes recurred: (1) the tension between freedom and order; (2) the shifting importance of boundaries demarcating the Self and the Other, the Russian and the foreigner, and the audience for art; and (3) the evolving roles, privileges, and responsibilities of writers and artists. The Firebird and the Fox takes its name from two motifs and recurrent characters. The flamboyant Firebird, often accompanied by her human foil, the Fool, transited from folklore into many works over this period and represents the incandescence and transcendent power of art. The wily fox or vixen of fable and folklore embodies the agency of the formerly dispossessed and the survival of genius against formidable odds.
The October Revolution in 1917 profoundly shocked the cultural ecosystem. The new authorities recast notions of freedom, of the arts, and of the public. Links between and among audiences at different levels that had thrived in the prerevolutionary cultural market were dismantled. Over time the government imposed strictures on culture requiring alignment with political directives. By 1934, the official policy of Socialist Realism was mandatory and compliance enforced by rewards and terror. The early years of revolutionary ferment yielded aesthetic innovation of the highest order, yet the mounting pressures took their toll on creativity. Writers, artists, and performers responded variously. Some took cover in works employing irony and in the (somewhat) safer terrain of children’s literature. By seeding children’s literature with values counter to those practiced by Soviet officialdom, selected writers and artists spread counter-values to a new generation. They worked with the guile of the fox, the flight of the firebird, and, perhaps, the recklessness of the Fool. By keeping alive Russian stories of wise Fools, sentient animals, and magical powers, their creators carried forward folkloric traditions barred from the reigning Socialist Realism. In doing so, they protected limited public space for artistic innovation.
The century of Russian genius presented in the pages above opened with the soldier who saved Peter the Great from death and closed with Daniil Kharms’s travelers spreading kindness and tolerance. In between, a panorama of extraordinary cultural richness unfolded, with layer upon layer of innovation in the arts. Throughout, the creativity of high culture drew on rich folk traditions, and the burgeoning popular culture took inspiration from above. Three themes – freedom and order; the boundaries of self and society; and the societal obligations of art and artists – played out in an enormous body of literature, music, and the visual arts. The firebird, caged or free, captured or in flight, is central, as is the fox, who (usually) succeeds in securing her objectives through wile and guile. The works of this age of genius were created over decades under conditions of recurrent social disruption and trauma. Despite formidable obstacles, brave and talented writers, artists, musicians and others remained committed to expression of naïve goodness to counter evil. That this message prevailed, even if restricted to a subset of works and a segment of audiences, is a dimension of moral genius comparable to the lauded artistic brilliance of the age.
The recent discovery of a Late/Final Pre-Pottery Neolithic B burial of an adult and two children associated with fox bones at the site of Motza, Israel, demonstrates the broader socio-cultural perspective, and possibly continued animistic world views, of Neolithic foragers at the onset of the agricultural revolution.
This chapter discusses George Grove’s success in his choice of staff and the quality of his leadership in knitting together the wide range of musical characters and personalities into a cohesive educational body. There are some vignettes of the early staff, illustrated by a photograph which vividly captures them at the laying of the foundation stone of the new building in 1890. Grove’s letters to his confidante, Edith Oldham, capture some of the personalities and the day-to-day strains of their working together, and these are quoted to give a more realistic sense of the College in its early days than has been given before. The second part of the chapter looks at why Parry was chosen as the College’s second Director and looks at his musical and strategic limitations. Parry’s bitter feuding with Stanford – a defining characteristic of his time as Director – is examined. The chapter shows that Stanford (not Parry) was the RCM’s musical director and explains how this greatly benefitted the College, and that the need for this dual leadership was recognized by the RCM Council.
This chapter discusses the problems caused by the inadequacy of the College’s first home, and the practical and symbolic significance that the College’s grand new building represented (given by Samson Fox and designed by Arthur Blomfield). The text discusses the process of securing the RCM’s site from the Commissioners for the 1851 Exhibition, and the architectural designs considered necessary for such a prominent site. Some of the main aspects of the building process are discussed, including the issues of soundproofing. Because of cost overrun, it was not possible to build a concert hall, and a temporary building was in use until finances permitted the College to build the present concert hall, which was inaugurated in 1901. The second part of the chapter looks at how the College was financed and the many prominent public figures who lent their names to the College governance and financial committees. The First World War effectively brought a suspension of College life, and the chapter concludes with a brief summary of some wartime activities.
The pervasive influence of human agency on biodiversity in the Anthropocene gives rise to several new challenges for national and international wildlife law, including questions regarding what is natural and what is alien. Ultimately, a new vision and new rules are called for but in the meantime wildlife lawyers and other conservation professionals must work with conventional legal frameworks. Striking instances where vexing issues arise are the recent range expansions of certain canids. Coyotes Canis latrans and crab-eating foxes Cerdocyon thous in the Americas and golden jackals Canis aureus in Europe are progressively colonizing areas and countries where they did not previously occur. A key question is whether to consider this as acceptable extensions of natural range or whether the pioneering carnivores should be viewed as alien species, potentially triggering legal obligations of prevention, control and eradication. In addressing this question we draw on guidance provided under the Convention on Biological Diversity and other international legal frameworks, in which governments are forced to grapple with the application of long-standing concepts to new phenomena in an era of profound global change. Our analysis suggests that coyotes in Costa Rica, crab-eating foxes in Panama, and golden jackals in the Netherlands are not to be considered alien species, whether invasive or not. Thus, even if action to address adverse impacts by these canids on native biodiversity may sometimes be desirable, these species are not subject to legal requirements to combat invasive alien species.
This first zooarchaeological analysis for the Islands of Four Mountains (IFM), Aleutian Islands, Alaska, provides data about local hunter-gatherer resource exploitation over three thousand yr. The majority of zooarchaeological material represents faunal resources that were harvested within several kilometers of villages. Our analysis shows that IFM subsistence system was shaped by the small size of these islands, which is mostly true for all of the Aleutian Islands. The archaeological middens indicate that Aleuts readily exploited new resources when they became available, expanding their dietary niche. Despite human harvesting, most faunal populations remained stable; however, Aleuts overexploited the storm-petrel colony on Carlisle Island.
The endemic Mauritian flying fox Pteropus niger is perceived to be a major fruit pest. Lobbying of the Government of Mauritius by fruit growers to control the flying fox population resulted in national culls in 2015 and 2016, with a further cull scheduled for 2018. A loss of c. 38,318 individuals has been reported and the species is now categorized as Endangered on the IUCN Red List. However, until now there were no robust data available on damage to orchards caused by bats. During October 2015–February 2016 we monitored four major lychee Litchi chinensis and one mango (Mangifera spp.) orchard, and also assessed 10 individual longan Dimocarpus longan trees. Bats and introduced birds caused major damage to fruit, with 7–76% fruit loss (including natural fall and losses from fungal damage) per tree. Bats caused more damage to taller lychee trees (> 6 m high) than to smaller ones, whereas bird damage was independent of tree height. Bats damaged more fruit than birds in tall lychee trees, although this trend was reversed in small trees. Use of nets on fruiting trees can result in as much as a 23-fold reduction in the damage caused by bats if nets are applied correctly. There is still a need to monitor orchards over several seasons and to test non-lethal bat deterrence methods more widely.
Detailed knowledge of dissociation behavior and dissociation products is necessary to understand the stability, sensitivity, and the reactive mechanism of explosives under laser initiation. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer was utilized to detect the transient products of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene (FOX-7) produced under 532 nm pulse laser ablation, the possible attribution of intermediate ion fragments were confirmed. The laser fluence threshold for detectable fragments is about 3.6 J/cm2. The peak intensities of main ions (CN, CNO/C2H4N, NO2, C2N2O, HCN, C2NH2, etc.) increase with the increasing of laser fluence, and reach the maximum at 11.5 J/cm2. Moreover, time-depend changes of ion intensity indicate that the type and degree of reactions are different in different periods. According to the molecular structure of FOX-7 and the intermediate ions, the laser-induced dissociation mechanisms were proposed to illustrate the cause of the fragments which might throw some light on the laser initiation of FOX-7.
This essay examines critical modes and dependencies of mid-nineteenth century spiritualism. It looks at the relationship between the ritual dynamics and promotional framings of rappings and séances, and it considers the contested location of those practices within nineteenth-century theories of religion. The argument is threefold: that components of spiritualist practice are better understood alongside certain commercial enterprises; that their examination demands reconsideration of the relative importance of belief, intellection, and criticism in religious ritual; and that, in light of nineteenth-century Americans' own critical thinking on these matters, we understand better the ways in which spiritualism itself became both a location and datum for Americans' definitions of religion. The long-ignored religious theory of P. T. Barnum supports reclamation of the Fox sisters' own ritual practices even as it illustrates the processes by which they were gradually exorcised from American religions, spiritualism, and their historiography. Meanwhile, evidence from court records, newspaper reports, and the professional careers of mediums and their debunkers aids reconstruction of a religious movement that consisted largely, for a time, in the formal recognition of its own skepticism and operational intrigue.
Previous studies have reported nematodes of the Spirocercidae family in the stomach nodules of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) described as Spirocerca sp. or Spirocerca lupi (Rudolphi, 1819). We characterized spirurid worms collected from red foxes and compared them to S. lupi from domestic dogs by morphometric and phylogenetic analyses. Nematodes from red foxes differed from S. lupi by the presence of six triangular teeth-like buccal capsule structures, which are absent in the latter. Additionally, in female worms from red foxes, the distance of the vulva opening to the anterior end and the ratio of the glandular-to-muscular oesophagus lengths were larger than those of S. lupi (P < 0.006). In males, the lengths of the whole oesophagus and glandular part, the ratio of the glandular-to-muscular oesophagus and the comparison of the oesophagus to the total body length were smaller in S. lupi (all P < 0.044). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that S. lupi and the red foxes spirurid represent monophyletic sister groups with pairwise nucleotide distances of 9.2 and 0.2% in the cytochrome oxidase 1 and 18S genes, respectively. Based on these comparisons, the nematodes from red foxes were considered to belong to a separate species, for which the name Spirocerca vulpis sp. nov. is proposed.
Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most abundant wild canid species in Austria, and it is a well-known carrier of many pathogens of medical and veterinary concern. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and diversity of protozoan, bacterial and filarial parasites transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods in a red fox population in western Austria. Blood (n = 351) and spleen (n = 506) samples from foxes were examined by PCR and sequencing and the following pathogens were identified: Babesia canis, Babesia cf. microti (syn. Theileria annae), Hepatozoon canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. and Bartonella rochalimae. Blood was shown to be more suitable for detection of Babesia cf. microti, whilst the spleen tissue was better for detection of H. canis than blood. Moreover, extremely low genetic variability of H. canis and its relatively low prevalence rate observed in this study may suggest that the parasite has only recently been introduced in the sampled area. Furthermore, the data presented here demonstrates, for the first time, the possible vertical transmission of H. canis from an infected vixen to the offspring, and this could explain the very high prevalence in areas considered free of its main tick vector(s).
This article starts from the position that Quakerism has yet to be properly located within the firmament of Christian theology. A new starting point is proposed in the relation to the historical environment of Calvinism, the effect of which is to place Quakerism within the ancient stand-off between Augustine and Pelagius. In the article's first part, four theological propositions taken from the Journal of George Fox are first contrasted with propositions from John Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion and then correlated with those of James Arminius to confirm the Pelagian nature of the theology. The second part of the article departs from particular doctrinal elements and attempts to grasp the contrasting characters of Quakerism and Calvinism.
Although local prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis may be high, this zoonotic parasite has an overall low prevalence in foxes and rodents in Sweden. To better understand opportunities for E. multilocularis transmission in the Swedish environment, the aim of this study was to investigate other taeniid cestodes and to relate observed patterns to E. multilocularis. Cestode parasites were examined in fox feces and rodents caught in different habitats from four regions of Sweden. Arvicola amphibius and Microtus agrestis were parasitized with Versteria mustelae, Hydatigera taeniaeformis s. l., and E. multilocularis, whereas Myodes glareolus and Apodemus spp. were parasitized with V. mustelae, Taenia polyacantha, H. taeniaeformis s.l., and Mesocestoides spp. Rodents caught in field habitat (Ar. amphibius, Mi. agrestis) were more likely (OR 10, 95% CI 5–19) to be parasitized than rodents caught in forest habitat (My. glareolus, Apodemus spp.). The parasite preference for each rodent species was present regardless of the type of background contamination from fox feces. These results further support the importance of both ecological barriers and individual species susceptibility in parasite transmission, and indicate that future monitoring for E. multilocularis in the Swedish environment should focus in field habitats where Mi. agrestis and Ar. amphibius are abundant.
The distribution of Hepatozoon canis mainly encompasses areas where its main tick vector, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, is present. However, the detection of this pathogen in dogs, foxes and golden jackals well outside the areas inhabited by this tick species reinforced the hypothesis that additional ixodids are involved in the life cycle and transmission of this protozoon. The present study provides, for the first time, data supporting the sporogonic development of H. canis in specimens of Rhipicephalus turanicus collected from a naturally infected fox from southern Italy. The epidemiological role of R. turanicus as a vector of H. canis is discussed, along with information on the potential use of cell cultures for the experimental infection with H. canis sporozoites. The in vitro infection of canine leucocytes by sporozoites from ticks is proposed as a potential tool for future in-depth studies on the biology of H. canis.
The Livingstone's fruit bat Pteropus livingstonii is endemic to the small islands of Anjouan and Mohéli in the Comoros archipelago, Indian Ocean. The species is under threat from anthropogenic pressure on the little that remains of its forest habitat, now restricted to the islands’ upper elevations and steepest slopes. We report the results of the most comprehensive survey of this species to date, and present recommendations for ongoing field conservation efforts and monitoring. Morning counts were conducted at roost sites in the wet and dry seasons during 2011–2013. Habitat structure around the roosting sites was characterized and roost numbers compared, to investigate the potential effect of habitat loss and degradation. We estimate the population to comprise c. 1,260 individuals distributed across 21 roosts on the two islands. All occupied roosting sites were restricted to a narrow altitudinal range, and roosting populations in agroforestry areas were smaller than those found in degraded and undisturbed forest. Only one of the 16 roosts on Anjouan was found in undisturbed, old-growth forest with no nearby signs of clearance for agriculture or landslides following tree-felling upslope. Following a suspected severe population decline as a result of widespread and long-term forest loss Livingstone's fruit bat has been recategorized as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List.
In this paper we present multivariate space-time fractional Poisson processes by considering common random time-changes of a (finite-dimensional) vector of independent classical (nonfractional) Poisson processes. In some cases we also consider compound processes. We obtain some equations in terms of some suitable fractional derivatives and fractional difference operators, which provides the extension of known equations for the univariate processes.
The objectives of this work were (i) geographical analysis of the 2012–2014 outbreak of rabies in Greece using GIS and (ii) comparative analysis of animal cases with data of potential human exposure to rabies together with environmental data, in order to provide information for risk assessment, effective monitoring and control. Most animal cases (40/48) involved red foxes, while domestic animals were also diagnosed with rabies. Overall, 80% of the cases were diagnosed in central northern Greece; 75% of the cases were diagnosed in low altitudes (<343·5 m), within a distance of 1 km from human settlements. Median distance from livestock farms was 201·25 m. Most people potentially exposed to rabies (889/1060) presented with dog bite injuries. Maximum entropy analysis revealed that distance from farms contributed the highest percentage in defining environmental niche profiles for rabid foxes. Oral vaccination programmes were implemented in 24 administrative units of the country during 2013 and 2014, covering a total surface area of ~60 000 km2. Rabies re-occurrence in Greece emphasizes the need for ongoing surveillance in cross-border areas and in areas with intense human activity.
Interviews with local people have been widely used by biologists as a cost-effective approach to studying certain topics in wildlife ecology and conservation. However, doubts still exist about the validity and quality of the information gathered, especially in studies targeting cryptic or elusive species, such as carnivores. We assessed the reliability of interviews (n = 155) in detecting the presence of three species of carnivores with different characteristics, by comparing interview results with data obtained through camera trapping surveys at 52 sites in central Argentina. The degree of concordance between methods was low for Geoffroy's cat Leopardus geoffroyi and especially for the puma Puma concolor. However, Geoffroy's cats were detected more frequently by camera traps than interviews, whereas the opposite was true for pumas. For the pampas fox Pseudalopex gymnocercus, a less elusive species, we observed a high degree of concordance and a similar probability of occurrence between methods. Our results indicate that data obtained by interviewing local inhabitants should be used with caution because the information about species presence provided by local people may be inaccurate and biased.