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This chapter gives a brief overview of the history of community ecology, starting from the early 20th century debates on how communities should be defined and continuing until the modern conceptual frameworks. The chapter covers the criticism of community ecology, the views and theories that mainstreamed its avenue and the current unifying theoretical frameworks. The chapter discusses how the scale dependency of community processes is one of the main sources of criticism and disagreement among community ecologists. We introduce the early contrasting views and theories, such as the organismic versus individualistic continuum concepts of communities and the niche versus neutral theories. We further discuss the current unifying theoretical frameworks, such as the metacommunity framework, the assembly rules framework and Vellend’s Theory of Ecological Communities. Most importantly, the chapter introduces the concepts and ideas that underlie the ecological assumptions behind species distribution models in general, and Hierarchical Modelling of Species Communities (HMSC) in particular.
Although the concept, first demonstration, and potential applications of X-ray transmission mirrors (XTMs) were initially described over 30 years ago, only a few implementations exist in the literature. This is attributed to the unsolved challenge of a thick frame supporting a thin, reflecting membrane which does not itself block the transmitted beam. Here, we introduce a novel approach to solve this problem by employing silicon microfabrication. A robust XTM frame has been fabricated by using a novel two-step etch process, which secures the thin-film membrane without blocking the transmitted beam. Specifically, we have fabricated delicate XTM optics with 90% yield, which consist of 280-nm-thick low-stress silicon nitride membrane windows that are 1.5 mm wide and 125 mm long on silicon substrates. The XTM optics have been demonstrated to be a more efficient high-pass X-ray filter; for example, when configured for 40% transmission of 11.3 keV photons, we measure the reduction of 8.4 keV photons by a factor of 56.
This paper provides a toolbox for the credibility analysis of frequency risks, with allowance for the seniority of claims and of risk exposure. We use Poisson models with dynamic and second-order stationary random effects that ensure nonnegative credibilities per period. We specify classes of autocovariance functions that are compatible with positive random effects and that entail nonnegative credibilities regardless of the risk exposure. Random effects with nonnegative generalized partial autocorrelations are shown to imply nonnegative credibilities. This holds for ARFIMA(0, d, 0) models. The AR(p) time series that ensure nonnegative credibilities are specified from their precision matrices. The compatibility of these semiparametric models with log-Gaussian random effects is verified. Gaussian sequences with ARFIMA(0, d, 0) specifications, which are then exponentiated entrywise, provide positive random effects that also imply nonnegative credibilities. Dynamic random effects applied to Poisson distributions are retained as products of two uncorrelated and positive components: the first is time-invariant, whereas the autocovariance function of the second vanishes at infinity and ensures nonnegative credibilities. The limit credibility is related to the three levels for the length of the memory in the random effects. The limit credibility is less than one in the short memory case, and a formula is provided.
Seismic deconvolution is at the heart of seismic data processing. Deconvolution can be done determinsitically, via optimum filtering in time or in other domians. This chapter discusses the principles of seismic deconvolution and shows various techniques with examples.
We shall begin this chapter with a survey of the most important examples of recommendation sytems, for example, offering customers of an on-line retailer suggestions about what they might like to buy, based on their past history of purchases and/or product searches. Recommendation systems use a number of different technologies. We can classify these systems into two broad groups: 1) Content-based systems examine properties of the items recommended. For instance, if a Netflix user has watched many cowboy movies, then recommend a movie classified in the database as having the “cowboy” genre; 2) Collaborative filtering systems recommend items based on similarity measures between users and/or items. The items recommended to a user are those preferred by similar users. This sort of recommendation system can use the groundwork laid in Chapter 3 on similarity search and Chapter 7 on clustering. However, these technologies by themselves are not sufficient, and there are some new algorithms that have proven effective for recommendation systems.
Asset allocation with a derivative security is studied in a hidden, Markovian regime-switching, economy using filtering theory and the martingale approach. A generalized delta-hedged ratio and a generalized elasticity of an option are introduced to accommodate the presence of the information state process and the derivative security. Malliavin calculus is applied to derive a solution for a general utility function which includes an exponential utility, a power utility, and a logarithmic utility. A compact solution is obtained for a logarithmic utility. Some economic implications of the solutions are discussed.
We examine the effectiveness of bankruptcy institutions at promoting socially efficient allocation of resources. Under the Slovenian simplified reorganization procedure, firms with rejected reorganization proposals are not automatically liquidated. This unique institutional feature facilitates an estimation of the extent of different types of filtering failures. Based on an ex-post conceptualization of firm viability, Type I errors (the acceptance of plans by non-viable firms) are more likely than Type II errors (the rejection of plans by viable firms) and the overall incidence of filtering failure is 27%. Based on an ex-ante conceptualization of firm viability, any given reduction in Type II errors would give rise to three times as many Type I errors. We contextualize our findings in the light of prior results in the literature, alternative mechanisms for insolvency resolution, and related bankruptcy reorganization schemes internationally where courts are awarded a comparatively more prominent role.
A compact high-isolation power divider with bandpass response and high-frequency selectivity is presented in this letter. Two dual-mode resonators are used to realize filtering response. The circuit size of the proposed power divider can be reduced by using dual-mode capacitance loaded square meander loop resonators. Due to capacitive load, the resonator can exhibit slow-wave characteristics, which can be utilized to suppress harmonics and reduce size. The simulated and measured results show reasonable agreement.
Recent progress in video compression is seemingly reaching its limits making it very hard to improve coding efficiency significantly further. The adaptive loop filter (ALF) has been a topic of interest for many years. ALF reaches high coding gains and has motivated many researchers over the past years to further improve the state-of-the-art algorithms. The main idea of ALF is to apply a classification to partition the set of all sample locations into multiple classes. After that, Wiener filters are calculated and applied for each class. Therefore, the performance of ALF essentially relies on how its classification behaves. In this paper, we extensively analyze multiple feature-based classifications for ALF (MCALF) and extend the original MCALF by incorporating sample adaptive offset filtering. Furthermore, we derive new block-based classifications which can be applied in MCALF to reduce its complexity. Experimental results show that our extended MCALF can further improve compression efficiency compared to the original MCALF algorithm.
The kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) is more robust and has a faster learning speed when compared with the traditional neural networks, and thus it is increasingly gaining attention in hyperspectral image (HSI) classification. Although the Gaussian radial basis function kernel widely used in KELM has achieved promising classification performance in supervised HSI classification, it does not consider the underlying data structure of HSIs. In this paper, we propose a novel spectral-spatial KELM method (termed as MF-KELM) by incorporating the mean filtering kernel into the KELM model, which can properly compute the mean value of the spatial neighboring pixels in the kernel space. Considering that in the situation of limited training samples the classification result is very noisy, the spatial bilateral filtering information on spectral band-subsets is introduced to improve the accuracy. Experiment results show that our method outperforms other kernel functions based on KELM in terms of classification accuracy and visual comparison.
A band-stop angular filter (BSF) based on hump volume Bragg gratings (HVBGs) is proposed. Band-stop filtering in a two-stage amplifier laser system is discussed and simulated. Simulation results show that small-scale self-focusing effects in the laser system can be effectively suppressed with the BSF due to the control of fast nonlinear growth in a specific range of spatial frequencies in the laser beam. Near-field modulation of the output beam from the laser system was decreased from 2.69 to 1.37 by controlling the fast nonlinear growth of spatial frequencies ranging from
with the BSF. In addition, the BSF can be used in a plug-and-play scheme and has potential applications in high-power laser systems.
A compact reconfigurable filtering ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna with switchable band-notched functions is proposed. The basic structure of the proposed design is a filtering slot antenna with good band-edge selectivity using stepped impedance resonator feeding line. The reconfigurability is achieved by using two microstrip lines paralleling to the feeding line and two PIN diodes. The reconfigurable structure and bias circuit of the antenna are relatively simple and are not connected to the radiation structure, so they have little negative influence on the radiation characteristics of the antenna. Total four states could be achieved by using two PIN diodes to short the microstrip lines and ground. To verify the performance of the final design, multiple measured and simulated results in frequency and time domain are studied and analyzed. The measured results agreed very well with simulation. Compared with the traditional UWB antenna, the proposed antenna has advantages in size, filtering function in-band and out-of-band, and tunable states for multiple UWB applications.
A series of novel wideband filtering power dividers (WFPDs) with wide stopband rejection performances is proposed in this paper. The proposed WFPD structure consists of a parallel-coupled line, two transmission line (TL) sections, four loading terminations, and an isolation resistor. The coupled line is applied at the input port to provide wideband impedance transformation, while different types of loading terminations and TL sections are adopted to realize various out-of-band rejection performances. To verify the proposed concepts, three WFPDs operating at 3.0 GHz are designed and fabricated with 3 dB bandwidth of 79.7, 79.0, and 74.4%. In WFPD1, the measured out-of-band rejection of better than 13.4 dB extends to 2.57f0. Moreover, the measured out-of-band rejection of better than 17 dB extends to 2.47f0 (4.75f0) in WFPD2 (WFPD3), respectively. Good agreements between the simulated and measured results validate the presented ideas.
X-ray Pulsar Navigation (XPNAV) uses the Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) of the pulsar signal between the spacecraft and Solar System Barycentre (SSB) to determine position. In this paper, a novel method to improve the performance of XPNAV via exploiting the pulsar position vector is proposed. First, the field of view of the collimator is utilised to find the pulsar orientation direction. Then, a searching strategy based on the modified Powell method under given coordinate frames is proposed. We also mathematically prove the existence of the extreme value of the searching strategy. Subsequently, an observation model based on the pulsar radiation vector is presented and applied to formulate the observation function together with pulsar time transfer function. Finally, an Adaptive Divided Difference Filter (ADDF) algorithm is introduced to iteratively estimate the position and velocity of the spacecraft. Numerical simulations show that the vector searching method is feasible and the pulsar radiation direction can improve the navigation performance by 75%. The simulation results also show that the ADDF performs better than Unscented Kalman Filtering (UKF) and DDF in position estimation.
The different examples that had been used in Section 1 as motivations, are revisited at the light of what has been discussed later. The bat echolocation case is considered in a greater generality, with considerations about sequences of calls and the “why and how” of their structure in terms of optimality. Time-frequency formulations of matched filtering are proposed and used for, e.g., supporting in a geometrical way the solution to Doppler-tolerance. A similar analysis is provided for gravitational waves, with signal denoising complemented by parameter estimations and comparisons with theoretical models. Finally, Riemann’s zeta-function, as well as variations thereof and Weierstrass' functions, are given a time-frequency interpretation based on their disentanglement into chirp components.
Thanks to its Bargmann representation, a Gaussian STFT can be factorized so as to be described by its zeros. This paves the way for a new approach that exploits the (usually ignored) zeros of the transform. Zeros can serve as centers for Voronoi cells whose statistics is investigated in terms of density, area, and shape. They can also be connected via a Delaunay triangulation, whose characterization in the noise-only situation permits, a contrario, to identify signals embedded in noise from “silent” points.
In this study, wideband bandpass power divider with good out-of-band performance is proposed. Two bandpass filters (BPFs) are utilized to substitute the quarter-wavelength transmission line in conventional Wilkinson power divider. A resistor is specially arranged between two BPFs for a good isolation. Four transmission zeros (TZs) are found to be distributed in the lower and upper stopband of the power divider. Moreover, the locations of two TZs can be shifted by tuning the impedance ratio of the center-loaded open stub, which is propitious to improve the frequency selectivity. Even- and odd-mode methods are applied to analyze the proposed power divider and closed-form design formulas are obtained. Finally, two prototype power dividers with measured rejection level in the upper stopband larger than 29.1 and 32 dB till to 2.7f0 and 2.69f0, respectively, are designed and fabricated to testify the proposed design concept. Good agreement between the simulated and measured results is observed, validating the validity of the proposed design principle.