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To analyse usual intakes of energy, macronutrients and micronutrients, and their percentage of inadequacy, in a Brazilian population at severe food insecurity (SFI) risk, determined from a predictive model using two national databases.
Cross-sectional study. Our study used a statistical model to predict SFI using the 2009 National Sample Household Survey, where the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale measured SFI.
The model was applied in a probabilistic sample of 34 003 Brazilians aged 10 years or older that participated in a national dietary survey during 2008–2009. The application of the model generated the probability of each individual being in SFI. The probability of SFI was grouped into quartiles (first quartile with the lowest SFI risk, fourth quartile with highest probability of SFI risk).
The intakes of macro- and micronutrients were associated with SFI. The amount of energy and nutrients in the diet tended to be lower among individuals in the fourth quartile, with highest probability of SFI. The average intake of all studied minerals (Ca, Fe, Na, Mg) was less in individuals in the fourth quartile. Only Na presented a higher percentage of inadequacy in the first quartile, the one with a lower chance of SFI.
The food intake of the Brazilian population at higher SFI risk is characterized by energy reduction, reduced consumption of macronutrients and high prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes, as well as a lower mean intakes, when compared with the first quartile with the lowest SFI risk.
This trial compared weight loss outcomes over 14 weeks in women showing low- or high-satiety responsiveness (low- or high-satiety phenotype (LSP, HSP)) measured by a standardised protocol. Food preferences and energy intake (EI) after low and high energy-density (LED, HED) meals were also assessed. Ninety-six women (n 52 analysed; 41·24 (SD 12·54) years; 34·02 (sd 3·58) kg/m2) engaged in one of two weight loss programmes underwent LED and HED laboratory test days during weeks 3 and 12. Preferences for LED and HED food (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire) and ad libitum evening meal and snack EI were assessed in response to equienergetic LED and HED breakfasts and lunches. Weekly questionnaires assessed control over eating and ease of adherence to the programme. Satiety quotients based on subjective fullness ratings post LED and HED breakfasts determined LSP (n 26) and HSP (n 26) by tertile splits. Results showed that the LSP lost less weight and had smaller reductions in waist circumference compared with HSP. The LSP showed greater preferences for HED foods, and under HED conditions, consumed more snacks (kJ) compared with HSP. Snack EI did not differ under LED conditions. LSP reported less control over eating and reported more difficulty with programme adherence. In conclusion, low-satiety responsiveness is detrimental for weight loss. LED meals can improve self-regulation of EI in the LSP, which may be beneficial for longer-term weight control.
Dietary assessment methods including FFQ and food diaries are associated with many measurement errors including energy under-reporting and incorrect estimation of portion sizes. Such errors can lead to inconsistent results especially when investigating the relationship between food intake and disease causation. To improve the classification of a person's dietary intake and therefore clarify proposed links between diet and disease, reliable and accurate dietary assessment methods are essential. Dietary biomarkers have emerged as a complementary approach to the traditional methods, and in recent years, metabolomics has developed as a key technology for the identification of new dietary biomarkers. The objective of this review is to give an overview of the approaches used for the identification of biomarkers and potential use of the biomarkers. Over the years, a number of strategies have emerged for the discovery of dietary biomarkers including acute and medium term interventions and cross-sectional/cohort study approaches. Examples of the different approaches will be presented. Concomitant with the focus on single biomarkers of specific foods, there is an interest in the development of biomarker signatures for the identification of dietary patterns. In the present review, we present an overview of the techniques used in food intake biomarker discover, including the experimental approaches used and challenges faced in the field. While significant progress has been achieved in the field of dietary biomarkers in recent years, a number of challenges remain. Addressing these challenges will be key to ensure success in implementing use of dietary biomarkers.
The relationship between alcohol consumption and body weight is complex and inconclusive being potentially mediated by alcohol type, habitual consumption levels and sex differences. Heavy and regular alcohol consumption has been positively correlated with increasing body weight, although it is unclear whether this is due to alcohol consumption per se or to additional energy intake from food. This review explores the effects of alcohol consumption on food energy intake in healthy adults. CINAHL Plus, EMBASE, Medline and PsycINFO were searched through February 2018 for crossover and randomised controlled trials where an alcohol dose was compared with a non-alcohol condition. Study quality was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool. A total of twenty-two studies involving 701 participants were included from the 18 427 papers retrieved. Studies consistently demonstrated no compensation for alcoholic beverage energy intake, with dietary energy intake not decreasing due to alcoholic beverage ingestion. Meta-analyses using the random-effects model were conducted on twelve studies and demonstrated that alcoholic beverage consumption significantly increased food energy intake and total energy intake compared with a non-alcoholic comparator by weighted mean differences of 343 (95 % CI 161, 525) and 1072 (95 % CI 820, 1323) kJ, respectively. Generalisability is limited to younger adults (18–37 years), and meta-analyses for some outcomes had substantial statistical heterogeneity or evidence of small-study effects. This review suggests that adults do not compensate appropriately for alcohol energy by eating less, and a relatively modest alcohol dose may lead to an increase in food consumption.
The aim of this article was to investigate the mechanism of appetite suppression induced by high-fat diets (HFD) in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Fish (average initial weight 40·0 (sem 0·35) g) were fed diets with two fat levels (6 and 11 %) with four replicates. HFD feeding for 30 d could significantly increase the weight gain rate, but feeding for 60 d cannot. Food intake of M. amblycephala began to decline significantly in fish fed the HFD for 48 d. HFD feeding for 60 d significantly reduced the expression of neuropeptide Y and elevated the expression of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), actions both in favour of suppression of appetite. The activation of fatty acid sensing was partly responsible for the weakened appetite. In addition, inflammatory factors induced by the HFD may be involved in the regulation of appetite by increasing the secretion of leptin and then activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2·0 mg/kg of fish weight) was administered to induce inflammation, and sampling was performed after 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 and 48 h of LPS injection. Within 6–24 h of LPS injection, the food intake and appetite of M. amblycephala decreased significantly, whereas the mRNA expression of leptin and mTOR increased significantly. Our results indicate that inflammatory cytokines may be the cause of appetite suppression in M. amblycephala fed a HFD.
This pilot study explored the feasibility of a moderate time-restricted feeding (TRF) intervention and its effects on adiposity and metabolism. For 10 weeks, a free-living TRF group delayed breakfast and advanced dinner by 1·5 h each. Changes in dietary intake, adiposity and fasting biochemistry (glucose, insulin, lipids) were compared with controls who maintained habitual feeding patterns. Thirteen participants (29 (sem 2) kg/m2) completed the study. The average daily feeding interval was successfully reduced in the TRF group (743 (sem 32) to 517 (sem 22) min/d; P < 0·001; n 7), although questionnaire responses indicated that social eating/drinking opportunities were negatively impacted. TRF participants reduced total daily energy intake (P = 0·019) despite ad libitum food access, with accompanying reductions in adiposity (P = 0·047). There were significant between-group differences in fasting glucose (P = 0·008), albeit driven primarily by an increase among controls. Larger studies can now be designed/powered, based on these novel preliminary qualitative and quantitative data, to ascertain and maximise the long-term sustainability of TRF.
We have shown that nutrient intakes of rural and urban black Africans in the North West Province (NWP) of South Africa (SA) followed the typical nutrition transition pattern upon urbanization and modernization. The current study aimed to examine and report on the changes in food intakes from 2005 to 2010 in rural and urban black South Africans participating in the PURE-NWP-SA study.
The PURE-NWP-SA study recruited 2010 volunteers aged 35–70 years in 2005, from which detailed food intakes, measured with a validated quantified FFQ, for 1858 participants were available. In 2010, food intakes of a cohort of 1154 of these participants were measured.
Median energy intake increased in men and women in both rural and urban areas from 2005 to 2010. Changes in food intake were interpreted keeping these changes in energy intake and the contribution of foods and food groups to total energy intake in mind. No ‘new’ foods were eaten in 2010, but more participants consumed certain foods and products in 2010 than in 2005. Beneficial changes were increased intakes of vegetables, fruit and milk in most groups. The contribution of cooked staple porridges and bread made from fortified maize and bread flour decreased and therefore also did their contribution to micronutrient intakes.
By promoting and supporting observed beneficial changes such as increased intakes of milk, vegetables and fruit by appropriate policies and educational interventions, it should be possible to steer the nutrition transition in this population into a positive direction.
To estimate current food intake in the population of northern Norway and to investigate the impact of self-perceived Sami ethnicity and region of residence on food intake.
The data are part of the second cross-sectional survey of the Population-based Study on Health and Living Conditions in Regions with Sami and Norwegian Populations (the SAMINOR 2 Clinical Survey, 2012–2014). Food intake was assessed by an FFQ. Ethnic and regional differences in food intake were studied by sex-specific, multivariable-adjusted quantile regression models.
Ten municipalities (rural northern Norway).
Males (n 2054) and females (n 2450) aged 40–69 years (2743 non-Sami, 622 multi-ethnic Sami, 1139 Sami).
The diet of Sami participants contained more reindeer meat, moose meat, food made with animal blood and freshwater fish; and contained less lean fish and vegetables. In the inland region, the consumption of reindeer meat was greatest in Sami participants, followed by multi-ethnic Sami participants and non-Sami participants, who had the lowest consumption (median 25, 12 and 8 g/d, respectively). Compared with the inland region, fish roe/liver intake was higher in the coastal region and lean fish intake was twice as high (41 and 32 g/d in males and females, respectively).
When compared with non-Sami participants, those with solely self-perceived Sami ethnicity reported a significantly different intake of several foods, especially reindeer meat in the inland region. Multi-ethnic Sami tended to have similar diets to non-Sami. Residence in the coastal region predicted higher fish and roe/liver intake.
Offering large portions of high-energy-dense (HED) foods increases overall intake in children and adults. This is known as the portion size effect (PSE). It is robust, reliable and enduring. Over time, the PSE may facilitate overeating and ultimately positive energy balance. Therefore, it is important to understand what drives the PSE and what might be done to counter the effects of an environment promoting large portions, especially in children. Explanations for the PSE are many and diverse, ranging from consumer error in estimating portion size to simple heuristics such as cleaning the plate or eating in accordance with consumption norms. However, individual characteristics and hedonic processes influence the PSE, suggesting a more complex explanation than error or heuristics. Here PSE studies are reviewed to identify interventions that can be used to downsize portions of HED foods, with a focus on children who are still learning about social norms for portion size. Although the scientific evidence for the PSE is robust, there is still a need for creative downsizing solutions to facilitate portion control as children and adolescents establish their eating habits.
Life on earth has evolved during the past several billion years under relatively bright days and dark night conditions. The wide-spread adoption of electric lights during the past century exposed animals, both human and non-human, to significant light at night for the first time in their evolutionary history. Endogenous circadian clocks depend on light to entrain to the external daily environment and seasonal rhythms depend on clear nightly melatonin signals to assess time of year. Thus, light at night can derange temporal adaptations. Indeed, disruption of naturally evolved light–dark cycles results in several physiological and behavioural changes with potentially serious implications for physiology, behaviour and mood. In this review, data from night-shift workers on their elevated risk for metabolic disorders, as well as data from animal studies will be discussed. Night-shift workers are predisposed to obesity and dysregulated metabolism that may result from disrupted circadian rhythms. Although studies in human subjects are correlative, animal studies have revealed several mechanisms through which light at night may exert its effects on metabolism by disrupting circadian rhythms that are associated with inflammation, both in the brain and in the periphery. Disruption of the typical timing of food intake is a key effect of light at night and subsequent metabolic dysregulation. Strategies to avoid the effects of light at night on body mass dysregulation should be pursued.
To elucidate the mechanisms of how snack foods may induce non-homeostatic food intake, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), as resting state networks can individually adapt to experience after short time exposures. In addition, we used graph theoretical analysis together with machine learning techniques (support vector machine) to identifying biomarkers that can categorize between high-caloric (potato chips) vs. low-caloric (zucchini) food stimulation.
Seventeen healthy human subjects with body mass index (BMI) 19 to 27 underwent 2 different fMRI sessions where an initial resting state scan was acquired, followed by visual presentation of different images of potato chips and zucchini. There was then a 5-minute pause to ingest food (day 1=potato chips, day 3=zucchini), followed by a second resting state scan. fMRI data were further analyzed using graph theory analysis and support vector machine techniques.
Potato chips vs. zucchini stimulation led to significant connectivity changes. The support vector machine was able to accurately categorize the 2 types of food stimuli with 100% accuracy. Visual, auditory, and somatosensory structures, as well as thalamus, insula, and basal ganglia were found to be important for food classification. After potato chips consumption, the BMI was associated with the path length and degree in nucleus accumbens, middle temporal gyrus, and thalamus.
The results suggest that high vs. low caloric food stimulation in healthy individuals can induce significant changes in resting state networks. These changes can be detected using graph theory measures in conjunction with support vector machine. Additionally, we found that the BMI affects the response of the nucleus accumbens when high caloric food is consumed.
Oligofructose is a prebiotic dietary fibre obtained from chicory root inulin. Oligofructose supplementation may affect satiety, food intake, body weight and/or body composition. The aim was to examine the efficacy of oligofructose-supplemented granola bars on the following weight management outcomes: satiety, energy intake, body weight and body composition in overweight or obese adults. In all, fifty-five adults with overweight or obesity (thirty-six females/nineteen males; age: 41 (sd 12) years; 90·6 (sd 11·8) kg; BMI: 29·4 (sd 2·6) kg/m2) participated in a parallel, triple-blind, placebo-controlled intervention. A total of twenty-nine subjects replaced their snacks twice a day with an equienergetic granola bar supplemented with 8 g of oligofructose (OF-Bar). Subjects in the control group (n 26) replaced their snack with a control granola bar without added oligofructose (Co-Bar). Satiety, 24-h energy intake, body weight and body composition (fat mass and waist circumference) were measured at baseline, weeks 6 and 12. In addition, weekly appetite and gastrointestinal side effects were measured. During the intervention, energy intake, body weight and fat mass remained similar in the Co-Bar and OF-Bar groups (all P>0·05). Both groups lost 0·3 (sd 1·2) kg lean mass (P<0·01) and reduced their waist circumference with −2·2 (sd 3·6) cm (P<0·0001) after 12 weeks. The OF-Bar group reported decreased hunger in later weeks of the intervention (P=0·04), less prospective food consumption (P=0·03) and less thirst (P=0·003). To conclude, replacing daily snacks for 12 weeks with oligofructose-supplemented granola bars does not differentially affect energy intake, body weight and body composition compared with a control bar. However, there was an indication that appetite was lower after oligofructose bar consumption.
Physical activity (PA) levels and dietary habits are considered some of the most important factors associated with obesity. The present study aimed to examine the association between PA level and food and beverage consumption in European children (2–10 years old).
A sample of 7229 children (49·0 % girls) from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary and lifestyle induced health EFfects In Children and infantS) study was included. Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was assessed objectively with accelerometers. FFQ was used to register dietary habits. ANCOVA and binary logistic regression were applied.
Boys who spent less time in MVPA reported lower consumption of vegetables, fruits, cereals, yoghurt, milk, bread, pasta, candies and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) than boys who spent more time in MVPA (P<0·05). Moreover, boys who spent less time in MVPA were more likely to consume fast foods and water than those in the highest MVPA tertile (P<0·05). Girls who spent less time in MVPA reported lower consumption frequencies of vegetables, pasta, bread, yoghurt, candies, jam/honey and SSB than girls in the highest MVPA tertile (P<0·05). Also, girls in the lowest MVPA tertile were more likely to consume fast foods and water than those with high levels of MVPA (P<0·05).
Food intake among European children varied with different levels of daily MVPA. Low time spent in MVPA was associated with lowest consumption of both high- and low-energy-dense foods and high fast-food consumption.
Social media has outpaced traditional media to be the most popular sociocultural channel to transmit thin-ideal images, an established trigger for body image concerns and disordered eating in women. With an experimental design, the present research first demonstrated that exposure to thin images on social media threatened women's body image and increased their unhealthy food consumption (Study 1). However, given that thin images posted on social media are usually from wealthier people, the present research hypothesised that it may not be the body shape but the perceived socioeconomic status (SES) of images that indeed have negative effects on women. By manipulating the perceived SES of thin images and incorporating a baseline control group (Study 2), the present research provided causal evidence for the hypothesis by indicating that viewing thin images with parallel-perceived SES could significantly buffer undesirable thin-ideal effects on self-objectification and food intake. Therefore, future research needs to pay more attention to the role of SES in the thin media images literature.
There is currently no standard, objective definition of selective eating. This is partially because normative values for the number of different foods eaten by US children have not been established. The present study objectives were to: (i) perform exploratory analysis on the number of different foods, beverages, and total foods and beverages consumed by US children aged 2–18 years over a year’s time, and the types of foods consumed by those in the lowest 2·5th percentile; and (ii) determine whether those values differ according to demographic variables and weight status.
Secondary analysis of cross-sectional FFQ data. Differences in number of foods, beverages, and total foods and beverages were analysed using one-way ANOVA.
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 2003–2006.
Non-institutionalized US children aged 2–18 years.
The mean number of different foods and beverages consumed across the sample was 83·2. There were no significant differences by gender, BMI, race or food security categories. There was a difference in beverage consumption by age category, with children aged 12–18 years consuming a significantly higher number of different beverages compared with each of the other two age categories (i.e. 2–5 years and 6–11 years).
Normative values for the number of foods and drinks reported as consumed by children over the past 12 months may be a useful measure for researchers. Future research validating this measure is needed before cut-off values can be used to develop a definition of selective eating.
To validate a novel photographic portion guide as a tool to estimate consumption of fish and shrimp. Application of such a validated tool can facilitate accurate individual and community seafood intake assessments and provide meaningful data relative to health benefits and hazard assessment, particularly in response to environmental contamination and disasters.
A photographic fish and shrimp portion guide presenting a stepped range of cooked portion sizes was used by participants to estimate their typical portion sizes. Participants selected their typical portion size from the photographic guide and also from a selection of freshly cooked reference meals. Photographic portions selections were compared with plated reference portions for each participant.
Academic sensory testing laboratory in the USA.
Separate groups of adults (25–64 years) contributed to fish (n 54) and shrimp (n 53) portion size comparison studies.
In the fish study, there was no difference between photographic portion selections (6·59 (sd 2·65) oz (186·8 (sd 75·1) g)) and reference plate selections (7·04 (sd 2·63) oz (199·6 (sd 74·6) g); P=0·384). Similarly in the shrimp study, there was no difference between photographic portion selections (6·88 (sd 3·40) oz (195·0 (sd 96·4) g)) and reference plate selections (6·06 (sd 2·65) oz (171·8 (sd 75·1) g); P=0·159). Photographic portions predicted plated reference portions for both fish and shrimp based on linear regression (P<0·001). Bland–Altman plot analyses showed good agreement between the two methods, <1 oz (<28·3 g) bias, in both fish and shrimp studies.
This validated photographic seafood portion guide provides a utilitarian tool for accurately assessing fish and shrimp intake in a community setting.
The influence of sweet taste sensitivity on food intake is not well understood. We investigated the involvement of salivary leptin and SNP of the sweet taste receptor genes (TAS1R2/TAS1R3) on sweet taste sensitivity, sensory-specific satiety (SSS) and macronutrient intake in healthy human adults. In all, nineteen high sweet sensitivity (HS) and eleven low sweet sensitivity (LS) subjects were classified based on the sweetness perception of one solution (9 mm sucrose) forced-choice triangle test. All participants completed a randomised crossover design experiment where they consumed one of three iso-energetic soup preloads differing in primary taste quality (sweet, non-sweet taste-control or no-taste energy-control). A period of 1 h after the preload, participants were offered a buffet meal consisting of foods varying in taste (sweet or non-sweet) and fat content. Subjective measures included hunger/fullness and SSS for sweetness. Saliva and buccal cells were collected to measure leptin level and to study the TAS1R2/TAS1R3 specific SNP, respectively. Salivary leptin concentrations were significantly higher in LS than HS participants (P<0·05). In addition, HS showed stronger sweet SSS compared with LH participants (P<0·05), and consumed less carbohydrate (% energy) and more non-sweet foods than LS (P<0·01 and P<0·05, respectively). Alleles from each TAS1R2 locus (GG compared with AA alleles of rs12033832, and CT/CC compared with TT alleles of rs35874116) were related to higher consumption of carbohydrates (% energy) and higher amount of sweet foods, respectively (P<0·05). In contrast, no associations were found for the TAS1R3 alleles. These results contribute to understand the links between taste sensitivity, macronutrient appetite and food consumption.
To quantify associations of the dietary share of ultra-processed foods (UPF) with the overall diet quality of First Nations peoples.
A cross-sectional analysis of data from the First Nations Food, Nutrition and Environment Study, designed to contribute to knowledge gaps regarding the diet of First Nations peoples living on-reserve, south of the 60th parallel. A multistage sampling of communities was conducted. All foods from 24 h dietary recalls were categorized into NOVA categories and analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of UPF on diet quality.
Western and Central Canada.
First Nations participants aged 19 years or older.
The sample consisted of 3700 participants. UPF contributed 53·9 % of energy. Compared with the non-UPF fraction of the diet, the UPF fraction had 3·5 times less vitamin A, 2·4 times less K, 2·2 times less protein, 2·3 times more free sugars and 1·8 times more Na. As the contribution of UPF to energy increased so did the overall intakes of energy, carbohydrate, free sugar, saturated fat, Na, Ca and vitamin C, and Na:K; while protein, fibre, K, Fe and vitamin A decreased. Diets of individuals who ate traditional First Nations food (e.g. wild plants and game animals) on the day of the recall were lower in UPF.
UPF were prevalent in First Nations diets. Efforts to curb UPF consumption and increase intake of traditional First Nations foods and other fresh or minimally processed foods would improve diet quality and health in First Nations peoples.
A better understanding of the factors that influence eating behaviour is of importance as our food choices are associated with the risk of developing chronic diseases such as obesity, CVD, type 2 diabetes or some forms of cancer. In addition, accumulating evidence suggests that the industrial food production system is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emission and may be unsustainable. Therefore, our food choices may also contribute to climate change. By identifying the factors that influence eating behaviour new interventions may be developed, at the individual or population level, to modify eating behaviour and contribute to society’s health and environmental goals. Research indicates that eating behaviour is dictated by a complex interaction between physiology, environment, psychology, culture, socio-economics and genetics that is not fully understood. While a growing body of research has identified how several single factors influence eating behaviour, a better understanding of how these factors interact is required to facilitate the developing new models of eating behaviour. Due to the diversity of influences on eating behaviour this would probably necessitate a greater focus on multi-disciplinary research. In the present review, the influence of several salient physiological and environmental factors (largely related to food characteristics) on meal initiation, satiation (meal size) and satiety (inter-meal interval) are briefly discussed. Due to the large literature this review is not exhaustive but illustrates the complexity of eating behaviour. The present review will also highlight several limitations that apply to eating behaviour research.
To find out how the consumption of organic food during pregnancy is associated with consumer characteristics, dietary patterns and macro- and micronutrient intakes.
Cross-sectional description of consumer characteristics, dietary patterns and macro- and micronutrient intakes associated with consumption of organic food during pregnancy.
Healthy, pregnant women recruited to a prospective cohort study at midwives’ practices in the southern part of the Netherlands; to enrich the study with participants adhering to alternative lifestyles, pregnant women were recruited through various specific channels.
Participants who filled in questionnaires on food frequency in gestational week 34 (n 2786). Participant groups were defined based on the share of organic products within various food types.
Consumers of organic food more often adhere to specific lifestyle rules, such as vegetarianism or anthroposophy, than do participants who consume conventional food only (reference group). Consumption of organic food is associated with food patterns comprising more products of vegetable origin (soya/vegetarian products, vegetables, cereal products, bread, fruits, and legumes) and fewer animal products (milk and meat), sugar and potatoes than consumed in conventional diets. These differences translate into distinct intakes of macro- and micronutrients, including higher retinol, carotene, tocopherol and folate intakes, lower intakes of vitamin D and B12 and specific types of trans-fatty acids in the organic groups. These differences are seen even in groups with low consumption of organic food.
Various consumer characteristics, specific dietary patterns and types of food intake are associated with the consumption of organic food during pregnancy.