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Magical realism is a world literary genre that stages and enables radical crossing of illicit boundaries. Intradiegetically, the mode explores questions of faith on the same ontological level as rationality. In the Arabic and Hebrew-Mizrahi contexts, magical realism serves to puncture the purportedly rational language of the state with the fantastic as a vehicle of minoritarian empowerment. These texts narrate subaltern histories without constantly reproducing the hegemonic language of Othering and subjugation. They disrupt dominant national, ethnic, religious, racial and gender historiographies and ontologies in their respective contexts, but this disruption is all the more powerful when Arabic and Hebrew texts are placed in relation extradiegetically. The networks of relationality created by this dual reading allow us to see ‘Arabness’ with the proverbial third eye – from the positions of minority and majority simultaneously, thereby allowing for a complex, textured and multifaceted understanding of its identitarian and performative meanings.
I posit that it is time to rethink the taxonomic, epistemological and heuristic values of the visual arts by applying magical realism as an interdisciplinary theoretical tool to analyses of cinematic narratives attempting to capture and to relay the ineffable of traumatic memories. Where the written word struggles to recreate a traumatic reality, the visual image artistically insinuates itself as reality. By applying the concept of intermediality to verbal and nonverbal forms of magical realism, the present argument foregrounds the ekphrastic synergy between word (novels and screenplays) and image (films and photographs), and between cinema (words, sounds and images) and other visual media (paintings, photographs, drawings and sculptures). Events that did not register with the psyche at the time of their occurrence may be represented /recreated by the power of suggestion inherent in the magical realist image, in both its verbal and nonverbal forms, as well as in their intermedial hybrids.
This chapter brings Strauss’s music into constructive dialogue with Hollywood film, via the persona of Erich Korngold. It examines Korngold’s historical connection with Strauss through the former composer’s operas and concert works, before exploring the ways in which Strauss can be heard in the film scores by Korngold and his contemporaries in the 1930s and 40s. The use of one particular Straussian harmonic trait – third-related triadic sequences (of both octatonic and hexatonic variety) – is highlighted in Korngold’s scores and traced in more recent film, including in the output of John Williams. Williams’s use of what Frank Lehman calls "chromatically modulating cadential resolutions" can also be found in Strauss and Korngold. The chapter concludes by suggesting that hearing Strauss in Korngold and Williams is just one way of constructing a Straussian Text, one that reveals the power of seeking to encounter Strauss’s music in varied and surprising contexts.
This essay asks what traces Jonson has left in culture outside the academy during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. It explores material from films, music, advertising, cartoons and fantasy literature to investigate how far he still has name recognition in the general cultural consciousness, and what ideas or associations cluster around him. In modern times, Jonson continues to be remembered as the foil to Shakespeare, and is most typically invoked in relation to bodily consumption and good-fellowship. However, unlike Marlowe, Milton, or even Donne, whose names do have resonance in relation to (respectively) queer identity, republicanism, and sexuality, Jonson’s ‘myth’ does not seem today to have equivalent presence or collective recognition. The essay asks why this should be and what it tells us about his legacy and our selective perception of the early modern past.
Nineteen Eighty-Four, as even a glance at recent news articles suggests, is a text which we perennially feel the need to bring to bear upon our own circumstances. Rather than exploring the ways in which our circumstances align with those of Orwell’s novel, this chapter instead considers the complicity of stage, screen, and radio adaptations of Nineteen Eighty-Four in promoting a sense of its perpetual pertinence to the world today. Moving from a radio adaptation starring David Niven broadcast months after the novel’s publication to a ballet produced sixty years later, this chapter charts the changing contexts in which eleven adaptations of Nineteen Eighty-Four have been staged, arguing that various readings (and misreadings) are encouraged, both subtly and overtly, by adaptations with a commercial stake in securing the primacy and continued relevance of Orwell’s work. Following this line of thought, the chapter questions the elements of Orwell’s work which have secured its popularity, considering the changes and replications of adaptation as, respectively, mitigation for the ephemerality of Orwell’s satire and an exposure of his own ambivalent relationship to the qualities of popular fiction which he derides as ‘prolefeed’.
Lead-free perovskite layers may provide a good alternative to the commonly used lead-halide-based perovskite absorber layers in photovoltaics. Energy level alignment of the active semiconductor with contact layers is a key factor in device performance. Kelvin probe force microscopy was used during vapor deposition of C60 onto formamidinium tin iodide to investigate contact formation with detailed local resolution of these materials that are significant for photovoltaic cells. Significant differences dependent on the growth rate of C60 were detected. Sufficiently high deposition rates were essential to reach compact C60 films needed for good contact. A space charge layer larger than 90 nm within the C60 layer was established without indication of interfacial dipoles. The present analysis gives a clear indication of a well-functioning contact of fullerenes to formamidinium tin iodide that is suitable for the use in photovoltaic devices provided that thin compact fullerene films are formed.
Chapter 3 turns to the culture of the early reform period to examine three films – Youth (Qingchun, 1977) and Venus (Qimingxing, 1991), directed by Xie Jin (1923–2008), as well as Mother (Mama, 1991) directed by Zhang Yuan (b. 1963). Youth marked the first major reappearance of disability in mainstream culture and provides the starting point for an examination of the return of disability to the screen. While the chapter demonstrates that these new representations continued to reflect notions of difference, and that even children were expected to ‘overcome’ their impairments to make a contribution to ‘mainstream’ society, it also reveals the significance of personal motives (for example, those of Xie Jin, himself the father of two children with learning impairments) in bringing disability back into the public eye. We see the difficulties of moving beyond the ‘personal tragedy’ narrative even when disabled people and their families have the opportunity to represent their understandings of what it means to be disabled. The particular vulnerability of children as shown in these films, equally, works to reassure the able-bodied gaze that ideologies of normalcy remain intact and unchallenged.
In cultural anthropology, ethnographic film is useful for documenting diverse cultural practices and presenting research. Film’s ability to capture behavior in its holistic context is a key contribution to interests of cultural neuroscience, which has been challenged to better illustrate the impact of its findings outside the laboratory. Still, ethnographic film might go further by accounting for the interaction of culture, mind, and brain in the embodied aspects of the film experience. Neuroscientific inquiry into various storytelling genres reveals the embodied effects of storytelling, which activates neural mechanisms putatively evolved to strengthen social and cultural bonds. In this, storytelling strategy and structure are important; effective stories both engage sustained attention and elicit empathetic response. Character-driven emotional stories following a dramatic arc have greater impact than dispassionate ones. This translates directly to film, which also affords opportunities for emotional attunement and sensory-motor resonance with characters onscreen. Ethnographic film conventions have not adequately developed a methodology responsive to this nuanced understanding, despite anthropology’s long-standing investment in the power of storytelling. A “visual psychological anthropology” approach produces emotionally resonant, character-driven film stories in a dramatic narrative structure. Such films can convey cultural information and impart key concepts in a more immersive way.
This chapter examines a number of postapocalyptic Irish films produced and released in the aftermath of the collapse of the Celtic Tiger economy in Ireland. It considers the ways in which three of these films in particular, Conor Horgan’s One Hundred Mornings (2009), Stephen Fingleton’s The Survivalist (2015), and David Freyne’s The Cured (2017), represent both the state of the nation in the wake of fiscal catastrophe and its future self-projections: the “post” of “postapocalypse.” The films depict bleak presents, clearly reflecting the socioeconomic context of recession and austerity in which they were made. Yet they also offer bleak futures, with limited potential for transformation or growth. The sites of resistance to neoliberal dystopia that emerge within the films, especially those based on reconstruction of a premodern, pastoral community as an ethical alternative to capitalist subjectivities (a key signifier of the postapocalyptic genre), are profoundly ambivalent and contingent. Thus, the chapter argues, the postapocalyptic cycle of Irish cinema represents a key cultural engagement with the economic discourses of recovery and restoration that emerged almost simultaneously with discourses of crisis in Ireland.
A careful engineering of the central metal coordination spheres provides adducts with excellent properties for application as precursors in vapor phase and solution processes. The family of precursors under study concerns the fluorinated metal-organic β-diketonates of alkaline, alkaline-earth and rare-earth metals adducted with a polyether, with general formula M(hfa)n·L (M = Ca, Na, Y, Yb, Er, Tm; Hhfa = 1,1,1,5,5,5 hexafluoroacetylacetone, L = diglyme or tetraglyme). Mass transport properties, such as volatility and thermal stability, of these adducts have been deeply analyzed through thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetric measurements. These properties are rationalized in relation to the metal coordination sphere in the precursors and their applications. In particular, the precursors under focus have been applied to metal organic chemical vapor deposition and a combined sol–gel/spin-coating approach. Both methods allow us to obtain selectively and reproducibly CaF2 and NaYF4 phases with several combinations of lanthanide doping ions, using a proper mixture of fluorinated precursors. A careful optimization of both synthetic strategies is the key point for the production of different lanthanide-doped binary and multicomponent fluoride films, i.e., CaF2:Yb3+,Er3+; CaF2:Yb3+,Tm3+; CaF2:Yb3+,Er3+,Tm3+ and NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+; NaYF4:Yb3+,Tm3+, with suitable morphologies, compositions and crystalline structures. The films show very promising upconversion properties, thus pointing to their appealing applications in photovoltaic systems and white light emission devices.
Spatially fractionated Grid radiation therapy (SFGRT) in an effective technique for bulky and radio-sensitive tumours. SFGRT using a constructed block has been used to evaluate the photon and photo-neutron (PN) dose measurement in 18-MV photon beam energy.
Methods and materials:
A mounted Grid block on to a Varian Clinac 2100c linear accelerator was used to perform photon dosimetry. The percentage depth dose, in-plane and cross-plane beam profile and output factor was measured by ionization chamber in water. The PN contamination was measured after photon dosimetry using the combination of thermoluminescence dosimetry types 600 and 700, and Polycarbonate Film dosimeters on the surface and in the maximum depth dose (dmax) of solid water™ slabs.
The valley-to-peak ration for 6 and 18 MV photon beams obtained from the beam profiles was ~35 and 72%, respectively. Fast and thermal PN equivalent dose decreased in the Grid field compared to an open field (without Grid).
The Grid therapy dosimetry compared to the conventional radiotherapy (without the grid) the production of fast and thermal neutrons were reduced. Using of a Grid block in high-energy photon beams for a long period of the treatment continuously might be a new source of contamination due to the interaction of photon beam resulting the activation of the Grid block
Addressing recent screen productions of Jane Austen’s 1813 novel Pride and Prejudice (dir. Langton, BBC1, 1995; dir. Wright, 2005), and 1815 novel Emma (dir. Lawrence, ITV, 1996; dir. McGrath, 1996), Maribeth Clark explores the function of music, dance, drama and visuals in specific danced divertissements. She focuses on choreographed versions of social dance scenes set to the late-seventeenth-century music of Henry Purcell and his contemporaries up to the late eighteenth century. Her chapter describes an impulse towards unity and congruence, towards the establishment of a stable repertoire, a conservative tradition – a canon that builds on the work of those involved in the twentieth-century English country dance revival.
This chapter offers a survey of a full century of Gothic entertainments, including shows such as the phantasmagoria, Pepper’s Ghost, the magic theatre, and theatrical séances, as well as macabre shows in penny gaffs, fairgrounds and the first screening venues for early films. In relation to this variety of entertainments, it argues for an open definition of Gothic, pointing out that it was the adaptability of Gothic registers that proved so productive for nineteenth-century showmen and women, allowing them routinely to attract audiences at all sorts of venues and as tastes changed across the decades. Drawing on a wide range of primary research in newspapers, the chapter also reconsiders the relationship between these patterns of ‘Gothic showmanship’, and the mass media spectacles delivered by late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century magic- lantern shows and early film. Such media demonstrated continuities with Gothic shows of the preceding century, but also with the eclecticism of late twentieth and twenty-first-century Gothic mass media, suggesting a long trajectory for patterns of Gothic showmanship that is worthy of further consideration.
While suppression is associated with detrimental post-traumatic psychological adjustment, research has not considered the effect of culture on this relationship.
This study investigated cultural differences in the effects of expressive suppression, whilst watching a traumatic film, on subjective distress, psychophysiological responses and intrusive memory.
Australians of European heritage or East Asian Australian participants (n = 82) were randomly assigned to either a suppression group (instructed to suppress their emotions during the film) or a control group (no instructions regarding emotion management). Electrodermal activity, heart rate and heart rate variability (root mean square of the successive differences; RMSSD) were measured pre-, during and post-film. Participants reported the number of film-related intrusions in the 5 min and 7 days post-viewing.
While the European Australian group did not differ significantly on RMSSD, the East Asian suppression group scored significantly higher on RMSSD during the film than the East Asian control group. Second, those in the suppression groups, regardless of cultural background, reported significantly fewer intrusions immediately post-film than controls. Third, we found that for the European Australian group, change in heart rate interacted with group (control versus suppression) when predicting weekly intrusions. However, for the East Asian group change in heart rate did not interact with group when predicting weekly intrusions.
The findings are discussed in the context of current research on culture and emotion regulation and implications for post-traumatic stress disorder.
Despite the Holocaust and the dislocation of the Jewish communities of the Near East and north Africa, the twentieth century was the apex of kabbalistic life and writing. The chapter begins with the urban renaissance of Kabbalah in pre-Holocaust Europe, and then moves to the emerging center in mandatory Palestine, which later became the leading kabbalistic center of Israel. Here an analysis of the nationalistic doctrine of Rabbi Kook and the Socialist doctrine of Rabbi Ashlag is joined with an examination of the development of the kabbalistic Yeshiva, as the leading institutional form of traditional Jewish learning and practice today. Alongside this development, the development of Jewish mystical life in the United States receives special attention. Beyond the Jewish world, the transformation of Kabbalah into a leading player in the post-war global mysticism, especially in the form of the New Age movement, is followed. In this context, the impact of kabbalistic images and themes on cultural life is examined. Naturally, Scholemian academic Kabbalah, seen here as part of its history rather than just as the study of its history, is given its due place.
The synthesis of antibacterial biomaterial with specific functions responsive to specific bacterial growth environments is of significant importance to achieve effective sterilization and reduce the resistant bacteria. Herein, inspired by biomineralization, we develop a one-pot, threonine (Thr)-mediated biomineralization method using a CO2 bubbling procedure to green, simply and quickly prepare vaterite CaCO3 microspheres as a platform for antibacterial Sanguinarine (SAN) delivery. The loading capacity of vaterite CaCO3 microspheres for SAN drugs reached 159.8 mg/g, corresponding to the loading efficiency of 83.7%. And for the first time, a novel Sanguinarine@calcium carbonate (SAN@CaCO3) organic–inorganic hybrid antibacterial biofilm was constructed by using vaterite CaCO3 microspheres with pH-responsive and high SAN drug-loading. Importantly, the film showed bacteria-triggered, pH-responsive SAN release properties and strong bactericidal ability (96.19%) for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Meanwhile, it also had antibacterial capabilities in real environments. In 7 days, it can significantly inhibit the adhesion and growth of bacteria in the air. The biomineralized synthetic vaterite CaCO3 microspheres and the application in the construction of pH-responsive antibacterial biofilm have bright future in resisting bacterial infections and reducing the production of resistant bacteria.
A commercial Empyrean X-ray diffractometer was adapted for combined grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis (GIXRF) measurements with X-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurements. An energy-dispersive silicon drift detector was mounted and integrated in the angle-dependent data acquisition of the Empyrean. Different monochromator/X-ray optics units have been compared with the values obtained by the Atominstitut GIXRF + XRR spectrometer. Data evaluation was performed by JGIXA, a special software for combined GIXRF + XRR data fitting, developed at Atominstitut. A sample consisting of a ~50 nm nickel layer on a silicon substrate was used to compare the performance criteria (i.e. divergence and intensity) of the incident beam optics. An Empyrean X-ray diffractometer was successfully refitted to measure both GIXRF and XRR data.
Chamber arrangements of Beethoven’s large-scale works ‘especially his symphonies’ were so prevalent in the nineteenth century that to ignore them is to miss an essential part of the reception or ‘life history’ of the works in question. The depth and dissemination of the arrangements of Beethoven’s works show that these arrangements, rather than the original versions, were an essential means by which Beethoven’s music took effect. In an era when concert performances were still relatively few, an arrangement was often the first instantiation of a Beethoven orchestral work that one would hear. This chapter explores these arrangements as nineteenth-century reception documents, looking at what they tell us not only about Beethoven, but also about the arrangers themselves and the processes of canon formation at the time. The chapter then considers the apparently new ways in which meanings are constructed for the symphony, through performance, and how these relate to Eroica myths and legends born in Beethoven’s day. It discusses ways in which the work has been performed, represented visually, and marketed in the twenty and twenty-first centuries, including the 2003 BBC production, Eroica.
Two decades into the twenty-first century, Beethoven’s Third Symphony is programmed regularly by the world’s leading orchestras and remains popular with audiences. In contemporary mainstream classical musical culture, the Eroica continues to be the pre-eminent musical emblem of heroism and revolution. In visual media, the Eroica retains classical music’s conventional generic meaning of wealth and superior status, but it is also deployed in film, television and video game soundtracks to track markedly intelligent heroes and culturally sophisticated revolutionaries. As new critical theories engage with the symphony’s traditional interpretations, alternative readings of the Eroica are emerging in musical scholarship alongside the heroic/revolutionary trope. The pastoral, politics and freedom figure prominently in several recent close readings, while the Eroica is fast becoming a pivotal musical work in disability studies. As a central example in both heroic narratives of overcoming and human narratives of adaptation, the Eroica endures.