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The objective of this research was to investigate the factors of assessment that students undergoing authentic assessment perceived to be significant regarding their academic achievement. This project advanced past research by the authors which found that the academic achievement of seafarer students was significantly higher in a formatively implemented authentic assessment compared with a summative traditional assessment. The academic achievement (assessment scores) was based on the students’ performance in analysing information presented in a real-world context (authentic assessment) as opposed to the analysis of information presented devoid of a real-world context (traditional assessment). Using the data obtained from students undergoing the authentic assessment, this project correlated their perceptions of authenticity for factors of assessment to their scores in the associated task. Stage 1 focused on deriving the factors conceptually from the definition of the authentic assessment by the authors, based on which a perception survey questionnaire was designed. Stage 2 extracted new factors through a factor analysis conducted using the software SPSS. Both stages of investigation found that the factor of transparency of criteria was a significant predictor of the students’ academic achievement.
The aim of the current study was to identify and describe the meal and snack patterns (breakfast, mid-morning snack, lunch, mid-afternoon snack, dinner and evening snack) of public schoolchildren.
Cross-sectional study. Information on the previous day’s food intake was obtained through the Web-CAAFE (Food Intake and Physical Activity of Schoolchildren), an interactive questionnaire, which divides daily food consumption into three meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) and three snacks (mid-morning, mid-afternoon and evening). Each meal contains thirty-one food items and the schoolchildren clicked on the food items consumed in each meal. Factor analysis was used to identify meal and snack patterns. The descriptions of the dietary patterns (DP) were based on food items with factor loads ≥ 0·30 that were considered representative of each DP.
Schoolchildren, Florianopolis, Brazil.
Children (n 1074) aged 7–13 years.
Lunch was the most consumed meal (96·0 %), followed by dinner (86·4 %), breakfast (85·3 %) and mid-afternoon snack (81·7 %). Four DP were identified for breakfast, mid-morning snack, lunch, dinner and evening snack, and three for mid-afternoon snack. Breakfast, lunch and dinner patterns included traditional Brazilian foods. DP consisting of fast foods and sugary beverages were also observed, mainly for the evening snack.
The results of the current study provide important information regarding the meal and snack patterns of schoolchildren to guide the development of nutrition interventions in public health.
The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) is a widely used measure in developmental science that assesses adults’ current states of mind regarding early attachment-related experiences with their primary caregivers. The standard system for coding the AAI recommends classifying individuals categorically as having an autonomous, dismissing, preoccupied, or unresolved attachment state of mind. However, previous factor and taxometric analyses suggest that: (a) adults’ attachment states of mind are captured by two weakly correlated factors reflecting adults’ dismissing and preoccupied states of mind and (b) individual differences on these factors are continuously rather than categorically distributed. The current study revisited these suggestions about the latent structure of AAI scales by leveraging individual participant data from 40 studies (N = 3,218), with a particular focus on the controversial observation from prior factor analytic work that indicators of preoccupied states of mind and indicators of unresolved states of mind about loss and trauma loaded on a common factor. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that: (a) a 2-factor model with weakly correlated dismissing and preoccupied factors and (b) a 3-factor model that further distinguished unresolved from preoccupied states of mind were both compatible with the data. The preoccupied and unresolved factors in the 3-factor model were highly correlated. Taxometric analyses suggested that individual differences in dismissing, preoccupied, and unresolved states of mind were more consistent with a continuous than a categorical model. The importance of additional tests of predictive validity of the various models is emphasized.
To confirm the factor validity of the Compassionate Engagement and Action Scales (CEAS), as set out in the original development study, when used with a sample of family carers of older adults.
A series of confirmatory factor analyses were undertaken to test the previously proposed factor solutions of each scale.
As part of a larger cross-sectional survey, the scales were completed online or via hard copy between July and December 2019.
An international sample of 171 family carers of adults aged 65 years or older.
The CEAS are three measures that individually assess Compassion for Self, Compassion to Others, and Compassion from Others. All scales measure two aspects, “engagement” and “actions” (two-factor solution), and Compassion for Self also measures two further dimensions within engagement: “sensitivity to suffering” and “engagement with suffering” (three-factor solution).
Results were largely consistent with the two-factor solutions proposed for the three orientations of compassion, with acceptable fit and good internal reliability. There was some support for the three-factor solution of Compassion for Self; however, despite model fit comparable to the two-factor solution, internal reliability of the delineated “engagement” dimensions was low, and there was a weak factor loading for item 5 that measured distress tolerance.
Use of the CEAS with family carers of older adults is promising. Further research is recommended with larger samples and to explore distress tolerance as a competency within conceptualization and measurement of compassion.
This book will help readers understand fundamental and advanced statistical models and deep learning models for robust speaker recognition and domain adaptation. This useful toolkit enables readers to apply machine learning techniques to address practical issues, such as robustness under adverse acoustic environments and domain mismatch, when deploying speaker recognition systems. Presenting state-of-the-art machine learning techniques for speaker recognition and featuring a range of probabilistic models, learning algorithms, case studies, and new trends and directions for speaker recognition based on modern machine learning and deep learning, this is the perfect resource for graduates, researchers, practitioners and engineers in electrical engineering, computer science and applied mathematics.
The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) is a screening test of global cognitive function used in research and clinical settings. However, the CASI was developed using face validity and has not been investigated via empirical tests such as factor analyses. Thus, we aimed to develop and test a parsimonious conceptualization of the CASI rooted in cognitive aging literature reflective of crystallized and fluid abilities.
Secondary data analysis implementing confirmatory factor analyses where we tested the proposed two-factor solution, an alternate one-factor solution, and conducted a χ2 difference test to determine which model had a significantly better fit.
Data came from 3,491 men from the Kuakini Honolulu-Asia Aging Study.
The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument.
Findings demonstrated that both models fit the data; however, the two-factor model had a significantly better fit than the one-factor model. Criterion validity tests indicated that participant age was negatively associated with both factors and that education was positively associated with both factors. Further tests demonstrated that fluid abilities were significantly and negatively associated with a later-life dementia diagnosis.
We encourage investigators to use the two-factor model of the CASI as it could shed light on underlying cognitive processes, which may be more informative than using a global measure of cognition.
Weedy rice (Oryza sativa f. spontanea Rosh.) is an emerging weed of California rice (Oryza sativa L.) that has potential to cause large yield losses. Early detection of weedy rice in the field is ideal to effectively control and prevent the spread of this weed. However, it is difficult to differentiate weedy rice from cultivated rice during early growth stages due to the close genetic and phenotypic relatedness of cultivated rice and weedy rice. The objective of this study is to examine phenotypic variation in weedy rice biotypes from California and to identify traits that could be used to visually identify weedy rice infestations at early growth stages for effective management. Greenhouse experiments were conducted in 2017 and 2018 using five phenotypically distinct biotypes of weedy rice found in California, along with diverse cultivated, weedy, and wild rice types in a randomized complete block design. We measured variation for 13 phenotypic traits associated with weedy rice and conducted principal component analysis and factor analysis to identify important weedy traits. Most weedy rice individuals within a biotype clustered together by phenotypic similarity. Pericarp color, hull color, chlorophyll content, grain length, plant height, leaf pubescence, collar color, and leaf sheath color account for most of the observed variation. California weedy rice biotypes are phenotypically distinct from wild rice and from weedy rice from the southern United States in their combinations of seed phenotypes and vegetative characteristics. In comparison with the locally grown temperate japonica cultivars, California weedy rice tends to be taller, with lower chlorophyll content and a red pericarp. Weedy rice biotypes vary in seed shattering and seed dormancy. For weedy rice management, plant height and chlorophyll content are distinct traits that could be used to differentiate weedy rice from the majority of cultivated rice varieties in California during vegetative stages of rice growth.
The current study aimed to evaluate the association of major dietary patterns with anxiety in middle-aged adults in eastern China.
Dietary intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative FFQ. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to estimate OR and 95 % CI for anxiety according to quartiles of each dietary pattern score.
Evidence regarding the relationship between dietary patterns and anxiety in the Chinese population is scarce.
The study participants were 1360 Chinese adults aged 45–59 years, who participated in a health survey at the time of periodic check-up in the city of Linyi, Shandong Province, China.
Four major dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis: traditional Chinese, western, grains–vegetables and high-salt diets. After adjusting for potential confounders, participants in the highest quartile of the western pattern had greater odds for anxiety, compared with those in the lowest quartile (OR 1·35, 95 % CI 1·000, 3·086, P < 0·05). In contrast, participants in the highest quartile of the grains–vegetables pattern had lower odds for anxiety than did those in the lowest quartile (OR 0·78, 95 % CI 0·574, 1·000, P < 0·05). Moreover, no significant associations were observed between the traditional Chinese and high-salt patterns and the risk of anxiety.
Our findings indicate that the western pattern is associated with an increased risk, and the grains–vegetables pattern is associated with a decreased risk of anxiety.
This commentary presents some reflections on the peculiar position obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has among Cluster C PDs. Based on epidemiological, factor-analytic, and cognitive considerations, it is argued that OCPD deviates from avoidant and dependent PD. First, epidemiological research shows that in the general population OCPD is not associated with markers of poor functioning and unfortunate living circumstances. On the contrary, positive associations between OCPD and such markers are found. Moreover, disproportionally few people with OCPD seek mental health care. Second, based on a second-order factor analysis on a large data set that confirms the cluster structure in PDs, it is argued that OCPD has a deviant position, relatively weakly loading on the cluster-C factor. Third, research on cognitive processes and structures in PDs indicates that OCPD deviates from avoidant and dependent PD in several ways, including sharing an interpretation style with nonpatients, and in not reporting vulnerable cognitive-emotional states. Dysfunctional cognitive characteristics might be pushed out of awareness by powerful overcompensatory strategies that are more characteristic for Cluster B than for Cluster C. Alternatively, OCPD is characterized more by deviant cognitive processes than by specific content of schemas. OCPD’s dysfunctional core should be clarified.
The Bern Psychopathology Scale (BPS) is based on a system-specific approach to classifying the psychopathological symptom pattern of schizophrenia. It consists of subscales for three domains (language, affect and motor behaviour) that are hypothesized to be related to specific brain circuits. The aim of the study was to examine the factor structure of the BPS in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.
One hundred and forty-nine inpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were recruited at the Department of Psychiatry II, Ulm University, Germany (n = 100) and at the University Hospital of Psychiatry, Bern, Switzerland (n = 49). Psychopathology was assessed with the BPS. The VARCLUS procedure of SAS® (a type of oblique component analysis) was used for statistical analysis.
Six clusters were identified (inhibited language, inhibited motor behaviour, inhibited affect, disinhibited affect, disinhibited language/motor behaviour, inhibited language/motor behaviour) which explained 40.13% of the total variance of the data. A binary division of attributes into an inhibited and disinhibited cluster was appropriate, although an overlap was found between the language and motor behaviour domains. There was a clear distinction between qualitative and quantitative symptoms.
The results argue for the validity of the BPS in identifying subsyndromes of schizophrenia spectrum disorders according to a dimensional approach. Future research should address the longitudinal assessment of dimensional psychopathological symptoms and elucidate the underlying neurobiological processes.
Treatment of schizophrenia with antipsychotic drugs is frequently sub-optimal. One reason for this may be heterogeneity between patients with schizophrenia. The objectives of this study were to identify patient, disease and treatment attributes that are important for physicians in choosing an antipsychotic drug, and to identify empirically subgroups of patients who may respond differentially to antipsychotic drugs. The survey was conducted by structured interview of 744 randomly-selected psychiatrists in four European countries who recruited 3996 patients with schizophrenia. Information on 39 variables was collected. Multiple component analysis was used to identify dimensions that explained the variance between patients. Three axes, accounting for 99% of the variance, were associated with disease severity (64%), socioeconomic status (27%) and patient autonomy (8%). These dimensions discriminated between six discrete patient subgroups, identified using ascending hierarchical classification analysis. The six subgroups differed regarding educational level, illness severity, autonomy, symptom presentation, addictive behaviors, comorbidities and cardiometabolic risk factors. Subgroup 1 patients had moderately severe physician-rated disease and addictive behaviours (23.2%); Subgroup 2 patients were well-integrated and autonomous with mild to moderate disease (6.7%); Subgroup 3 patients were less well-integrated with mild to moderate disease, living alone (11.2%); Subgroup 4 patients were women with low education levels (5.4%), Subgroup 5 patients were young men with severe disease (36.8%); and Subgroup 6 patients were poorly-integrated with moderately severe disease, needing caregiver support (16.7%). The presence of these subgroups, which require confirmation and extension regarding potentially identifiable biological markers, may help individualizing treatment in patients with schizophrenia.
The 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) developed by Goldberg and Hillier in 1979 is constructed on the basis of a principal components analysis of the GHQ-60. When used on a Spanish population, a translation of the GHQ-28 developed for an English population may lead to worse predictive values.
We used our Spanish sample to replicate the entire process of construction of the GHQ-28 administered in a primary-care setting.
Two shorter versions were proposed: one with six scales and 30 items, and the other with four scales and 28 items.
The resulting GHQ-28 was a successful adaptation for use on the Spanish sample. When compared with the original version, only 21 items were the same. Moreover, contrary to the English version, which groups sleep problems and anxiety in the same scale, a scale with items related exclusively to ‘Sleep disturbances’ was found.
Recent years has seen an increasing interest in the hallucinatory experience, including investigations of its phenomenological prevalence and character both in pathological and normal (predisposed) populations. We investigated the multi-dimensionality of hallucinatory experiences in 265 subjects from the normal population, who completed a modified version of the Launay-Slade Hallucinations Scale. Principal components analysis was performed on the data. Four factors were obtained loading on items reflecting (1) sleep-related hallucinatory experiences (2) vivid daydreams (3) intrusive thoughts or realness of thought and (4) auditory hallucinations. The results offer further evidence of the multi-dimensionality of hallucinatory disposition in the normal population. Directions for future research in hallucinatory predisposition are discussed.
The validation of the French version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), conducted on a sample of 87 women in the first 4 months of post-partum, is presented. The study of the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values versus research diagnosis criteria provide the cut-off score of 10.5 as the best (sensitivity: 0.80; specificity: 0.92). The EPDS as an index of severity of postnatal depression (PND) also had good criterion validity compared to the psychiatrist's assessment. Factor analysis shows that the internal structure of the EPDS is composed of two subscales which underline a more accurate description of PND. The reliability study confirms the good internal consistency of the global scale (Cronbach's alpha: 0.76) and its good short term test-retest reliability (0.98).
The algorithms for the demonstration of shared phenomenology of psychiatric syndromes in DSM-III are resistant to quantification. In contrast, the rating scale approach quantifies clinical target syndromes in psychiatry. The two most useful statistical models for quantifying shared phenomenology by symptom rating scales have been reviewed; namely factor analysis and latent structure analysis. Results have shown that factor analysis has demonstrated dimensions of dementia, delirium, schizophrenia, mania, outward aggression, depression and anxiety. Latent structure analysis has confirmed that the items of brief rating scales (such as the Melancholia Scale) are additively related implying that their total scores are sufficient statistics for the measurement of these factors or dimensions. Latent structure analysis should be considered as a psychometric “glasnost” compared to algorithm-resistant logic of quantification in DSM-III.
To evaluate the efficacy of lurasidone for schizophrenia using an established five-factor model of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).
Patient-level data were pooled from five randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week studies of lurasidone (fixed doses, 40–160 mg/d) for patients with an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. Changes in five established PANSS factors were assessed using mixed-model repeated measures analysis.
Compared with placebo (n = 496), lurasidone (n = 1029, dose groups pooled) significantly improved the PANSS total score at Week 6 (−22.6 vs. −12.8; P < 0.001; effect size, 0.45), as well as all factor scores (P < 0.001 for each): positive symptoms (−8.4 vs. −6.0; effect size, 0.43), negative symptoms (−5.2 vs. −3.3; effect size, 0.33), disorganized thought (−4.9 vs. −2.8; effect size, 0.42), hostility/excitement (−2.7 vs. −1.6; effect size, 0.31), and depression/anxiety (−3.2 vs. −2.3; effect size, 0.31). Separation from placebo occurred at Week 1 for the positive symptoms, disorganized thought, and hostility/excitement factors and at Week 2 for the other factors.
In this pooled analysis of short-term studies in patients with acute schizophrenia, lurasidone demonstrated significant improvement for each of the five PANSS factor scores, indicating effectiveness across the spectrum of schizophrenia symptoms.
Aim was to examine depressive symptoms in acutely ill schizophrenia patients on a single symptom basis and to evaluate their relationship with positive, negative and general psychopathological symptoms.
Two hundred and seventy-eight patients suffering from a schizophrenia spectrum disorder were analysed within a naturalistic study by the German Research Network on Schizophrenia. Using the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) depressive symptoms were examined and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was applied to assess positive, negative and general symptoms. Correlation and factor analyses were calculated to detect the underlying structure and relationship of the patient’s symptoms.
The most prevalent depressive symptoms identified were depressed mood (80%), observed depression (62%) and hopelessness (54%). Thirty-nine percent of the patients suffered from depressive symptoms when applying the recommended cut-off of a CDSS total score of > 6 points at admission. Negligible correlations were found between depressive and positive symptoms as well as most PANSS negative and global symptoms despite items on depression, guilt and social withdrawal. The factor analysis revealed that the factor loading with the PANSS negative items accounted for most of the data variance followed by a factor with positive symptoms and three depression-associated factors.
The naturalistic study design does not allow a sufficient control of study results for the effect of different pharmacological treatments possibly influencing the appearance of depressive symptoms.
Results suggest that depressive symptoms measured with the CDSS are a discrete symptom domain with only partial overlap with positive or negative symptoms.
Depression is common among schizophrenia patients and constitutes a major risk factor for suicide. Calgary Depression Scale (CDSS) is the most widely used instrument for measuring depression in schizophrenia. CDSS has never been examined in patients with predominant negative symptoms, thus possibly hindering both accurate assessment and understanding of the underlying mechanisms. The current study is the first to examine CDSS’ structure in this population.
We conducted Principal Component Analysis (n = 184) for the CDSS items. Thereafter, we correlated emerging factors with psychopathological, demographic and side effect variables. We assessed internal consistency and reliability of the emerging factors, as well as demographic correlations.
The analysis yielded two factors: depression-hopelessness and guilt. Factors distinctly correlated with separate variables. Removal of item #7 (early waking) improved internal consistency. The depression-hopelessness factor had an inverse correlation with negative symptoms, and positive correlation with neuroleptic side effects.
CDSS structure indicated of two separate factors, i.e., depression-hopelessness and guilt, suggesting separate underlying processes. The validity of the scale might benefit from a two-fold structure and the removal/replacement of item #7 (early waking). A noteworthy inverse correlation was found between the depression factor and negative symptoms, as well as a positive correlation between depression factor and neuroleptic side effects.
Since the early description of paranoia, nosology of delusional disorder has always been controversial. The idea of ??unitary psychosis is old but has now taken on new value from the dimensional continuum model of psychosis.
1. To study the psychopathological dimensions of the schizophrenia spectrum. 2. To explore the relationship between the dimensions obtained and the categorical diagnoses. 3 To compare the different diagnoses of the psychosis from a psychopathological and functional point of view.
Material and Methods
an observational study with 550 patients was conducted. 373 patients with schizophrenia, 137 patients with delusional disorder, 40 patients with schizoaffective disorder. PANSS was used to assess the psychopathology and GAF for global functioning. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the PANSS items was performed in order to obtain a dimensional model. The relationship between diagnostic categories and dimensions was subsequently studied with ANOVA tests.
5 Factors,-manic, negative symptoms, depression, positive symptoms and cognition-, similar in composition to other models were obtained. The model yielded the 57.27% of the total variance. The dimensional model obtained was able to explain the differences and similarities between the different categories of the schizophrenia spectrum and the validity of the categories was questioned. The value of the model in order to help establish the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment decision-making was postulated.
Body fat distribution may be a stronger predictor of metabolic risk than BMI. Yet, few studies have investigated secular changes in body fat distribution in middle-income countries or how those changes vary by socioeconomic status (SES). This study evaluated changes in body fat distribution by SES in Colombia, a middle-income country where BMI is increasing rapidly.
We applied factor analysis to previously published data to assess secular changes in adiposity and body fat distribution in cross-sectional samples of urban Colombian women. Anthropometry was used to assess weight, height and skinfolds (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, thigh, calf).
Women (18–44 years) in 1988–1989 (n 1533) and 2007–2009 (n 577) from three SES groups.
We identified an overall adiposity factor, which increased between 1988–1989 and 2007–2008 in all SES groups, particularly in the middle SES group. We also identified arm, leg and trunk adiposity factors. In all SES groups, leg adiposity decreased, while trunk and arm adiposity increased.
Factor analysis highlighted three trends that were not readily visible in BMI data and variable-by-variable analysis of skinfolds: (i) overall adiposity increased between time periods in all SES groups; (ii) the adiposity increase was driven by a shift from lower body to upper body; (iii) the adiposity increase was greatest in the middle SES group. Factor analysis provided novel insights into secular changes and socioeconomic variation in body fat distribution during a period of rapid economic development in a middle-income country.