To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To explore the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Chinese adults aged 45–59 years.
Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ. Factor analysis was used to identify the major dietary patterns. Logistic regression models were applied to clarify the association between dietary patterns and the risk of CKD.
The present study population was a part of the population-based Nutrition and Health Study performed in the city of Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, eastern China.
A total of 2437 eligible participants (45–59 years) were enrolled in the present cross-sectional study from June 2015 to December 2016.
Three major dietary patterns were identified: ‘traditional southern Chinese’, ‘Western’ and ‘grains–vegetables’ patterns, collectively accounting for 25·6 % of variance in the diet. After adjustment for potential confounders, participants in the highest quartile of the Western pattern had greater odds for CKD (OR = 1·83, 95 % CI 1·21, 2·81; P < 0·05) than those in the lowest quartile. Compared with the lowest quartile of the grains–vegetables pattern, the highest quartile had lower odds for CKD (OR = 0·84, 95 % CI 0·77, 0·93; P < 0·05). In addition, there was no significant association between the traditional southern Chinese pattern and risk of CKD (P > 0·05).
Our results suggest that the Western pattern is associated with an increased risk, whereas the grains–vegetables pattern is associated with a reduced risk for CKD. These findings can guide dietary interventions for the prevention of CKD in a middle-aged Chinese population.
Depression in later life is one of the most common mental disorders. Several instruments have been developed to detect the presence or the absence of certain symptoms or emotional disorders, based on cut-off points. However, the use of a cut-off does not allow identification of depression sub-types or distinguish between mild and severe depression. As a result, depression may be under- or over-diagnosed in older people. This paper aims to apply a model-driven approach to classify individuals into distinct sub-groups, based on different combinations of depressive and emotional conditions. This approach is based on two distinct statistical solutions: first, a latent class analysis is applied to the items collected by the depression scale and, according to the final model, the probability of belonging to each class is calculated for every individual. Second, a factor analysis of these classes is performed to obtain a reduced number of clusters for easy interpretation. We use data collected through the EURO-D scale in a large sample of older individuals, participants of the sixth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. We show that by using such a model-based approach it is possible to classify individuals in a more accurate way than the simple dichotomisation ‘depressed’ versus ‘non-depressed’.
We aimed to identify factors (child diet, physical activity; maternal BMI) associated with body composition of Ghanaian pre-school children.
Longitudinal analysis of the International Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements (iLiNS)-DYAD-Ghana randomized trial, which enrolled 1320 pregnant women at ≤20 weeks’ gestation and followed them and their infants until 6 and 18 months postpartum, respectively. At follow-up, child age 4–6 years, we collected data on body composition (by 2H dilution), physical activity and diet, extracted dietary patterns using factor analysis, and examined the association of children’s percentage body fat with maternal and child factors by regression analysis.
Eastern Region, Ghana.
Children 4–6 years of age.
The analysis included 889 children with percentage body fat and dietary data at follow-up. We identified two major dietary patterns, a snacking and a cooked foods pattern. Percentage body fat was positively associated (standardized β (se)) with maternal BMI at follow-up (0·10 (0·03); P = 0·003) and negatively associated with physical activity (−0·15 (0·05); P = 0·003, unadjusted for child gender), but not associated with the snacking (0·06 (0·03); P = 0·103) or cooked foods (−0·05 (0·07); P = 0·474) pattern. Boys were more active than girls (1470 v. 1314 mean vector magnitude counts/min; P < 0·0001) and had lower percentage body fat (13·8 v. 16·9 %; P < 0·0001).
In this population, maternal overweight and child physical activity, especially among girls, may be key factors for addressing child overweight/obesity. We did not demonstrate a relationship between the dietary patterns and body fatness, which may be related to limitations of the dietary data available.
Health translation readability assessment represents an important yet largely underexplored research area in translation studies. This chapter introduces an integrated analytical system developed for the computer-aided assessment of the readability of Chinese health translations. The system comprises two components which are a computerised Chinese text lexical profile analyser; and a data-driven statistical instrument that can be used to diagnose and label the readability level of Chinese translations and non-translated health education materials. The online Chinese lexical profile analyser was informed by recent research in corpus linguistics and Chinese educational literacy. It includes thirty-nine individual and compound lexical features to enable in-depth and systematic analyses of the lexical complexity and textual coherence of Chinese health education and promotion materials. The statistical instrument was developed using a large Australian Chinese Health Translation Corpus. The statistical instrument built contains two measurement scales which are related to the information load and the lexical technicality as two important indicators of the readability of Chinese health education resources. The study demonstrated the viability and effectiveness of developing digital analytical tools and instruments for the objective assessment of the readability of health materials, especially health translations which hold the key to the success and sustainability of health promotion and communication in multicultural societies with diverse population groups.
This paper presents an example of comparing geochemical and mineralogical data by means of the statistical analysis of the X-ray diffraction patterns and the chemical compositions of bulk samples. The proposed methodology was tested on samples of metasomatic rocks from two geologically different objects. Its application allows us to mathematically identify all the main, secondary and some accessory minerals, to qualitatively estimate the contents of these minerals, as well as to assess their effect on the distribution of all petrogenic and investigated trace elements in a short period of time at the earliest stages of the research. We found that the interpretation of the results is significantly influenced by the number of samples studied and the quality of diffractograms.
Objective: Cognitive reserve (CR) capacity can be viewed as the maximum processing potential of neural systems that support adaptive cognitive performance in age-related cognitive decline. CR is a complex construct that can only be measured indirectly. Proxy measures (e.g., psychosocial/lifestyle variables) are traditionally used to reflect CR. However, strong relationships have been observed between these measures and cognitive functions (e.g., executive function [EF], processing resources [PR], fluid/crystallized abilities); therefore, the organizational structure of indicators implicated in CR remains unclear. The objective of this study was to test a hypothetical, theoretical model of CR capacity that includes both traditional CR proxy indicators and measures of cognitive function [Satz et al. (2011). Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 33(1), 121–130], which remain, as yet, untested. Method: Construct validity of the model was investigated in healthy older adults through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA and CFA) using data from the Maastricht Ageing Study (MAAS). A secondary CFA was conducted to validate the model using data from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). Results: EFA and CFA in MAAS established a two-factor model comprising EF/PR and cumulative cognitive enrichment (CCE), which was further validated in a secondary analysis in TILDA. Convergent and discriminant validity was supported in MAAS (range of R2 = .228–.635; factor correlation confidence interval (CI) = .622, .740) and TILDA (range of R2 = .172–.899; factor correlation CI = .559, .624). Conclusions: A dual model of CR elucidated the relationships between hypothesized indicators of CR capacity and revealed a two-factor structure suggesting that both control (EF/PR) and representational processes (CCE) are involved in CR capacity.
Objective: Relative to the vast literature that employs measures of decision-making (DM), rigorous examination of their psychometric properties is sparse. This study aimed to determine whether three measures of DM assess the same construct, and to measure invariance of this construct across relevant covariates. Method: Participants were 372 adolescents at risk of escalation in cannabis use. DM was assessed via four indices from the Cups Task, Game of Dice Task (GDT), and Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). We used confirmatory factor analysis to assess unidimensionality of the DM construct, and moderated nonlinear factor analysis (MNLFA) to examine its measurement invariance. Results: The unidimensional model of DM demonstrated good fit. MNLFA results revealed that sex influenced mean DM scores, such that boys had lower risk-taking behaviors. There was evidence of differential item functioning (DIF), such that IQ and age moderated the IGT intercept and GDT factor loading, respectively. Significant effects were retained in the final model, which produced participant-specific DM factor scores. These scores showed moderate stability over time. Conclusions: Indices from three DM tasks loaded significantly onto a single factor, suggesting that these DM tasks assess a single underlying construct. We suggest that this construct represents the ability to make optimal choices that maximize rewards in the presence of risk. Our final DM factor accounts for DIF caused by covariates, making it comparable across adolescents with different characteristics. (JINS, 2019, 25, 661–667)
Objective: The Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE) is one of the most commonly used aphasia batteries. The newest edition has undergone significant revisions since its original publication in 1972, but existing evidence for its validity is lacking. We examined the construct validity of BDAE-3 and identified the factor structure of this battery. Method: A total of 355 people with aphasia of various types and severity completed neuropsychological evaluations to assess their patterns of language impairment. A principal component analysis with varimax rotation was conducted to examine the components of BDAE-3 subtests. Results: Five components accounting for over 70% of the BDAE-3 total variance were found. The five language factors identified were auditory comprehension/ideomotor praxis, naming and reading, articulation-repetition, grammatical comprehension, and phonological processing. Conclusions: Our results show that the BDAE-3 demonstrates good construct validity, and certain language functions remain primary, distinct language domains (i.e., receptive vs. expressive language) across severities of aphasia. Overall, our findings inform clinical practice by outlining the inherent structure of language abilities in people with aphasia. Clinicians can utilize the findings to select core BDAE-3 tests that are most representative of their respective functions, thereby reducing the total testing time while preserving diagnostic sensitivity. (JINS, 2019, 25, 772–776)
Oilseed rape seed yield has increased in the last 40 years in most countries, but this yield gain has not been accompanied by greater yield stability. The current study aimed to quantify the genotype by environment (G × E) interaction on oilseed rape yield, identify genotypes with broad adaptability and the main environmental drivers related to seed yield. A weighted two-stage mixed-model analysis was applied to official multi-environment trials of nine spring genotypes (G), in three locations (L) during 6 years (Y) on central and southern Argentine Pampas under rainfed conditions. Best linear unbiased prediction of seed yield ranged from 0.37 to 3.73 kg/ha. Fixed effect L × Y was highly significant and G variability was estimated as 130 kg/ha of standard deviation. Contrasting genotypes were identified by Shukla's stability index and two of those showed the best yield performance in the wettest year. Factor analysis explained 0.75 of total variation and discriminated genotypes with broad and specific adaptability, as well as combined environments according to the similarities in seed yield of the evaluated genotypes. Environmental loadings of Factor 2 were linearly associated with cumulative rainfall in the post-flowering period (up to 230 mm). It is concluded that (i) a significant G × L × Y interaction underlies the high variability of seed yield, (ii) two genotypes (G6 and G7) with high yield stability were identified, and (iii) G × E effects are associated with post-flowering rainfall.
We reconstruct the provenance of aluminosilicate sediment deposited in Ulleung Basin, Japan Sea, over the last 12 Ma at Site U1430 drilled during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 346. Using multivariate partitioning techniques (Q-mode factor analysis, multiple linear regressions) applied to the major, trace and rare earth element composition of the bulk sediment, we identify and quantify four aluminosilicate components (Taklimakan, Gobi, Chinese Loess and Korean Peninsula), and model their mass accumulation rates. Each of these end-members, or materials from these regions, were present in the top-performing models in all tests. Material from the Taklimakan Desert (50–60 % of aluminosilicate contribution) is the most abundant end-member through time, while Chinese Loess and Gobi Desert components increase in contribution and flux in the Plio-Pleistocene. A Korean Peninsula component is lowest in abundance when present, and its occurrence reflects the opening of the Tsushima Strait at c. 3 Ma. Variation in dust source regions appears to track step-wise Asian aridification influenced by Cenozoic global cooling and periods of uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. During early stages of the evolution of the East Asian Monsoon, the Taklimakan Desert was the major source of dust to the Pacific. Continued uplift of the Tibetan Plateau may have influenced the increase in aeolian supply from the Gobi Desert and Chinese Loess Plateau into the Pleistocene. Consistent with existing records from the Pacific Ocean, these observations of aeolian fluxes provide more detail and specificity regarding the evolution of different Asian source regions through the latest Cenozoic.
Values are important in understanding the managerial behaviour. Values are the unique criteria that enable people to become conscious of social relations and duties. We contribute to this understanding through determining the values which affect an organisation’s business approach by providing evidence from a comparative study of various airports through a questionnaire method. The study was carried out with 163 participants and factor analysis was used to reduce the complexity of a data set so that it becomes easier to use the data in applied settings. Ranking analysis was used to get the values hierarchy of managers. This hierarchy-addicted culture helps to understand corporate sustainability and loyalty. Managing values increases quality and retains sustainability. Further suggestions are made regarding values that should be taken into consideration for achieving corporate strategies, whether operating regionally or globally. This study contributes towards improving awareness on the effects of values in business management in both theory and practice, along with their limitations. The analysis shows that there is a conformity between organisational and individual values.
Previous studies have associated dietary patterns with diabetes risk in Western countries, but such studies among the Japanese population are scarce. The present study aimed to investigate dietary patterns associated with abnormal glucose tolerance determined by elevated glycated Hb (HbA1c) levels.
The 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) database was used for the cross-sectional study. Dietary patterns were analysed by factor analysis of twenty-five food items from the dietary intake survey and household-based semi-weighed dietary records. OR and 95 % CI for elevated HbA1c levels (≥6·5 %) according to dietary patterns were estimated using logistic regression models.
The study population comprised 9550 Japanese aged ≥40 years registered in the nationwide NHNS.
Three dietary patterns were identified: (i) high-bread and low-rice; (ii) high-meat and low-fish; and (iii) vegetable. The high-bread and low-rice pattern, characterised by high frequent consumption of bread, milk and dairy products, and fruits, and low rice intake, was associated with marginally decreased prevalence of elevated HbA1c levels (Ptrend=0·047). The vegetable pattern, characterised by vegetables, mushrooms, soyabeans and soybean products, was significantly inversely associated with elevated HbA1c levels (4th v. 1st quartile: multivariable OR=0·68; 95 % CI 0·49, 0·95; Ptrend=0·007).
Our findings suggest that the vegetable pattern is associated with decreased prevalence of elevated HbA1c levels among Japanese.
Factor analysis is quite regularly seen in HCI to validate questionnaires, particularly those used to measure user experience. This chapter describes and illustrates the process of developing a questionnaire to measure a particular concept, starting from item generation through to factor analysis and interpretation. It introduces bifactor analysis as a more recent development in factor analysis that could help the interpretation of questionnaires made up of multiple factors.
Cronbach's alpha is often used as a key measure of reliability in questionnaires developed in HCI. However, the state-of-the-art literature on Cronbach's alpha shows that it is itself not a reliable measure. This chapter demonstrates the problems and leads to a more nuanced interpretation of reliability, using both Cronbach's alpha and other more modern alternatives.
To explore the direct and indirect associations of dietary patterns with hypertension using structural equation modelling (SEM).
Factor analysis with varimax rotation was used to classify different dietary patterns and SEM was employed to investigate the associations of dietary patterns with hypertension. Total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol (TC:HDL-C) ratio and LDL-cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol (LDL-C:HDL-C) ratio were used as observed indicator variables of the lipid latent variable. Waist circumference, body fat percentage and BMI, which were associated with hypertension, were used as observed indicator variables of the obesity latent variable.
International Chronic Disease Cohort (ICDC) that began in 2005 with the purpose of describing the frequency and determinants of chronic diseases in Jilin Province, China.
A total of 1492 adults (40–79 years) were enrolled in the baseline study from August 2010 to August 2011.
Hypertension prevalence in our study population was 34·9 %. It was found that the wine pattern, condiment pattern, obesity latent variable, lipid latent variable, glucose, age and family history of hypertension were factors that had an association with hypertension via SEM, and the corresponding coefficients were 0·056, 0·011, 0·230, 0·281, 0·098, 0·232 and 0·116, respectively.
The wine pattern and lipid latent variable had positive direct associations with hypertension. The condiment pattern had a positive indirect association with hypertension via the obesity latent variable. The vegetables pattern, modern pattern and snack pattern were not associated with hypertension.
The present article focuses on the validation of the Questionnaire of Social Representations about the Functions of Deliberate Self-Harm for adults. The understanding of the social representations about deliberate self-harm can be relevant for clinical intervention and prevention. However, there is still a lack of instruments to assess these representations. The basis for this instrument was the translation of the Inventory of Statements About Self-Injury. To complement this instrument, we conducted semi-directive interviews with adults without deliberate self-harm and analysed the Portuguese written press. Results from these studies complemented the questionnaire with new items and functions. Study 1 consisted of an exploratory factor analysis with a sample of 462 adults. Results revealed a two-factor structure of interpersonal and intrapersonal dimensions. After item reduction, the factorial analysis of the independent functions was also acceptable. This structure was then corroborated in Study 2 by a confirmatory factor analysis with a new sample of 474 adults, revealing an acceptable model fit. This questionnaire presents a relatively solid structure and is based on acceptable psychometric properties, which allows its use in future research.
This article describes the development of the ENCUIST (Extroversion, Neuroticism, Callous-Unemotional, Instability, Short-Test) questionnaire, which has been created to provide a personality profiling method based on a cognitive diagnostic modeling framework. The ENCUIST measures the attributes of extroversion, neuroticism, callous unemotionality and overt expressions of anger that are relevant in a forensic context. The scores provided by the ENCUIST are binary classifications of the individuals (high/low) in these attributes. The ENCUIST was developed using a sample of 516 subjects to study its validation through psychometric procedures, including factor analysis, cognitive diagnostic modeling and structural equation modeling. The results supported a four-factor structure. Linear regressions were used to evaluate the predictive validity of the scores provided by ENCUIST with respect to two external criteria that are relevant in the forensic context, namely behavioral activation and behavioral inhibition. The results showed that the extroversion dimension is positively related to behavioral activation, although the effect size is modest and the proportion of explained variance is only 11%. Moreover, the dimensions of neuroticism and anger expression are positively related to behavioral inhibition, with 7% of the variance explained. Together, these results suggest that cognitive diagnostic models are useful tools for the elaboration of personality profiles based on classifying subjects along binary attributes.
The relationship between multilingualism and tolerance of ambiguity (TA) has been examined in recent studies (e.g., Dewaele & Li, 2013; van Compernolle, 2016), which focus upon multilinguals with mixed nationalities in non-EFL contexts. Most of these studies regrettably reflect a failure to use effect sizes or provide information on the reliability and validity of the instruments used. The present study explored the relationship between multilingualism and TA by focusing upon 260 English-using multilinguals of one single nationality in an EFL context. Factor analysis revealed a three-factor solution, rather than a four-factor solution of the original TA scale, suggesting a need to re-examine the validity of such instruments when used outside of their native contexts. The results identified multilingualism, number of languages known and gender as important predictors for TA. Given the relative nature of effect-size benchmarks, a topic-specific effect-size benchmark system is proposed to (re-)interpret the present and previous findings.
Previous research has shown prospectively that religiosity/spirituality protects against depression, but these findings are commonly critiqued on two grounds, namely: (1) apparent religiosity/spirituality reflects merely an original absence of depression or elevated mood and (2) religiosity/spirituality too often is measured as a global construct. The current study investigates the relationship between depression and religiosity/spirituality by examining its multidimensional structural integrity.
Confirmatory factor analyses with a previously observed cross-cultural factor structure of religiosity/spirituality variables were conducted on an independent sample, diagnostic and familial risk subgroups from this sample, and a subsample of the original cross-cultural sample. Linear regressions onto a previous diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) 5 years prior to assess the potential attenuating impact of a previous depression was explored.
Across familial risk groups and clinical subgroups, each of the previously validated religiosity/spirituality domains was confirmed, namely: religious/spiritual commitment, contemplative practice, sense of interconnectedness, the experience of love, and altruistic engagement. Previous MDD diagnosis was associated with a lower religious/spiritual commitment among high-risk individuals, higher contemplation among low-risk individuals, and lower importance of religion or spirituality regardless of risk group.
Structural integrity was found across familial risk groups and diagnostic history for a multidimensional structure of religiosity/spirituality. Differential associations between a previous diagnosis of MDD and level of religiosity/spirituality across domains suggest a complex and interactive relation between depression, familial risk, and religiosity/spirituality. Accounting for an empirically valid, multidimensional understanding of religiosity/spirituality may advance research on mechanisms underlying the relationship between religiosity/spirituality and mental health.