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Stimulation of gastrointestinal taste receptors affects eating behaviour. Intraduodenal infusion of tastants leads to increased satiation and reduced food intake, whereas intraileal infusion of tastants does not affect eating behaviour. Currently, it is unknown whether oral- or intragastric administration of tastants induces a larger effect on eating behaviour. This study investigated the effects of oral- and/or intragastric administration of quinine on food intake, appetite sensations and heart rate variability (HRV). In a blinded randomised crossover trial, thirty-two healthy volunteers participated in four interventions with a 1-week washout: oral placebo and intragastric placebo (OPGP), oral quinine and intragastric placebo (OQGP), oral placebo and intragastric quinine (OPGQ) and oral quinine and intragastric quinine (OQGQ). On test days, 150 min after a standardised breakfast, subjects ingested a capsule containing quinine or placebo and were sham-fed a mixture of quinine or placebo orally. At 50 min after intervention, subjects received an ad libitum meal to measure food intake. Visual analogue scales for appetite sensations were collected, and HRV measurements were performed at regular intervals. Oral and/or intragastric delivery of the bitter tastant quinine did not affect food intake (OPGP: 3273·6 (sem 131·8) kJ, OQGP: 3072·7 (sem 132·2) kJ, OPGQ: 3289·0 (sem 132·6) kJ and OQGQ: 3204·1 (sem 133·1) kJ, P = 0·069). Desire to eat and hunger decreased after OQGP and OPGQ compared with OPGP (P < 0·001 and P < 0·05, respectively), whereas satiation, fullness and HRV did not differ between interventions. In conclusion, sole oral sham feeding with and sole intragastric delivery of quinine decreased desire to eat and hunger, without affecting food intake, satiation, fullness or HRV.
To induce diet-induced obesity (DIO) in rodents, diets high in saturated fat and/or carbohydrates are commonly used. In the laboratory, standardised diets evolved over time without paying particular attention to the effect of fat composition on metabolic alterations. In the present study, customised high-fat diets (HFD) enriched with a combination of lard and different concentrations of New Zealand green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) oil or MSC Hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae, blue grenadier) liver oil, important sources of n-3 PUFA, in comparison with a solely lard-based diet, were fed to lean and DIO male C57BL/6 mice and their effects on metabolic parameters were monitored. Intriguingly, an isoenergetic HFD containing 63 % of total fat in the form of mussel oil and only 28 % in the form of lard attenuated HFD-induced body weight gain after 1 and 4 weeks, respectively. Consistently, changing a lard-enriched HFD to the mussel oil diet reduced body weight markedly even after mice had been exposed to the former diet for 10 months. The weight-reducing effect of the diet was not caused by altered energy intake or expenditure, but was associated with reduced visceral fat mass. Collectively, these data suggest a novel weight-reducing potential of green-lipped mussel oil.
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of acute changes in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) on appetite and food intake among older hospitalised patients. A total of 200 patients (age range 65–94 years, 62·5 % women) participated in this prospective longitudinal observational study. Risk of malnutrition was measured according to the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form. The Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ) and Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) were used to evaluate patients’ appetite at the time of hospital admission (baseline) and after 7 d (follow-up). Food intake was measured according to the plate diagram and serum CRP was analysed at baseline and follow-up. At baseline, 30·5 % of the patients had moderate to severe inflammation, 31·0 % were malnourished and 48·0 % had food intake <75 % of the meals offered. Also, 32·5 and 23·5 % reported poor and very poor appetite or severe loss of appetite according to the SNAQ and ESAS, respectively. Of the patients, 40 % displayed a pronounced reduction in median CRP levels by −1·2 mg/dl and 19 % demonstrated an increase in median CRP levels by +1·2 mg/dl. Appetite significantly improved (P = 0·006) in patients with a decrease in CRP level and deteriorated in those with an increase in CRP level (P = 0·032). Changes in CRP levels did not show any significant impact on food intake. In a regression analysis, changes of inflammation were the major independent predictor for changes of patients’ appetite. We conclude that inflammation has a significant impact on appetite and should therefore be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of malnutrition.
The influence of dietary habits on health/disease is well-established. Accurate dietary assessment is essential to understand metabolic pathways/processes involved in this relationship. In recent years, biomarker discovery has become a major area of interest for improving dietary assessment. Well-established nutrient intake biomarkers exist; however, there is growing interest in identifying and using biomarkers for more accurate and objective measurements of food intake. Metabolomics has emerged as a key tool used for biomarker discovery, employing techniques such as NMR spectroscopy, or MS. To date, a number of putatively identified biomarkers were discovered for foods including meat, cruciferous vegetables and legumes. However, many of the results are associations only and lack the desired validation including dose–response studies. Food intake biomarkers can be employed to classify individuals into consumers/non-consumers of specific foods, or into dietary patterns. Food intake biomarkers can also play a role in correcting self-reported measurement error, thus improving dietary intake estimates. Quantification of food intake was previously performed for citrus (proline betaine), chicken (guanidoacetate) and grape (tartaric acid) intake. However, this area still requires more investigation and expansion to a range of foods. The present review will assess the current literature of identified specific food intake biomarkers, their validation and the variety of biomarker uses. Addressing the utility of biomarkers and highlighting gaps in this area is important to advance the field in the context of nutrition research.
Maternal nutrition is an environmental determinant for offspring growth and development, especially in critical periods. Nutritional imbalances during these phases can promote dysregulations in food intake and feeding preference in offspring, affecting body composition. The aim of this review is to summarize and discuss the effects of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) on offspring feeding behavior and body composition. A search was performed in the PUBMED, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and LILACS databases. Inclusion criteria were studies in rodents whose mothers were submitted to HFD that assessed outcomes of food or caloric intake on offspring and food preference associated or not with body weight or body composition analysis. At the end of the search, 17 articles with the proposed characteristics were included. In these studies, 15 articles manipulated diet during pregnancy and lactation, 1 during pregnancy only, and 1 during lactation only. Maternal exposure to a HFD leads to increased food intake, increased preference for HFDs, and earlier food independence in offspring. The offspring from HFD mothers present low birthweight but become heavier into adulthood. In addition, these animals also exhibited greater fat deposition on white adipose tissue pads. In conclusion, maternal exposure to HFD may compromise parameters in feeding behavior and body composition of offspring, impairing the health from conception until adulthood.
The perception of individuals with low education about dietary assessments is not well explored and studying this may be beneficial to improve data collection. The study builds on previous quantitative studies by providing explanations for the observed lower performance of the 24-h recall method among low-educated individuals. A qualitative study was carried out in Brazil. First, trained interviewers attended a focus group via video conference. Next, individuals with low education, defined as less than 9 years of study, participated in semi-structured face-to-face interviews. Three main themes emerged from the focus groups and were contrasted with the interviews. Summarising, the establishment of adequate communication during the interview is of utmost importance among the low-educated population. Besides, the familiarity of individuals with food and nutrition favours the report of information. Lastly, the use of photographs for food portion quantification helps the dietary assessment although further investigations to improve their use are also needed.
To (i) describe the adaptation of the Short Food Survey (SFS) for assessing the dietary intake of children (2–5 years) during attendance at Early Childhood Education and Care (SFS-ECEC); (ii) determine the acceptability and feasibility of the SFS-ECEC; and (iii) compare the SFS-ECEC to direct observations for assessing dietary intake of children in care.
The adapted forty-seven-item SFS-ECEC was completed by childcare educators to capture individual child’s usual intake over the past month. Acceptability and feasibility were assessed via educator self-report and completion rates. Mean servings of food groups consumed in accordance with dietary guidelines reported in the SFS-ECEC were compared to those obtained by a single-day direct observation via visual estimation conducted by trained personnel. Mean differences, intra-class correlations, Bland–Altman plots, percentage agreement and Cohen’s κ were examined.
Early Childhood Education and Care, NSW, Australia.
Educators and children.
213 (98·61 %) SFS-ECECs were returned. Acceptability was high with 86·54 % of educators reporting the tool as easy to understand. Mean differences in servings of food groups between the SFS-ECEC and direct observation were statistically significantly different for five out of six foods and ranged 0·08–1·07, with intra-class correlations ranging 0·00–0·21. Agreement between the methods in the classification of children meeting or not meeting dietary guidelines ranged 42·78–93·01 %, with Cohen’s κ ranging −0·03 to 0·14.
The SFS-ECEC is acceptable and feasible for completion by childcare educators. While tool refinement and further validation is warranted, small mean differences suggest the tool may be useful in estimating group-level intakes.
To examine mediation by (i) diet quality and (ii) diet quantity in the associations of mindful eating domains with 3-year change in depressive symptoms.
Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Four mindful eating domains (Focused Eating; Eating in response to Hunger and Satiety Cues; Eating with Awareness; Eating without Distraction) were measured with the Mindful Eating Behavior Scale. Food intake was measured with a 238-item FFQ. Diet quality was defined as the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS). Diet quantity was defined as total energy intake (kcal/d; 1 kcal = 4·184 kJ). Mediation analyses with percentile-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals were conducted to calculate indirect effects.
Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam.
Adults aged 55 years or above (n 929).
Diet quality (MDS) did not mediate associations of any of the four mindful eating domains with change in depressive symptoms. In contrast, total energy intake did mediate the associations with change in depressive symptoms for the mindful eating domains Eating with Awareness (indirect effects fully adjusted models: B = −0·014, 95 % CI −0·037, −0·002) and Eating without Distraction (B = −0·013, 95 % CI −0·033, −0·001), but not for the other two domains. Post hoc multiple mediation analyses showed similar results.
Higher scores on two mindful eating domains were associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms through lower total energy intake. Diet quantity, but not diet quality, could be a possible underlying mechanism in the associations between mindful eating and change in depressive symptoms.
Given the increased risk of malnutrition in residential care homes, we studied how specific aspects of the mealtime environment are associated with residents’ eating challenges and energy intake in general and dementia care units of these homes.
624 residents and 82 dining rooms.
32 residential care homes across Canada.
Eating challenges were measured using the Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation in Dementia Questionnaire (Ed-FED-q). Energy intake was estimated over nine meals. Physical, social, person-centered, functional, and homelike aspects of the mealtime environment were scored using standardized, valid measures. Effects of interactions between dining environment scores and eating challenges on daily energy intake were assessed using linear regression.
More eating challenges were associated with decreased energy intake on the general (β = −36.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −47.8, −25.2) and dementia care units (β = −19.9, 95% CI = −34.6, −5.2). Among residents living on general care units, the functional (β = 48.5, 95% CI = 1.8, 95.2) and physical (β = 56.9, 95% CI = 7.2, 106.7) environment scores were positively and directly associated with energy intake; the social and person-centered aspects of the mealtime environment moderated the relationship between eating challenges and energy intake.
Resident eating challenges were significantly associated with energy intake on both dementia care and general care units; however on general care units, when adjusting for eating challenges, the functional and physical aspects of the environment also had a direct effect on energy intake. Furthermore, the social and person-centered aspects of the dining environment on general care units moderated the relationship between eating challenges and energy intake. Dementia care unit environments had no measurable effect on the association between resident eating challenges and energy intake.
We assessed the effects of increased Ca consumption from fat-free milk in an energy-restricted diet and educational activities in the metabolic control of overweight type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Fourteen subjects with T2DM (BMI 29·4 (sd 4·5) kg/m2, low habitual Ca consumption (<600 mg/d)) were included in this randomised, crossover clinical trial. Subjects were randomly allocated to one of the two interventions: drink containing 700 mg of Ca (DAIR) or drink containing 0 mg of Ca (CONT) for ninety consecutive days each. Energy-restricted diets (–500 kcal/d; –2092 kJ/d), containing 800 mg of Ca from dietary sources/d, were prescribed for both groups. Questionnaires were applied at baseline and at the end of the study to assess the subjects’ knowledge on the disease and on self-care, biochemical variables and physical activity. Blood pressure, food intake, body composition and anthropometry were assessed at baseline, days 45 and 90. There was a higher reduction of body fat %, waist circumference, hip circumference, neck circumference, waist:hip ratio, sagittal abdominal diameter, diastolic/systolic blood pressure and an increase in fat-free mass % in DAIR than in CONT. Uric acid, fasting glucose, Hb1Ac, parathyroid hormone and alanine aminotransferase concentrations reduced and vitamin D concentration increased after 90 d in DAIR compared with CONT. The consumption of energy-restricted diet containing 1200 mg Ca/d seems to favour metabolic control in subjects with T2DM. The educational activities increased the knowledge on the disease care.
To analyse usual intakes of energy, macronutrients and micronutrients, and their percentage of inadequacy, in a Brazilian population at severe food insecurity (SFI) risk, determined from a predictive model using two national databases.
Cross-sectional study. Our study used a statistical model to predict SFI using the 2009 National Sample Household Survey, where the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale measured SFI.
The model was applied in a probabilistic sample of 34 003 Brazilians aged 10 years or older that participated in a national dietary survey during 2008–2009. The application of the model generated the probability of each individual being in SFI. The probability of SFI was grouped into quartiles (first quartile with the lowest SFI risk, fourth quartile with highest probability of SFI risk).
The intakes of macro- and micronutrients were associated with SFI. The amount of energy and nutrients in the diet tended to be lower among individuals in the fourth quartile, with highest probability of SFI. The average intake of all studied minerals (Ca, Fe, Na, Mg) was less in individuals in the fourth quartile. Only Na presented a higher percentage of inadequacy in the first quartile, the one with a lower chance of SFI.
The food intake of the Brazilian population at higher SFI risk is characterized by energy reduction, reduced consumption of macronutrients and high prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes, as well as a lower mean intakes, when compared with the first quartile with the lowest SFI risk.
This trial compared weight loss outcomes over 14 weeks in women showing low- or high-satiety responsiveness (low- or high-satiety phenotype (LSP, HSP)) measured by a standardised protocol. Food preferences and energy intake (EI) after low and high energy-density (LED, HED) meals were also assessed. Ninety-six women (n 52 analysed; 41·24 (SD 12·54) years; 34·02 (sd 3·58) kg/m2) engaged in one of two weight loss programmes underwent LED and HED laboratory test days during weeks 3 and 12. Preferences for LED and HED food (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire) and ad libitum evening meal and snack EI were assessed in response to equienergetic LED and HED breakfasts and lunches. Weekly questionnaires assessed control over eating and ease of adherence to the programme. Satiety quotients based on subjective fullness ratings post LED and HED breakfasts determined LSP (n 26) and HSP (n 26) by tertile splits. Results showed that the LSP lost less weight and had smaller reductions in waist circumference compared with HSP. The LSP showed greater preferences for HED foods, and under HED conditions, consumed more snacks (kJ) compared with HSP. Snack EI did not differ under LED conditions. LSP reported less control over eating and reported more difficulty with programme adherence. In conclusion, low-satiety responsiveness is detrimental for weight loss. LED meals can improve self-regulation of EI in the LSP, which may be beneficial for longer-term weight control.
Dietary assessment methods including FFQ and food diaries are associated with many measurement errors including energy under-reporting and incorrect estimation of portion sizes. Such errors can lead to inconsistent results especially when investigating the relationship between food intake and disease causation. To improve the classification of a person's dietary intake and therefore clarify proposed links between diet and disease, reliable and accurate dietary assessment methods are essential. Dietary biomarkers have emerged as a complementary approach to the traditional methods, and in recent years, metabolomics has developed as a key technology for the identification of new dietary biomarkers. The objective of this review is to give an overview of the approaches used for the identification of biomarkers and potential use of the biomarkers. Over the years, a number of strategies have emerged for the discovery of dietary biomarkers including acute and medium term interventions and cross-sectional/cohort study approaches. Examples of the different approaches will be presented. Concomitant with the focus on single biomarkers of specific foods, there is an interest in the development of biomarker signatures for the identification of dietary patterns. In the present review, we present an overview of the techniques used in food intake biomarker discover, including the experimental approaches used and challenges faced in the field. While significant progress has been achieved in the field of dietary biomarkers in recent years, a number of challenges remain. Addressing these challenges will be key to ensure success in implementing use of dietary biomarkers.
The relationship between alcohol consumption and body weight is complex and inconclusive being potentially mediated by alcohol type, habitual consumption levels and sex differences. Heavy and regular alcohol consumption has been positively correlated with increasing body weight, although it is unclear whether this is due to alcohol consumption per se or to additional energy intake from food. This review explores the effects of alcohol consumption on food energy intake in healthy adults. CINAHL Plus, EMBASE, Medline and PsycINFO were searched through February 2018 for crossover and randomised controlled trials where an alcohol dose was compared with a non-alcohol condition. Study quality was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool. A total of twenty-two studies involving 701 participants were included from the 18 427 papers retrieved. Studies consistently demonstrated no compensation for alcoholic beverage energy intake, with dietary energy intake not decreasing due to alcoholic beverage ingestion. Meta-analyses using the random-effects model were conducted on twelve studies and demonstrated that alcoholic beverage consumption significantly increased food energy intake and total energy intake compared with a non-alcoholic comparator by weighted mean differences of 343 (95 % CI 161, 525) and 1072 (95 % CI 820, 1323) kJ, respectively. Generalisability is limited to younger adults (18–37 years), and meta-analyses for some outcomes had substantial statistical heterogeneity or evidence of small-study effects. This review suggests that adults do not compensate appropriately for alcohol energy by eating less, and a relatively modest alcohol dose may lead to an increase in food consumption.
The aim of this article was to investigate the mechanism of appetite suppression induced by high-fat diets (HFD) in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Fish (average initial weight 40·0 (sem 0·35) g) were fed diets with two fat levels (6 and 11 %) with four replicates. HFD feeding for 30 d could significantly increase the weight gain rate, but feeding for 60 d cannot. Food intake of M. amblycephala began to decline significantly in fish fed the HFD for 48 d. HFD feeding for 60 d significantly reduced the expression of neuropeptide Y and elevated the expression of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), actions both in favour of suppression of appetite. The activation of fatty acid sensing was partly responsible for the weakened appetite. In addition, inflammatory factors induced by the HFD may be involved in the regulation of appetite by increasing the secretion of leptin and then activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2·0 mg/kg of fish weight) was administered to induce inflammation, and sampling was performed after 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 and 48 h of LPS injection. Within 6–24 h of LPS injection, the food intake and appetite of M. amblycephala decreased significantly, whereas the mRNA expression of leptin and mTOR increased significantly. Our results indicate that inflammatory cytokines may be the cause of appetite suppression in M. amblycephala fed a HFD.
This pilot study explored the feasibility of a moderate time-restricted feeding (TRF) intervention and its effects on adiposity and metabolism. For 10 weeks, a free-living TRF group delayed breakfast and advanced dinner by 1·5 h each. Changes in dietary intake, adiposity and fasting biochemistry (glucose, insulin, lipids) were compared with controls who maintained habitual feeding patterns. Thirteen participants (29 (sem 2) kg/m2) completed the study. The average daily feeding interval was successfully reduced in the TRF group (743 (sem 32) to 517 (sem 22) min/d; P < 0·001; n 7), although questionnaire responses indicated that social eating/drinking opportunities were negatively impacted. TRF participants reduced total daily energy intake (P = 0·019) despite ad libitum food access, with accompanying reductions in adiposity (P = 0·047). There were significant between-group differences in fasting glucose (P = 0·008), albeit driven primarily by an increase among controls. Larger studies can now be designed/powered, based on these novel preliminary qualitative and quantitative data, to ascertain and maximise the long-term sustainability of TRF.
We have shown that nutrient intakes of rural and urban black Africans in the North West Province (NWP) of South Africa (SA) followed the typical nutrition transition pattern upon urbanization and modernization. The current study aimed to examine and report on the changes in food intakes from 2005 to 2010 in rural and urban black South Africans participating in the PURE-NWP-SA study.
The PURE-NWP-SA study recruited 2010 volunteers aged 35–70 years in 2005, from which detailed food intakes, measured with a validated quantified FFQ, for 1858 participants were available. In 2010, food intakes of a cohort of 1154 of these participants were measured.
Median energy intake increased in men and women in both rural and urban areas from 2005 to 2010. Changes in food intake were interpreted keeping these changes in energy intake and the contribution of foods and food groups to total energy intake in mind. No ‘new’ foods were eaten in 2010, but more participants consumed certain foods and products in 2010 than in 2005. Beneficial changes were increased intakes of vegetables, fruit and milk in most groups. The contribution of cooked staple porridges and bread made from fortified maize and bread flour decreased and therefore also did their contribution to micronutrient intakes.
By promoting and supporting observed beneficial changes such as increased intakes of milk, vegetables and fruit by appropriate policies and educational interventions, it should be possible to steer the nutrition transition in this population into a positive direction.
To estimate current food intake in the population of northern Norway and to investigate the impact of self-perceived Sami ethnicity and region of residence on food intake.
The data are part of the second cross-sectional survey of the Population-based Study on Health and Living Conditions in Regions with Sami and Norwegian Populations (the SAMINOR 2 Clinical Survey, 2012–2014). Food intake was assessed by an FFQ. Ethnic and regional differences in food intake were studied by sex-specific, multivariable-adjusted quantile regression models.
Ten municipalities (rural northern Norway).
Males (n 2054) and females (n 2450) aged 40–69 years (2743 non-Sami, 622 multi-ethnic Sami, 1139 Sami).
The diet of Sami participants contained more reindeer meat, moose meat, food made with animal blood and freshwater fish; and contained less lean fish and vegetables. In the inland region, the consumption of reindeer meat was greatest in Sami participants, followed by multi-ethnic Sami participants and non-Sami participants, who had the lowest consumption (median 25, 12 and 8 g/d, respectively). Compared with the inland region, fish roe/liver intake was higher in the coastal region and lean fish intake was twice as high (41 and 32 g/d in males and females, respectively).
When compared with non-Sami participants, those with solely self-perceived Sami ethnicity reported a significantly different intake of several foods, especially reindeer meat in the inland region. Multi-ethnic Sami tended to have similar diets to non-Sami. Residence in the coastal region predicted higher fish and roe/liver intake.
Offering large portions of high-energy-dense (HED) foods increases overall intake in children and adults. This is known as the portion size effect (PSE). It is robust, reliable and enduring. Over time, the PSE may facilitate overeating and ultimately positive energy balance. Therefore, it is important to understand what drives the PSE and what might be done to counter the effects of an environment promoting large portions, especially in children. Explanations for the PSE are many and diverse, ranging from consumer error in estimating portion size to simple heuristics such as cleaning the plate or eating in accordance with consumption norms. However, individual characteristics and hedonic processes influence the PSE, suggesting a more complex explanation than error or heuristics. Here PSE studies are reviewed to identify interventions that can be used to downsize portions of HED foods, with a focus on children who are still learning about social norms for portion size. Although the scientific evidence for the PSE is robust, there is still a need for creative downsizing solutions to facilitate portion control as children and adolescents establish their eating habits.
Life on earth has evolved during the past several billion years under relatively bright days and dark night conditions. The wide-spread adoption of electric lights during the past century exposed animals, both human and non-human, to significant light at night for the first time in their evolutionary history. Endogenous circadian clocks depend on light to entrain to the external daily environment and seasonal rhythms depend on clear nightly melatonin signals to assess time of year. Thus, light at night can derange temporal adaptations. Indeed, disruption of naturally evolved light–dark cycles results in several physiological and behavioural changes with potentially serious implications for physiology, behaviour and mood. In this review, data from night-shift workers on their elevated risk for metabolic disorders, as well as data from animal studies will be discussed. Night-shift workers are predisposed to obesity and dysregulated metabolism that may result from disrupted circadian rhythms. Although studies in human subjects are correlative, animal studies have revealed several mechanisms through which light at night may exert its effects on metabolism by disrupting circadian rhythms that are associated with inflammation, both in the brain and in the periphery. Disruption of the typical timing of food intake is a key effect of light at night and subsequent metabolic dysregulation. Strategies to avoid the effects of light at night on body mass dysregulation should be pursued.