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Following a typological classification of metrical systems, word stress in most Germanic languages can be described as characterized by trochaic rhythm, rightmost main stress, left-oriented secondary stress, and quantity-sensitivity. Most Germanic languages, after contact with languages of the Romance type and incorporation of vast amounts of loanwords into their lexicon, place main stress on one of the last three syllables of the word. For most of them it has furthermore been observed that heavy syllables influence the assignment of stress, even though not necessarily in all phonological contexts. Exceptions are Icelandic and Faroese, where main stress falls consistently on the leftmost syllable of the word and syllable weight does not play any role in stress assignment. For those Germanic languages for which secondary stress has been described, parsing of left-aligning secondary stress feet can be assumed.
To guide investments in ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) in developing countries, numerous stated preference valuation studies have been implemented to assess the value of ecosystem services. These studies increasingly use time payments as an alternative to money. There is limited knowledge, however, about how to convert time to money and how the type of payment affects willingness to pay (WTP). In this study, the results of choice experiments using time and money payments are compared in the context of EbA measures in Vietnam. Six, of which five individual-specific, conversion rates are applied. WTP estimates are found to be higher for time payments. Moreover, the type of payment vehicle as well as the conversion rate has substantial effect on mean WTP and WTP distributions. We discuss implications of these results for the conversion of time to money and the use of resulting WTP estimates in cost benefit analyses in developing countries.
While concerns about the public's receptivity to factual information are widespread, much less attention has been paid to the factual receptivity, or lack thereof, of elected officials. Recent survey research has made clear that US legislators and legislative staff systematically misperceive their constituents' opinions on salient public policies. This study reports the results from two field experiments designed to correct misperceptions of sitting US legislators. The legislators (n = 2,346) were invited to access a dashboard of constituent opinion generated using the 2016 Cooperative Congressional Election Study. Despite extensive outreach efforts, only 11 per cent accessed the information in Study 1 and only 2.3 per cent did so in Study 2. More troubling for democratic norms, legislators who accessed constituent opinion data were no more accurate at perceiving their constituents' opinions. The findings underscore the challenges confronting efforts to improve the accuracy of elected officials' perceptions and suggest that elected officials may indeed resist factual information.
Chapter 3 expands on the experimental phase of the project, providing an account of its design and a thorough discussion of the results and their implications. The chapter explores the level of accuracy with which participants in IM are able to detect the substitution of one interlocutor with another, and the levels of confidence with which such decisions are made. It also addresses the effects of impersonator preparation on these scores. Finally, the linguistic criteria that people report having relied upon in making these assessments are scrutinised, and we are thus able to formulate opinions about which features are the most salient for the construction of one’s linguistic identity.
Chapter 2 outlines the various sources of our data, which include logs of instant messaging conversations collected from genuine resolved cases of child sexual grooming, from a range of Dark Web fora dedicated to the topic of child sexual abuse, from undercover operations targeting the producers and disseminators of indecent images and videos of children, from role -playing exercises that take place within the Pilgrim Course for online investigators, and from a series of experiments we designed in order to systematically investigate key questions around language and identity performance. The chapter continues by describing our methodological approach to these data, starting with the micro-analysis at the structural level of language, including of vocabulary and orthographic features as we first began setting out in MacLeod and Grant (2012). We then move through our modifications of Searle’s (1969) Speech Act Theory and Gumperz’s (1982) approach to topic management inasmuch as they relate to instant messaging and the operational context, before finally setting out our theory about how these stratified levels of language interface in the performance of identities. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion of ethics, both the research ethics of engaging with this area of criminal activity and the operational ethics of assisting the police in these contexts.
We discuss here the choice of solid compounds and materials which best suit various types of applications, focusing mainly on the polarized targets. These materials include hydrogen-rich glassy hydrocarbons and simple cubic crystalline ammonia and lithium hydrides. The glassy hydrocarbons can doped by dissolved stable free radicals, while crystalline materials are doped by radiolytic paramagnetic radicals. The leading application of DNP up till now has been the scattering experiments in high-energy and nuclear physics. Other applications include measurements of slow neutron cross-sections, molecular physics using slow neutrons, nuclear magnetism and other solid-state physics experiments, and spin filters. The use of polarized solids in fusion and in magnetic resonance imaging has also been discussed. The material choice evidently depends strongly not only on the application but also on the goal of the experiment or process which is considered. More recently DNP has been used for the signal enhancement in NMR studies of complex chemical and biochemical molecules. In this context DNP and other enhancement techniques are called by the term “hyperpolarization”.
The figure of merit is defined for some scattering applications; this figure permits the objective comparison of the various target types and polarization methods. The optimization of the polarized target operation in particle physics experiments is briefly discussed before treating the sources of possible false asymmetries due to the target. Finally a series of uses of polarized target techniques beyond particle and nuclear physics experiments is presented. These include notably the coherent small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) used in the studies of biological macromolecules, time–resolved SANS, pseudomagnetism, nuclear magnetic ordering, DNP enhancement of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy, particularly in solid state using the magic angle spinning techniques. The sensitivity and contrast enhancement are briefly discussed for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. These use various DNP techniques and radical-free injectable polarized fluid methods, as well as the dissolution DNP techniques.
Economic activity is unevenly distributed across space, or spiky. Measuring this spikiness is not trivial. A good measure is comparable across space, comparable across sectors, unbiased regarding spatial and sector classification, and should provide a measure of significance. No measure fulfils all these criteria, but some are better than others. Once spikiness is identified the next question is ‘so what?’ Does spatial agglomeration stimulate productivity? Econometric methods to deal with this question and tackle the problem of reverse causality are: difference-in-differences, natural experiments, and regression discontinuity design. These techniques are introduced in this chapter.
Many theories of international relations assume that public opinion exerts a powerful effect on foreign policy in democracies. Previous research, based on observational data, has reached conflicting conclusions about this foundational assumption. We use experiments to examine two mechanisms—responsiveness and selection—through which opinion could shape decisions about the use of military force. We tested responsiveness by asking members of the Israeli parliament to consider a crisis in which we randomized information about public opinion. Parliamentarians were more willing to use military force when the public was in favor and believed that contravening public opinion would entail heavy political costs. We tested selection by asking citizens in Israel and the US to evaluate parties/candidates, which varied randomly on many dimensions. In both countries, security policy proved as electorally significant as economic and religious policy, and far more consequential than nonpolicy considerations such as gender, race, and experience. Overall, our experiments in two important democracies imply that citizens can affect policy by incentivizing incumbents and shaping who gets elected.
This chapter introduces the challenge of political control that faces the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in rural China. Local CCP officials face a governance dilemma. They must control protest and implement unpopular policies such as land expropriation and relocation, or family planning quotas. Yet, as an original experiment shows, CCP cadres are seen as less trustworthy than the leaders of local community groups like lineages or neighborhood associations. The remainder of the book illustrates the resourceful ways that party cadres use these social ties to their advantage.
The neuro-endoscopy is a surgical technique that allows the neurosurgeon to maintain a visual contact while operating inside the brain of a patient. A special instrument called the neuro-endoscope is inserted in the brain until the neurosurgeon reaches his/her target. Its manipulation requires a high level of training for neurosurgeons. To enforce both quality and safety of neuro-endoscopy, we propose a robotic manipulator based on a Spherical Decoupled Mechanism. This mechanical architecture has been modified from a 5-Bar Spherical Linkages and adapted to this medical application. It is able to generate a Remote Center of Motion of 2 Degrees of Freedom. It merges the advantages of parallel mechanisms with the kinematic and control simplicity of decoupled mechanisms, while having a very simple architecture. Motion capture experiments using a brain simulation model have been performed with a team of neurosurgeons to obtain the kinematic data of the neuro-endoscope during brain exploration. Based on the identified workspace, the mechanism has been optimized using kinematic performance and architectural compactness as criteria. An optimum mechanism has been selected, showing better kinematic performances than the original 5-bar spherical linkage mechanism.
To promote good governance, citizens can inform governments directly and routinely about the implementation of policies and the delivery of public services. Yet citizens lack incentives to provide information when they do not expect governments to be responsive, and citizen disengagement in turn often prevents governments from providing public goods effectively. In two field experiments, we studied potential remedies to this dilemma related to solid waste services in Uganda. We randomly assigned reporters to be recruited by community nomination and to be recognized by community leaders in an attempt to select for and motivate information sharing. We also randomly assigned reporters to hear from the government about how their reports were used to make real improvements to waste services. Community nominations and public announcements did not increase reporting. However, responsiveness boosted participation over several months for reporters who had been recruited earliest and had been reporting longest, highlighting the critical role of timely government responsiveness in sustaining information flows from citizens.
Tolerance underlies many contemporary controversies, yet theorists and political scientists study it in strikingly different ways. This article bridges the gap by using recent developments in political theory to enrich empirical research and extend the study of tolerance to contexts beyond liberal democracies, such as authoritarian regimes. Our recommendations challenge dominant liberal-democratic frameworks by emphasizing variation across the (1) objects of tolerance; (2) possible responses to difference; and (3) sources of tolerance. We then illustrate the promise of our recommendations with three theoretically informed experiments inspired by historical debates about religious conversion. Our results suggest a marked ‘convert effect’ across not only contemporary religious but also secular political divides, with the same difference in terms of content viewed as less tolerable when resulting from conversion than when given or ascribed. The research demonstrates the benefits of greater dialogue across political theory and political science, while shedding light on a central question of tolerance today.
For the first time in an Arab country, this article examines attitudes toward public opinion surveys and their effects on survey-taking behavior. The study uses original survey data from Qatar, the diverse population of which permits comparisons across cultural–geographical groupings within a single, non-democratic polity. The authors find that Qatari and expatriate Arabs hold positive views of surveys, both in absolute terms and relative to individuals from non-Arab countries. Factor analysis reveals that the underlying dimensions of survey attitudes in Qatar mostly mirror those identified in Western settings, but a new dimension is discovered that captures the perceived intentions of surveys. Two embedded experiments assess the impact of survey attitudes. The results show that generalized attitudes toward surveys affect respondents’ willingness to participate both alone and in combination with surveys' objective attributes. The study also finds that negative views about survey reliability and intentions increase motivated under-reporting among Arab respondents, whereas non-Arabs are sensitive only to perceived cognitive and time costs. These findings have direct implications for consumers and producers of Arab survey data.
In recent decades, dramatic developments in genetics research have begun to transform not only the practice of medicine but also conceptions of the social world. In the media, in popular culture, and in everyday conversation, Americans routinely link genetics to individual behavior and social outcomes. At the same time, some social researchers contend that biological definitions of race have lost ground in the United States over the last fifty years. At the crossroads of two trends—on one hand, the post-World War II recoil from biological accounts of racial difference, and on the other, the growing admiration for the advances of genetic science—the American public’s conception of race is a phenomenon that merits greater attention from sociologists than it has received to date. However, survey data on racial attitudes has proven to be significantly affected by social desirability bias. While a number of studies have attempted to measure social desirability bias with regard to racial attitudes, most have focused on racial policy preferences rather than genetic accounts of racial inequality. We employ a list experiment to create an unobtrusive measure of support for a biologistic understanding of racial inequality. We show that one in five non-Black Americans attribute income inequality between Black and White people to unspecified genetic differences between the two groups. We also find that this number is substantially underestimated when using a direct question. The magnitude of social desirability effects varies, and is most pronounced among women, older people, and the highly-educated.
Scholars from across the social sciences argue that identities – such as race, ethnicity, and gender – are highly influential over individuals’ attitudes, actions, and evaluations. Experiments are becoming particularly integral for allowing identity scholars to explain how these social attachments shape our political behavior. In this letter, we draw attention to how identity scholars should approach the common practice of assessing moderators, measuring control variables, and detecting effect heterogeneity using covariates. Special care must be taken when deciding where to place measures of demographic covariates in identity-related experiments, as these cases pose unique challenges from how scholars traditionally approach experimental design. We argue in this letter that identity scholars, particularly those whose subjects identify as women or minorities, are often right to measure covariates of interest posttreatment.
Wind-driven snow redistribution can increase the spatial heterogeneity of snow accumulation on ice caps and ice sheets, and may prove crucial for the initiation and survival of glaciers in areas of marginal glaciation. We present a snowdrift model (Snow_Blow), which extends and improves the model of Purves, Mackaness and Sugden (1999, Journal of Quaternary Science 14, 313–321). The model calculates spatial variations in relative snow accumulation that result from variations in topography, using a digital elevation model (DEM) and wind direction as inputs. Improvements include snow redistribution using a flux routing algorithm, DEM resolution independence and the addition of a slope curvature component. This paper tests Snow_Blow in Antarctica (a modern environment) and reveals its potential for application in palaeoenvironmental settings, where input meteorological data are unavailable and difficult to estimate. Specifically, Snow_Blow is applied to the Ellsworth Mountains in West Antarctica where ablation is considered to be predominantly related to wind erosion processes. We find that Snow_Blow is able to replicate well the existing distribution of accumulating snow and snow erosion as recorded in and around Blue Ice Areas. Lastly, a variety of model parameters are tested, including depositional distance and erosion vs wind speed, to provide the most likely input parameters for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions.
This article presents computer supported “language production experiments” (LPEs) as a method for the investigation of syntactic variation. It describes the setup for the investigation of numerous syntactic phenomena and provides a sample study of the German GET passive across Austria. It also suggests that LPEs offer possibilities for the targeted investigation of linguistic variation in various ways. They may be used to explore speakers’ individual linguistic repertoires and an according corpus setup can be used to examine e.g., interspeaker patterns of variation. LPEs also enable researchers to investigate which linguistic factors control or influence syntactic variation.
Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is an important pest of Lathyrus sativus L. plants, and causes retarded plant growth and loss of seed production. The insect sucks cell sap from flowers and lays nymphs on flowers. Hence, an attempt has been made to observe whether flower surface wax compounds (alkanes and free fatty acids) from two cultivars (BIO L 212 Ratan and Nirmal B-1) of L. sativus could act as short-range attractant and stimulant for nymph laying by adult viviparous females. The n-hexane extracts of flower surface waxes were analyzed by TLC, GC-MS and GC-FID analyses. Twenty one and 22 n-alkanes between n-C12 and n-C36 were detected in BIO L 212 Ratan and Nirmal B-1, respectively; whereas 12 free fatty acids between C12:0 and C22:0 were identified in both cultivars. Pentadecane and tridecanoic acid were predominant n-alkane and free fatty acid, respectively. One flower equivalent surface wax of both cultivars served as short-range attractant and stimulant for nymph laying through Y-tube choice experiments and I-tube viviparity assays, respectively, by adult viviparous females. A synthetic blend of nonacosane, tridecanoic acid and linoleic acid, and a synthetic blend of tetradecane, pentadecane, nonacosane, tridecanoic acid and linoleic acid resembling in amounts as present in one flower equivalent surface wax of BIO L 212 Ratan and Nirmal B-1, respectively, served as short-range attractant and stimulant for nymph laying by adult viviparous females. This study suggests that both these blends could be used in lures in the development of baited traps in pest management programmes.
This chapter is an overview of experimentation and explains why experiments are important. The role of the laboratory notebook for keeping a faithful record of work is emphasised. Guidelines are given for keeping a laboratory notebook. Examples pages from the author's own notebook are included.