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Universal access on equal terms to audiovisual content is a key point for the full inclusion of people with disabilities in activities of daily life. As a real challenge for the current Information Society, it has been detected but not achieved in an efficient way, due to the fact that current access solutions are mainly based in the traditional television standard and other not automated high-cost solutions. The arrival of new technologies within the hybrid television environment together with the application of different artificial intelligence techniques over the content will assure the deployment of innovative solutions for enhancing the user experience for all. In this paper, a set of different tools for image enhancement based on the combination between deep learning and computer vision algorithms will be presented. These tools will provide automatic descriptive information of the media content based on face detection for magnification and character identification. The fusion of this information will be finally used to provide a customizable description of the visual information with the aim of improving the accessibility level of the content, allowing an efficient and reduced cost solution for all.
It is widely recognized among state leaders and diplomats that personal relations play an important role in international politics. Recent work at the intersection of psychology, neuroscience, and sociology has highlighted the critical importance of face-to-face interactions in generating intention understanding and building trust. Yet, a key question remains as to why some leaders are able to ‘hit it off,’ generating a positive social bond, while other interactions ‘fall flat,’ or worse, are mired in negativity. To answer, we turn to micro-sociology – the study of everyday human interactions at the smallest scales – an approach that has theorized this question in other domains. Drawing directly from US sociologist Randall Collins, and related empirical studies on the determinants of social bonding, we develop a model of diplomatic social bonding that privileges interaction elements rather than the dispositional characteristics of the actors involved or the material environment in which the interaction takes place. We conclude with a discussion of how the study of interpersonal dyadic bonding interaction may move forward.
While it is increasingly recognized that shame is a pernicious component of the experience of poverty, the stigma generally associated with social assistance provision is less marked with respect to China's Minimum Living Security System, also known as dibao. This enigma is explored and illuminated drawing on two streams of indigenous Chinese scholarship and qualitative fieldwork in eight villages in Shanxi province. Economic and political changes prioritizing economic growth and individual wealth have increased the shame associated with poverty, manifest as loss of face, low mian (status) and lack of lian (integrity). However, this shame does not transfer to dibao because the scheme has been transformed locally into a universal age supplement that partially fulfils the demands of filial piety and which is seen to reflect and contribute to guanxi (social influence).
Consistent evidence suggests that face-to-face cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) may be equally effective depression treatments. Current clinical research focuses on detecting the best predictors-moderators of efficacy to guide treatment personalisation. However, individual moderator studies show inconsistent findings. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficacy of CBT and IPT, including combined treatment with antidepressants for depression, and evaluate the predictive power of demographic, clinical presentation and treatment characteristics moderators for both therapies.
PsycArticles, PsycINFO, PubMed and Cochrane Library were systematically searched through December 2017 for studies that have assessed individuals with major depression receiving either CBT or IPT in a face-to-face format both at pre- and post-treatment. Random-effects moderator meta-analyses were conducted.
In total 168 samples from 137 studies including 11 374 participants qualified for the meta-analytic review. CBT and IPT were equally effective across all but one prespecified moderators. For psychotherapy delivered without concomitant antidepressant treatment [antidepressant medications (ADMs)], CBT was superior to IPT (g = 1.68, Qbetweenp = 0.037). Within-CBT moderator analyses showed that increased CBT efficacy was associated with lower age, high initial depression severity, individual format of administration and no adjunctive ADMs. Within-IPT analyses showed comparable efficacy across all moderators.
Clinical guidance around combined treatment (psychotherapy plus ADMs) should be reconsidered. CBT alone is superior to IPT alone and to combined treatment, while IPT alone is non-inferior to combined treatment. More research is needed to assess the moderating effect of older age and number of previous episodes on IPT efficacy.
Garcés-Conejos Blitvich and Bou-Franch’s chapter aims to throw light on emic understandings of face1 and imagen1 in Peninsular Spanish, and to compare such understandings with etic approaches to imagen and identity. A three-pronged methodology is used to tease out lay meanings of imagen from different first-order sources, and includes the examination of monolingual and bilingual dictionaries, the analysis of a corpus of Spanish newspapers, and the analysis of data from focus groups discussing situated experiences of imagen1. The results show that imagen1 and face1 are not related in a straightforward manner. Whereas imagen2 draws on Goffman’s and Brown and Levinson’s seminal definitions of the construct, imagen1 does not always evoke imagen2; when it does, it is more closely related to Goffman’s than to Brown and Levinson’s conception. Microanalysis of naturally-occurring discourse focusing on experiences of imagen1 shows how uses of imagen1 pointed to the centrality of identity and its relationship with face1. The author’s findings thus give credence to that fact that face and identity co-constitute each other and are hard to separate theoretically and analytically.
Culpeper, O’Driscoll and Hardaker’s chapter probes into British people’s understandings of politeness and contrasts them with the understandings of people in North America. Such overarching generalisations, the authors argue, are commonly found in lay persons’ assessments of politeness and thus constitute fertile ground for studies of metapragmatic politeness. Furthermore, the results of a survey of studies focusing on either British culture or North American culture as reified entities indicated a scarcity of emic studies of these cultures in the field of politeness. The authors’ study aims to fill this gap. To that end, they apply corpus linguistic tools to the Oxford English Corpus and subject to scrutiny the lexeme ‘polite’ and the associated clusters of collocates. The results are then triangulated with geolocated Twitter data. Findings partly support both the British and the North American politeness stereotypes, but also show that, contrary to expectations, friendliness and involvement are an important feature of understandings of politeness in both the UK and the USA.
Eslami, Jabbari, and Kuo examine over 4,000 compliments produced by Persian Facebook users, focusing on comments on profile pictures and providing a systematic overview of online complimenting behavior in a language that remains strongly underrepresented within politeness research. The authors examine verbal and non-verbal compliment forms, the latter overwhelmingly represented by ‘likes’, a convenient way of paying compliments, though the exact target of the ‘like’ remains ambiguous. The verbal compliments involve different forms of modification and take explicit (often elliptical) and implicit forms. The interpretation of implicit forms requires the complimentee and the analyst to infer implied meaning based on common background knowledge reflecting in-group norms and values, though the presence of the picture and the responses to the compliment facilitate the analyst’s interpretation. The study compares the data to previous (unpublished) work on face-to-face compliments in Persian, and concludes that implicit compliments are more common in the examined online environment, with modification playing a central role in achieving the desired effect of the comment.
In her study of Greek offers, Bella uses experimental data collection methods to compare the use of politeness in offers directed at friends and offers made by students to their professors. Bella uses open role plays to establish the formulations her participants deem appropriate in the two situations, and retrospective verbal interviews to provide information about the motivations for their choice of politeness strategies. In the Greek context, offers have been defined as positive politeness devices, enhancing solidarity and reaffirming relationships, in line with the classification of Greece as a positive politeness culture. Bella’s study, however, illustrates that offers vary significantly according to the relationship between the interlocutors, with offers in asymmetrical situations characterised by a preference for negative politeness. These differences are reflected not only in the amount of directness expressed, but also through the degree of insistence. This sequential feature of offers is further illustrated on the basis of a naturally occurring interaction that validates the experimental data, while showing that politeness is an interactional phenomenon.
Childhood maltreatment is robustly associated with increased risk of poor mental health outcome and changes in brain function. The authors investigated whether childhood experience of abuse (e.g. physical, emotional and sexual abuse) and neglect (physical and emotional deprivation) was differentially associated with neural reactivity to threat.
Participants were drawn from an existing study and allocated to one of four groups based on self-report of childhood maltreatment experience: individuals with childhood abuse experiences (n = 70); individuals with childhood neglect experiences (n = 87); individuals with combined experience of childhood abuse and neglect (n = 50); and non-maltreated individuals (n = 207) propensity score matched (PSM) on gender, age, IQ, psychopathology and SES. Neural reactivity to facial cues signalling threat was compared across groups, allowing the differential effects associated with particular forms of maltreatment experience to be isolated.
Brain imaging analyses indicated that while childhood abuse was associated with heightened localised threat reactivity in ventral amygdala, experiences of neglect were associated with heightened reactivity in a distributed cortical fronto-parietal network supporting complex social and cognitive processing as well as in the dorsal amygdala. Unexpectedly, combined experiences of abuse and neglect were associated with hypo-activation in several higher-order cortical regions as well as the amygdala.
Different forms of childhood maltreatment exert differential effects in neural threat reactivity: while the effects of abuse are more focal, the effects of neglect and combined experiences of abuse are more distributed. These findings are relevant for understanding the range of psychiatric outcomes following childhood maltreatment and have implications for intervention.
Gesture and prosody are considered to be important precursors in early language development. In the present study, we ask whether those cues play a similar role later in children's acquisition of more complex pragmatic skills, such as politeness. 64 three- to five-year-old Catalan-dominant children participated in a request production task in four different conditions. They were prompted to request an object from either a classmate or an unfamiliar adult experimenter, with the implied cost of the request to the receiver's face thus being either high or low. Results showed that these preschool-age children used mitigating prosodic and gestural strategies to encode politeness earlier and more often than they used lexical or morphosyntactic markers, and that those cues develop incrementally during the preschool years. These findings suggest that prosody, gesture, and other body signals are an essential first step in the development of children's socio-pragmatic competence.
Childhood exposure to stress can induce prolonged negative effects on health, which in turn confer risks for the next generation, but greater specificity is needed to inform intervention. A first step is to measure individual differences in emotional reactivity to stress early in life in ways that can account for heterogeneity in child exposure. The present study tested the hypothesis that mothers’ childhood exposure to stress would be differentially associated with patterns of positive and negative emotional reactivity in their offspring, suggesting transmission of stress response across generations. Participants were 268 young mothers (age 14–23 years) followed longitudinally since childhood, and their infants aged 3–9 months. Latent class analysis of infant emotions expressed before and during the still-face paradigm yielded five subgroups that varied in valence, intensity, and reactivity. After accounting for sociodemographic factors, infant temperament, and postpartum depression, multinomial regression models showed that, relative to an emotionally regulated still-face response, infants showing low negative reactivity were more likely to have mothers exposed to childhood emotional abuse, and infants showing high and increasing negative reactivity were more likely to have mothers exposed to childhood emotional neglect. Mechanisms by which early maternal stress exposure influences emotional reactivity in offspring are discussed.
This paper traces the centrality of the human face in the construction of modern individuality. It argues that the face of individuality no less than that of typology, is mired in and born of historical and political conditions that are subsequently disavowed in order that the individual (and the face she bears) is rendered a product of nature, an instantiation of the universal. Attempting to denaturalize and defamiliarize the authority invested in the face, this paper maps out three interrelated arguments: that the human face is historically produced; that its history is closely tethered to the production of modern subjectivity, and that its status as a purveyor of meaning relies upon the reiteration of preexisting norms through which it can be “read.” And yet, while this paper turns to the nineteenth century to trace the novel privileging of the face as an extension of selfhood, interwoven through this history is the figure of the “effaced” Muslim woman and the Muslim terrorist type.
This article explores the nexus of sovereignty, violence, and transitional justice through an analysis of the public exhibitions of the faces of communist-era secret service officers in Poland. During the rule of right-wing government from 2005 to 2007, the state-run Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) organized exhibitions in public squares across Poland, which stirred much contention. Was it a pursuit of justice or a call for public lynching? Was it a means to ensure public transparency and identify the “faceless” evil of communism, or instead a political instrument of anti-communist nationalists? In some places, like the deindustrialized city of Katowice, the exhibition even met with devastating attacks. Focusing on this event in Katowice, I use media reports, interviews, and other ethnographic material to explore what the IPN-led state spectacles of justice, particularly the figure of the face and the defacement practices they employ, reveal about tensions and contradictions of “post-socialist” sovereignty; how the figure of the (secret) communist agent has come to facialize both the unfinished reckoning with communist-era state violence and the “normalized” violence of capitalist transformation. I argue that past violence, which is the typical object of transitional justice, needs to be approached in a dynamic and relational manner, with a focus on the conjunctures—how different forms of violence become transformed, reproduced, or entangled across time and space. My comparative perspective on transitional justice highlights the problems caused when its nationalist appropriation becomes entangled with capital's violence.
Potential long-term associations between repetitive negative thinking and mother-infant interactions have received little attention. The current longitudinal study including N = 62 mother-infant dyads investigated both maternal and infant behavior in face-to-face interactions as a function of pre- and postnatal maternal repetitive negative thinking when infants were aged around 4 months. We hypothesised that mothers with a strong tendency to engage in repetitive negative thinking would react less contingently to their infants’ behavior compared to mothers with a weak tendency to engage in repetitive negative thinking. Furthermore, we hypothesised that infants of mothers high in repetitive negative thinking would differ from infants of mothers low in repetitive negative thinking in their reactions in the still-face task. Contrary to expectations, there was no difference in maternal contingency between mothers high versus low in repetitive negative thinking. However, infant behavior in the still-face task differed as a function of maternal repetitive negative thinking status. Specifically, infants of mothers high in repetitive negative thinking spent more time with object/environment engagement than infants of mothers who were low in repetitive negative thinking, and they also protested less frequently. These findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for the intergenerational transmission of mental disorders.
In this work we develop and validate a model measuring norms that distinguish three types of culture: dignity, face, and honor (Leung & Cohen, 2011). Our motivation is to produce empirical evidence for this new cultural framework and use the framework to explain cultural differences in interdependent social interactions such as negotiation. In two studies, we establish the content validity, construct validity, predictive validity, and measurement invariance of this measurement model. In Study 1, we present the model's three-factor structure and situate the constructs of dignity, face, and honor in a nomological network of cultural constructs. In Study 2, which uses a sample of participants from 26 cultures, we show that the measurement model discriminates among people from the three cultural regions corresponding to the dignity, face, and honor framework. In particular, we report differences between face and honor cultures, which are not distinguished in other cultural frameworks (e.g., Hofstede, 1980). We also show that the measurement model accounts for cultural differences in norms for use of negotiation strategy.
Common mental disorders (CMD) cause large suffering and high societal costs. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can effectively treat CMD, but access to treatment is insufficient. Guided self-help (GSH) CBT, has shown effects comparable with face-to-face CBT. However, not all patients respond to GSH, and stepping up non-responders to face-to-face CBT, could yield larger response rates. The aim was to test a stepped care model for CMD in primary care by first evaluating the effects of GSH-CBT and secondly, for non-responders, evaluating the additional effect of face-to-face CBT.
Consecutive patients (N = 396) with a principal disorder of depression, anxiety, insomnia, adjustment or exhaustion disorder were included. In Step I, all patients received GSH-CBT. In Step II, non-responders were randomized to face-to-face CBT or continued GSH. The primary outcome was remission status, defined as a score below a pre-established cutoff on a validated disorder-specific scale.
After GSH-CBT in Step I, 40% of patients were in remission. After Step II, 39% of patients following face-to-face CBT were in remission compared with 19% of patients after continued GSH (p = 0.004). Using this stepped care model required less than six therapy sessions per patient and led to an overall remission rate of 63%.
Stepped care can be effective and resource-efficient to treat CMD in primary care, leading to high remission rates with limited therapist resources. Face-to-face CBT speeded up recovery compared with continued GSH. At follow-ups after 6 and 12 months, remission rates were similar in the two groups.
The paper is aimed at optimization of parameters of a copper plasma jet produced at the DPF-1000U device, in which the inner electrode face was conically shaped. Preliminary information was obtained by numerical simulations of the plasma jet creation for different copper cones with the use of the two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic code KAROL. The simulations suggested that the cone height in the range of 4–7 cm should ensure a good plasma jet quality. The experimental data delivered by means of a 16-frame laser interferometer and a four-frame X-ray pinhole camera fully confirmed this conclusion. In the paper, we demonstrate the results for a 5 cm height cone. The eroded Cu plasma, swept up by the deuterium plasma sheath, was accelerated axially and compressed to very small diameter (3 mm) with an electron density of 7 × 1018 cm−3. The Cu plasma jet achieved a velocity of 5 × 107 cm/s and reached in the period of about 230 ns a distance (length) of 7 cm. The above results prove a successful adaptation of the plasma focus device to the metallic plasma jet generator.
Qualitative research methods embedded within feasibility trials are of significant value as they can provide important information for a definitive trial, often unable to be fulfilled by quantitative methods alone. In addition, such information can aid researchers running other trials or evaluating interventions on a similar topic.
This study aimed to explore GP and nurses’ experiences of recruiting to a trial exploring the feasibility of evaluating YP Face IT, a novel online psychosocial intervention to support young people with appearance-altering conditions.
During the recruitment period, a focus group with participating GPs and nurses explored recruitment challenges. In addition, at the end of the recruitment period, telephone interviews were conducted with eight GPs and nurses involved in recruiting to the study, in order to inform a definitive trial of YP Face IT. Transcripts were subjected to thematic analysis.
Despite reporting that the study was valuable and interesting, interviewees struggled to recruit in-consultation. They appeared to lack confidence in raising the sensitive issue of a visible difference and adopted strategies to avoid mentioning the topic. Participants felt the nature of the target population, as well as pressures of the primary care environment presented challenges to recruitment, but welcomed YP Face IT as an intervention that could address unmet support needs. Primary care staff may benefit from training to help them raise the subject of a visible difference with young people in order to identify those that require additional support.
Objectives: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by repetitive behaviors and/or mental acts occurring in response to preoccupations with perceived defects or flaws in physical appearance. There are some similarities, but also important differences, between BDD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), not just in terms of core clinical symptoms, but possibly in the domain of perception. This study compared the nature and extent of perceptual anomalies in BDD versus OCD and health controls (HC), using a modified Mooney task. Methods: We included 21 BDD, 19 OCD, and 21 HC participants, who were age-, sex-, and IQ-matched. A set of 40 Mooney faces and 40 Mooney objects arranged in three configurations (i.e., upright, inverted, or scrambled) were presented under brief (i.e., 500 ms) free-viewing conditions. Participants were asked to decide whether each image represented a human face, an object, or neither in a forced-choice paradigm. Results: The BDD group showed significantly reduced face and object inversion effects relative to the other two groups. This was accounted for by BDD participants being significantly more accurate in identifying inverted Mooney faces and objects than the other participants. Conclusions: These data were interpreted as reflecting an overreliance on independent components at the expense of holistic (configural) processing in BDD. (JINS, 2017, 23, 471–480)
Previous research has documented that collaborative dialogue promotes L2 learning in both face-to-face (F2F) and synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) modalities. However, relatively little research has explored modality effects on collaborative dialogue. Thus, motivated by sociocultual theory, this study examines how F2F compares with SCMC regarding the generation of collaborative dialogue specifically in terms of its frequency and nature. Thirty-two Chinese English as a foreign language (EFL) students participated in this study and completed two types of collaborative tasks (i.e. dictogloss and jigsaw) in dyads in both modalities. The analyses of learners’ exchanges focused on language-related episodes (LREs), the instantiation of collaborative dialogue. The identified LREs were categorized based on their focus, outcome and type. A follow-up questionnaire was conducted to elicit students’ perspectives. The results revealed that LREs were more frequent in SCMC than in F2F. Furthermore, the analyses of the nature of LREs indicated some cross-modality differences: whereas SCMC LREs had the features of orthographical, correct and self-correction outcomes, F2F LREs were characterized by incorrect and request for assistance outcomes. Pedagogical implications and suggestions for the future research were also discussed.