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α-Linolenic acid (ALA) is an n-3 fatty acid found in plant-derived foods such as linseeds and linseed oil. Mammals can convert this essential fatty acid into longer-chain fatty acids including EPA, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and DHA. Women demonstrate greater increases in the EPA status after ALA supplementation than men, and a growing body of animal model research identifies mechanisms by which sex hormones such as oestrogen and progesterone interact with the synthesis of EPA and DHA. Alternatively, EPA, DPA and DHA can be consumed directly, with oily fish being a rich dietary source of these nutrients. However, current National Diet and Nutrition Data reveals a median oily fish intake of 0 g daily across all age ranges and in both sexes. As longer-chain n-3 fatty acids have a crucial role in fetal and neonatal brain development, advice to consume dietary ALA could prove to be a pragmatic and acceptable alternative to advice to consume fish during pregnancy, if benefits upon tissue composition and functional outcomes can be demonstrated. Further research is required to understand the effects of increasing dietary ALA during pregnancy, and will need to simultaneously address conflicts with current dietary advice to only eat ‘small amounts’ of vegetable oils during pregnancy. Improving our understanding of sex-specific differences in fatty acid metabolism and interactions with pregnancy has the potential to inform both personalised nutrition advice and public health policy.
We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCT) of increased intake of arachidonic acid (ARA) on fatty acid status and health outcomes in humans. We identified twenty-two articles from fourteen RCT. Most studies were conducted in adults. These used between 80 and 2000 mg ARA per d and were of 1–12 weeks duration. Supplementation with ARA doses as low as 80 mg/d increased the content of ARA in different blood fractions. Overall there seem to be few marked benefits for adults of increasing ARA intake from the typical usual intake of 100–200 mg/d to as much as 1000 mg/d; the few studies using higher doses (1500 or 2000 mg/d) also report little benefit. However, there may be an impact of ARA on cognitive and muscle function which could be particularly relevant in the ageing population. The studies reviewed here suggest no adverse effects in adults of increased ARA intake up to at least 1000–1500 mg/d on blood lipids, platelet aggregation and blood clotting, immune function, inflammation or urinary excretion of ARA metabolites. However, in many areas there are insufficient studies to make firm conclusions, and higher intakes of ARA are deserving of further study. Based on the RCT reviewed, there are not enough data to make any recommendations for specific health effects of ARA intake.
Nutrition is a major variable factor in human environments. The composition of nutrients has changed markedly in recent decades which may contribute to the increased prevalence of metabolic diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Fat is an important component of the diet which comes in various forms with fatty acids (FA) of different carbon chain lengths and saturation degrees. In addition to being an energy supply, FA function as potent signalling molecules and influence transcriptional activity. Among other tissues, dietary FA target white adipose tissue function, which is central in maintaining metabolic health. This review focuses on the possible role of dietary FA composition and its effect on human white adipose tissue expandability and transcriptional response. Altogether, the existing literature suggests that unsaturated fat has more benign effects on adipose tissue distribution when compared to long-chain saturated fat. However, the mechanisms of action remain poorly characterised.
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary rumen undegradable protein (RUP) level and rumen protected conjugated linoleic acid (rpCLA) on meat fatty acid (FA) profile, chemical compositions and color parameters of growing kids. Thirty two Kurdish goat kids (13.06±1.08 kg BW) were fed diets differing in RUP level (low = 250 vs. high = 350 g/kg of dietary CP) supplemented either with 15 g/kg rpCLA or 12 g/kg of hydrogenated soybean oil (HSO) for 80 days. Interaction of dietary rpCLA and RUP level had no effect on hot carcass weight, dressing and cut percentage and meat chemical composition and color parameters. Meat total saturated FA (SFA), monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) concentrations were not influenced by experimental diets, whereas, kids fed diets supplemented with rpCLA had lower meat total SFA and higher PUFA concentrations compared to those fed diets supplemented with HSO. The concentration of meat trans-11 8:1 were not influenced by rpCLA supplementation, RUP level and their interaction. Kids fed diets containing rpCLA supplementation had higher meat total conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers compared to those fed diets containing HSO supplementation. Desaturase indexes of C14, C16 and C18 were not influenced by rpCLA supplementation, RUP level and their interaction. It is concluded that supplementing growing kids diets with RUP and 15 g/kg rpCLA not only decreased meat fat content but also increased some FAs considered to be of potential benefit to human health.
The purpose of this review is to consider the effects of the long-chain n-3 fatty acids found in marine foods, EPA and DHA, on risk for CVD, particularly fatal outcomes. It will examine both epidemiological and randomised controlled trial findings. The former studies usually examine associations between the dietary intake or the blood levels of EPA + DHA and CVD outcomes or, on occasion, total mortality. For example, our studies in the Framingham Heart Study and in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study have demonstrated significant inverse relations between erythrocyte EPA + DHA levels (i.e. the Omega-3 Index) and total mortality. Recent data from the Cardiovascular Health Study reported the same relations between plasma phospholipid n-3 levels and overall healthy ageing. As regards randomised trials, studies in the 1990s and early 2000s were generally supportive of a cardiovascular benefit for fish oils (which contain EPA + DHA), but later trials were generally not able to duplicate these findings, at least for total CVD events. However, when restricted to effects on risk for fatal events, meta-analyses have shown consistent benefits for n-3 treatment. Taken together, the evidence is strong for a cardioprotective effect of EPA + DHA, especially when consumed in sufficient amounts to raise blood levels into healthy ranges. Establishing target EPA + DHA intakes to reduce risk for cardiovascular death is a high priority.
Menopause, the permanent cessation of the menstrual cycle, marks the end of a woman's reproductive lifespan. In addition to changes in sex hormone levels associated with menopause, its timing is another predictor of future health outcomes such as duration of the presence of vasomotor symptoms (VMS) and the risk of hormone-related cancers. With ageing of the population, it is estimated that worldwide 1·2 billion women will be menopausal by the year 2030. Previously the effects of reproductive factors (e.g. parity, age at menarche, pregnancy) and socio-demographic factors on intermediate and long-term health outcomes of menopause have been widely documented. However, little is known about whether diet could have an impact on these. Therefore, we review current evidence on the associations of diet with menopause, presence of VMS and the risk of hormone-related cancers such as ovarian, endometrial and breast cancer. Dietary factors could influence the lifespan of the ovaries and sex-hormones levels, hence the timing of natural menopause. Few studies reported an association between diet, in particular soya consumption, and a reduced risk of VMS. Sustained oestrogen exposure has been associated with a higher risk of hormone-related cancers and thus high-fat and meat diets have been linked with an increased risk of these cancers. However, to better understand the mechanistic pathways involved and to make stronger conclusions for these relationships, further studies investigating the associations of dietary intakes and dietary patterns with menopause, presence of VMS and the risk of hormone-related cancers are required.
Normal odd-chain SFA (OCSFA), particularly tridecanoic acid (n-13 : 0), pentadecanoic acid (n-15 : 0) and heptadecanoic acid (n-17 : 0), are normal components of dairy products, beef and seafood. The ratio of n-15 : 0:n-17 : 0 in ruminant foods (dairy products and beef) is 2:1, while in seafood and human tissues it is 1:2, and their appearance in plasma is often used as a marker for ruminant fat intake. Human elongases encoded by elongation of very long-chain fatty acid (ELOVL)1, ELOVL3, ELOVL6 and ELOVL7 catalyse biosynthesis of the dominant even-chain SFA; however, there are no reports of elongase function on OCSFA. ELOVL transfected MCF7 cells were treated with n-13 : 0, n-15 : 0 or n-17 : 0 (80 µm) and products analysed. ELOVL6 catalysed elongation of n-13 : 0→n-15 : 0 and n-15 : 0→n-17 : 0; and ELOVL7 had modest activity toward n-15 : 0 (n-15 : 0→n-17 : 0). No elongation activity was detected for n-17 : 0→n-19 : 0. Our data expand ELOVL specificity to OCSFA, providing the first molecular evidence demonstrating ELOVL6 as the major elongase acting on OCSFA n-13 : 0 and n-15 : 0 fatty acids. Studies of food intake relying on OCSFA as a biomarker should consider endogenous human metabolism when relying on OCSFA ratios to indicate specific food intake.
A total of eight ileal and caecal cannulated Yorkshire barrows were used to determine the interactions of dietary fibre (DF) and lipid types on apparent digestibility of DM and fatty acids (FA) and FA flows in gastrointestinal segments. Pigs were offered four diets that contained either pectin or cellulose with or without beef tallow or maize oil in two Youden square designs (n 6). Each period lasted 15 d. Faeces, ileal and caecal contents were collected to determine apparent ileal digestibility (AID), apparent caecal digestibility and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dietary components. The interactions between DF and lipid types influenced (P <0·05) the digestibility of DM and FA flows. The addition of maize oil decreased (P <0·05) AID of DM in pectin diets, and the addition of beef tallow depressed (P <0·001) ATTD of DM in cellulose diets. Dietary supplementation with beef tallow decreased (P <0·05) the AID of FA in pectin-containing diets but had no effects in cellulose-containing diets. Dietary supplementation with beef tallow increased (P <0·05) AID of SFA and PUFA and the flow of ileal oleic, vaccenic, linolenic and eicosadienoic acids and reduced the flow of faecal lauric, docosatetraenoic and docosapentaenoic acids in pectin- and cellulose-containing diets. In conclusion, the interaction between DF type and lipid saturation modulates digestibility of DM and lipids and FA flows but differs for soluble and insoluble fibre sources, SFA and unsaturated fatty acids and varies in different gastrointestinal segments.
Results of intervention studies on the effects of α-linolenic acid (ALA; C18 : 3n-3) on blood pressure (BP) are conflicting. Discrepancies between studies may be due to differences in study population, as subjects with increased baseline BP levels may be more responsive. Therefore, we examined specifically the effects of ALA on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in (pre-)hypertensive subjects. In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled parallel study, fifty-nine overweight and obese adults (forty males and nineteen females) with (pre-)hypertension (mean age of 60 (sd 8) years) received daily 10 g refined cold-pressed flaxseed oil, providing 4·7 g (approximately 2 % of energy) ALA (n 29) or 10 g of high-oleic sunflower oil as control (n 30) for 12 weeks. Compliance was excellent as indicated by vial count and plasma phospholipid fatty-acid composition. Compared with control, the changes of –1·4 mmHg in mean arterial pressure (MAP; 24 h ABP) after flaxseed oil intake (95 % CI –4·8, 2·0 mmHg, P=0·40) of –1·5 mmHg in systolic BP (95 % CI –6·0, 3·0 mmHg, P=0·51) and of –1·4 mmHg in diastolic BP (95 % CI –4·2, 1·4 mmHg, P=0·31) were not statistically significant. Also, no effects were found for office BP and for MAP, systolic BP, and diastolic BP when daytime and night-time BP were analysed separately and for night-time dipping. In conclusion, high intake of ALA, about 3–5 times recommended daily intakes, for 12 weeks does not significantly affect BP in subjects with (pre-)hypertension.
The aim of this article was to investigate the mechanism of appetite suppression induced by high-fat diets (HFD) in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Fish (average initial weight 40·0 (sem 0·35) g) were fed diets with two fat levels (6 and 11 %) with four replicates. HFD feeding for 30 d could significantly increase the weight gain rate, but feeding for 60 d cannot. Food intake of M. amblycephala began to decline significantly in fish fed the HFD for 48 d. HFD feeding for 60 d significantly reduced the expression of neuropeptide Y and elevated the expression of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), actions both in favour of suppression of appetite. The activation of fatty acid sensing was partly responsible for the weakened appetite. In addition, inflammatory factors induced by the HFD may be involved in the regulation of appetite by increasing the secretion of leptin and then activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2·0 mg/kg of fish weight) was administered to induce inflammation, and sampling was performed after 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 and 48 h of LPS injection. Within 6–24 h of LPS injection, the food intake and appetite of M. amblycephala decreased significantly, whereas the mRNA expression of leptin and mTOR increased significantly. Our results indicate that inflammatory cytokines may be the cause of appetite suppression in M. amblycephala fed a HFD.
Goaty flavor and poor consistency may impact consumer acceptance of fermented goat milk. The undesirable characteristics can mainly be attributed to the presence of short-medium chain free fatty acid (SM-FFA) especially C6-C10 fatty acids and low αs1-casein content in goat milk. This study aimed to investigate the effects of polymerized whey protein (PWP) on goaty flavor as well as the texture properties of fermented goat milk in comparison with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). Samples were evaluated on sensory properties, SM-FFA contents, texture, and apparent viscosity. Compared with control, the fatty acids contents (C6, C8, C10) decreased significantly in fermented goat milk with 0·5% β-CD (22, 71, 54%, respectively) and with 0·7% PWP (45, 58, 71%, respectively). There was a synergistic effect of 0·3% β-CD and 0·6% PWP in decreasing the contents of SM-FFA (C6, C8, C10) sharply by 89, 90, 79%. Under the same percentage of addition, yogurts made with β-CD showed a higher (P < 0·05) apparent viscosity than those with PWP. However, the addition of PWP could increase the texture parameters of fermented goat milk (P < 0·05). Combination of PWP and β-CD presented a more desirable texture and consistency in fermented goat milk. Results indicated that polymerized whey protein can be used to reduce the goaty flavor and improve the texture of fermented goat milk.
The present review will present the recent published results and discuss the main effects of nutrients, mainly fatty acids, on the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. In this sense, the review focuses in two phases: prenatal life and finishing phase, showing how nutrients can modulate gene expression affecting marbling and fatty acid profile in meat from ruminants. Adiposity in ruminants starts to be affected by nutrients during prenatal life when maternal nutrition affects the differentiation and proliferation of adipose cells enhancing the marbling potential. Therefore, several fetal programming studies were carried out in the last two decades in order to better understand how nutrients affect long-term expression of genes involved in adipogenesis and lipogenesis. In addition, during the finishing phase, marbling becomes largely dependent on starch digestion and glucose metabolism, being important to create alternatives to increase these metabolic processes, and modulates gene expression. Different lipid sources and their fatty acids may also influence the expression of genes responsible to encode enzymes involved in fat tissue deposition, influencing meat quality. In conclusion, the knowledge shows that gene expression is a metabolic factor affecting marbling and fatty acid profile in ruminant meat and diets and their nutrients have direct effect on how these genes are expressed.
Pathogenesis of pregnancy toxemia (PT) is believed to be associated with the disruption of lipid metabolism. The present study aimed to explore the underlying mechanisms of lipid metabolism disorder in the livers of ewes with PT. In total, 10 pregnant ewes were fed normally (control group) whereas another 10 were subjected to 70% level feed restriction for 15 days to establish a pathological model of PT. Results showed that, as compared with the controls, the levels of blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and cholesterol were greater (P<0.05) and blood glucose level was lower (P<0.05) in PT ewes. The contents of NEFAs, BHBA, cholesterol and triglyceride were higher (P<0.05) and glycerol content was lower (P<0.05) in hepatic tissues of PT ewes than those of the controls. For ewes with PT, excessive fat vacuoles were observed in liver sections stained with hematoxylin–eosin; furthermore, inner structures of hepatocytes including nuclei, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum were damaged seriously according to the results of transmission electron microscope. Real-time PCR data showed that compared with the controls, the expression of hepatic genes involved in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and triglyceride synthesis (TGS) was enhanced (P<0.05) whereas that related to acetyl-CoA metabolism (ACM) was repressed (P<0.05) in PT ewes. Generally, our results showed that negative energy balance altered the expression of genes involved in FAO, ACM and TGS, further caused lipid metabolism disorder in livers, resulting in PT of ewes. Our findings may provide the molecular basis for novel therapeutic strategies against this systemic metabolic disease in sheep.
PUFA might modulate inflammatory responses involved in the development of severe dengue. We aimed to examine whether serum PUFA concentrations in patients diagnosed with dengue fever (DF) were related to the risk of progression to dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). A secondary aim was to assess correlations between fatty acids (FA) and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with DF. We conducted a prospective case–control study nested within a cohort of patients who were diagnosed with DF and followed during the acute episode. We compared the distribution of individual FA (% of total FA) at onset of fever between 109 cases who progressed to DHF/DSS and 235 DF non-progressing controls using unconditional logistic regression. We estimated correlations between baseline FA and cytokine concentrations and compared FA concentrations between the acute episode and >1 year post-convalescence in a subgroup. DHA was positively related to progression to DHF/DSS (multivariable adjusted OR (AOR) for DHA in quintile 5 v. 1=5·34, 95 % CI 2·03, 14·1; Ptrend=0·007). Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) was inversely associated with progression (AOR for quintile 5 v. 1=0·30, 95 % CI 0·13, 0·69; Ptrend=0·007). Pentadecanoic acid concentrations were inversely related to DHF/DSS. Correlations of PUFA with cytokines at baseline were low. PUFA were lower during the acute episode than in a disease-free period. In conclusion, serum DHA in patients with DF predicts higher odds of progression to DHF/DSS whereas DGLA and pentadecanoic acid predict lower odds.
The objective of the study reported in this Research Communication was to investigate the effect of fermentation temperature (37 and 45 °C) and different ratios of Streptococcus thermophilus to Lactobacillus bulgaricus (3 : 1, 1 : 1 and 1 : 3) on Kermanshahi roghan and yoghurt fatty acid profiles (FAP) in order to obtain a product with optimized fatty acid profiles. Kermanshahi roghan is a yoghurt by-product in western Iran (Kermanshah). The results revealed that incubation temperature at 37 °C as compared to 45 °C had a better effect on fatty acid profiles of roghan and yoghurt. Furthermore, the results showed that fatty acid profile of roghan is better than yoghurt at two experimental temperatures. On the other hand, the roghan products made by equal ratio of S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus (1 : 1) had the best quality of fatty acid profiles. Although a lower incubation temperature increases incubation time, our finding suggests that inoculation ratio 1 : 1 at 37 °C as compared to 45 °C can affect the quality of roghan and yoghurt fatty acid profiles.
Dietary fatty acid (FA) composition may influence metabolism, possibly affecting weight management. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 5-d diet rich in PUFA v. MUFA. A total of fifteen normal-weight men participated in a randomised cross-over design with two feeding trials (3 d lead-in diet, pre-diet visit, 5-d PUFA- or MUFA-rich diet, post-diet visit). The 5-d diets (50 % fat) were rich in either PUFA (25 % of energy) or MUFA (25 % of energy). At pre- and post-diet visits, subjects consumed breakfast and lunch test meals, rich in the FA for that 5-d diet. Indirect calorimetry was used for 4 h after each meal. There were no treatment differences in fasting metabolism acutely or after the 5-d diet. For acute meal responses before diet, RER was higher for PUFA v. MUFA (0·86 (sem 0·01) v. 0·84 (sem 0·01), P<0·05), whereas diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) was lower for PUFA v. MUFA (18·91 (SEM 1·46) v. 21·46 (SEM 1·34) kJ, P<0·05). After the 5-d diets, the change in RER was different for PUFA v. MUFA (−0·02 (sem 0·01) v. 0·00 (sem 0·01), P<0·05). Similarly, the change in fat oxidation was greater for PUFA v. MUFA (0·18 (sem 0·07) v. 0·04 (sem 0·06) g, P<0·05). In conclusion, acutely, a MUFA-rich meal results in lower RER and greater DIT. However, after a 5-d high-fat diet, the change in metabolic responses was greater in the PUFA diet, showing the metabolic adaptability of a PUFA-rich diet.
We report the fatty acid profile of raw milk and of the corresponding digested milk from different sources (human milk, formula milk and donkey, bovine, ovine and caprine milk) to gain information on the nutritional quality of different milk sources in infant nutrition.
Short chain fatty acids (SC-FA) were higher in bovine and caprine milk, intermediate in ovine and donkey and lower in human and formula milk. Medium chain fatty acids (MC-FA) showed the highest values for bovine and caprine milk and the lowest for donkey and formula milk, whereas long chain fatty acids (LC-FA) were the highest in donkey and formula milk and intermediate in human milk.
The percentage distribution of fatty acids liberated after in vitro digestion did not reflect the patterns found in the corresponding milk sources. In particular, MC free fatty acids (MC-FFA) showed the highest and the lowest values in donkey and in formula milk, LC-FFA showed the highest value in human milk. The total FFA was highest in human milk, lowest in formula milk and intermediate in donkey, bovine, ovine, and caprine milk.
Zn status may affect fatty acid (FA) metabolism because it acts as a cofactor in FA desaturase and elongase enzymes. Zn supplementation affects the FA desaturases of Zn-deficient rats, but whether this occurs in humans is unclear. We evaluated the associations between baseline plasma Zn (PZn) concentration and plasma total phospholipid FA composition, as well as the effect of daily consumption of Zn-fortified water on FA status in Beninese children. A 20-week, double-blind randomised controlled trial was conducted in 186 school age children. The children were randomly assigned to receive a daily portion of Zn-fortified, filtered water delivering on average 2·8 mg Zn/d or non-fortified filtered water. Plasma total phospholipid FA composition was determined using capillary GLC and PZn concentrations by atomic absorption spectrometry. At baseline, PZn correlated positively with dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA, r 0·182; P=0·024) and the DGLA:linoleic acid (LA) ratio (r 0·293; P<0·000), and negatively with LA (r −0·211; P=0·009) and the arachidonic acid:DGLA ratio (r −0·170; P=0·036). With the intervention, Zn fortification increased nervonic acid (B: 0·109; 95 % CI 0·001, 0·218) in all children (n 186) and more so in children who were Zn-deficient (n 60) at baseline (B: 0·230; 95 % CI 0·023, 0·488). In conclusion, in this study, Zn-fortified filtered water prevented the reduction of nervonic acid composition in the plasma total phospholipids of children, and this effect was stronger in Zn-deficient children. Thus, Zn status may play an important role in FA desaturation and/or elongation.
The study investigated whether different dietary energy and protein sources affect laying performance, antioxidant status, fresh yolk fatty acid profile and quality of salted yolks in laying ducks. In all, 360 19-week-old Longyan ducks were randomly assigned to four diets in a factorial arrangement (2×2). The four diets consisted of two energy sources, corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and two protein sources, soybean meal (SM) and rapeseed meal with corn distillers dried grains with solubles (RMD), and each treatment contained six replicates of 15 birds each. The experimental diets were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 10.84 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (CP, 17%). The results showed that egg production, average egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion ratio were not affected by diets (P>0.05). Plasma contents of reduced glutathione (GSH), GSH/oxidized glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were lower (P<0.05) in ducks fed the RMD diets compared with those fed SM diets with a substantial increase (P=0.006) in plasma content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Egg yolks from ducks fed SO diets had higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and lower saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids compared with CO diets (P<0.001). Similarly, ducks fed RMD diets had a higher content of PUFA and n-6/n-3 ratio in fresh yolks (P<0.001), and increased salted yolk MDA, carbonylated proteins content and incidence of hard salted yolks (P<0.05) compared with SM diets. Scanning electron microscopy showed that salted yolks contained rougher polyhedral granules and fewer fat droplets, and were surrounded with a layer of bunchy fibers in ducks fed SO+RMD than those fed CO+SM diet. In conclusion, the current study showed that feeding laying ducks with diets containing SO or RMD reduced antioxidant capacity and increased egg yolk concentrations of PUFA. It appeared that egg yolks from ducks fed these diets were more sensitive to lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation during salting, and reduced the quality of salted yolks.
Fat supplementation plays an important role in defining milk fatty acids (FA) composition of ruminant products. The use of sources rich in linoleic and α-linolenic acid favors the accumulation of conjugated linoleic acids isomers, increasing the healthy properties of milk. Ruminal microbiota plays a pivotal role in defining milk FA composition, and its profile is affected by diet composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the responses of rumen FA production and microbial structure to hemp or linseed supplementation in diets of dairy goats. Ruminal microbiota composition was determined by 16S amplicon sequencing, whereas FA composition was obtained by gas-chromatography technique. In all, 18 pluriparous Alpine goats fed the same pre-treatment diet for 40±7 days were, then, arranged to three dietary treatments consisting of control, linseed and hemp seeds supplemented diets. Independently from sampling time and diets, bacterial community of ruminal fluid was dominated by Bacteroidetes (about 61.2%) and Firmicutes (24.2%) with a high abundance of Prevotellaceae (41.0%) and Veillonellaceae (9.4%) and a low presence of Ruminococcaceae (5.0%) and Lachnospiraceae (4.3%). Linseed supplementation affected ruminal bacteria population, with a significant reduction of biodiversity; in particular, relative abundance of Prevotella was reduced (−12.0%), whereas that of Succinivibrio and Fibrobacter was increased (+50.0% and +75.0%, respectively). No statistically significant differences were found among the average relative abundance of archaeal genera between each dietary group. Moreover, the addition of linseed and hemp seed induced significant changes in FA concentration in the rumen, as a consequence of shift from C18 : 2n-6 to C18 : 3n-3 biohydrogenation pathway. Furthermore, dimethylacetal composition was affected by fat supplementation, as consequence of ruminal bacteria population modification. Finally, the association study between the rumen FA profile and the bacterial microbiome revealed that Fibrobacteriaceae is the bacterial family showing the highest and significant correlation with FA involved in the biohydrogenation pathway of C18 : 3n-3.