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This essay looks at the innovations in poetry and poetry publishing from 2001 to 2018, with a particular emphasis on the emerging generation of Indigenous poets like Sherwin Bitsui, Orlando White, Natalie Diaz, and Layli Long Soldier. While paying close attention to the themes and motifs that have been of interest to Native writers, this essay foregrounds innovations in poetic form, including erasures and strikethroughs, complicated syntax, and typographical experimentation. A good deal of recent Native poetry takes on English and its rules and structures as a tool of colonization, repression, identification, and misinformation, and in so doing, seeks to remake English so that it might be viewed through an Indigenous lens.
Electric vehicles are playing an increasingly important role in the agricultural sector. The selection of tyres for reducing energy loss due to rolling resistance is an important consideration in determining the viability of these vehicles. To date little is known about rolling resistance of small all-terrain vehicles. In this study a test rig was used to collect rolling resistance data for seven ATV tyres. The study verifies the relationship between normal load and rolling resistance and gives insight into some of the important considerations when selecting tyres for small off road vehicles.
This work features challenges of using integrated reflections in undergraduate Industrial Design and Engineering. Reflection activities can be challenging for the students and hard to implement in design and engineering classes. This report has two goals. The first is to introduce a process for more successful engagement for the students in problem solving and design. The second is to show that the process has validity and usefulness for Industrial Design students who are in a College of Design.
The world of Salman Rushdie’s 1981 novel Midnight’s Children is often cited as exemplary of a new wave of experimentation in British writing, a tradition drawing, as some have argued, from world-famous figures like the Columbian Gabriel Garcia Marquez, or earlier mentors such as the philosopher-turned-novelist and dramatist G. V. Desani. Rushdie’s so-called reinvention of ‘magical realism’ has often been said to have sparked the publication of a series of similarly hyper-realist and expansive novels by other subcontinental and British Asian writers. However, as Rushdie himself has noted, Midnight’s Children was not surrealistic but ‘realist’ and drew on the jangling contradictions of the India he grew up in. This chapter examines how a number of others, such as Ben Okri (The Famished Road), Pauline Melville (The Migration of Ghosts), Ravinder Randhawa (A Wicked Old Woman), and Helen Oyeyemi (The Icarus Girl) embrace ‘alternative’ versions of ‘reality’ and create differently constituted physical and cultural worlds.
Israel defines itself as a ‘Jewish democratic state’, an expression that conveys the Jewish and liberal roots of its political, cultural and legal identity. In Jewish tradition, attempting to cure disease and save lives is of paramount value and Jewish culture hence encourages open-minded attitudes towards research efforts that have therapeutic goals. Zionist narratives also play a role in shaping policy towards genetic and reproductive technologies and pro-science attitudes echo the Zionist narrative that links scientific and technological innovation with the notion of transforming the Jews into a modern nation. Consequently, Israel does not ban basic research involving human germline modification and draws the line only at attempting to create a ‘genetically modified person’. Human germline genome modification is regulated in Israel under the 1999 Prohibition of Genetic Intervention (Human Cloning and Genetic Manipulation of Reproductive Cells) Law. This Law has been amended three times: in 2004, 2009 and 2016. The current version is set to expire on 23 May 2020. The Israeli Law prohibits two activities: human reproductive cloning, and the use of ‘reproductive cells that have undergone a permanent intentional genetic modification (germline gene therapy) in order to cause the creation of a person’.
The sixth chapter, “Gray Modernism,” argues that modernist experimentation with narrative form draws theoretical and disciplinary inspiration from the invention of gerontology and geriatrics as a science. During the twentieth century, aging becomes the subject of clinical interest, a temporal pathology detachable from the body it affects. Similarly, for modernist novels like Virginia Woolf’s Orlando, duration becomes separable from the highly charged aesthetic moments it contains. Though Orlando lives through many centuries, she does not grow old; instead, her greatest transformation occurs when her gender instantaneously switches from male to female. The novel creates a divide between the systems of duration and aging on the one hand, and the momentariness and constructedness of identity on the other. By breaking with the conventions that link duration and objective, shared time, Woolf situates aging in an ironic temporality that disrupts the forward press of years.
This chapter discusses the accretion of an extraordinary amount of criticism and commentary on Whitman over the past 150 years. It studies one as-yet underexplored area of his writing: his old-age poetry. This poetry was added to Leaves of Grass in Whitman’s last years in what he called “annexes.” Whitman’s experimental inclinations remained intense in these often-overlooked poems, as he invented new techniques involving open enjambment, transegmental drift, and pronoun disappearance, creating a poetry unlike most of his earlier work: shorter, less accepting of death, and yet still affirmative of many of the basic ideas he had developed from the 1855 Leaves on. These late poems introduced some formal qualities that we now associate much more with modernist and postmodern poets, and they also can be read as some of the most honest and powerful confrontations with old age and a decaying body that any poet has produced.
Chapter Five explores how, in the wake of the 1973 campaign, the Shanghai government intensified efforts to help urban youth leave the fields, launching projects such as technical workshops in Shanghai in which youth could participate during their home visits as well as distance-learning courses offered for sent-down youth in rural areas. This promotion of education and technical training enhanced the opportunities for sent-down youth to escape fieldwork and take on less physically taxing jobs in rural areas as office clerks, accountants, electrical engineers, machine technicians, and barefoot teachers and doctors. In some areas, the Shanghai government provided material and financial resources for the establishment of small factories and sent-down youth stations; urban outposts scattered across the rural landscape that were entirely independent of the village economy. Although these programs were ostensibly initiated to support the sent-down youth movement, they inadvertently intensified a new boundary in the countryside that divided sent-down youth and villagers. They also turned urban youth into educated and skilled rural residents who became some of the most privileged residents in the countryside.
This chapter is an overview of experimentation and explains why experiments are important. The role of the laboratory notebook for keeping a faithful record of work is emphasised. Guidelines are given for keeping a laboratory notebook. Examples pages from the author's own notebook are included.
Lynda Bundtzen contextualizes Plath’s poetry with auteur cinema, the influx of principally European films into the American art house theatres in the 1950s and early 1960s. Drawing on Plath’s known viewings of films by Bunuel, Cocteau, Fellini, Bergman and Resnai, Bundtzen shows how Plath uses her writing to respond critically and emotionally to a cinema that is designed to showcase experimentation. Bundtzen focuses on the often surreal elements of Plath’s imagery and the theatrical confrontations in poems share the same experimental bravery of the directors whose work Plath so admired.
The introduction opens with the observation that the twenty-first century is witnessing a flourishing of innovative British fiction comparable in its formal experimentation and ambition to the American postmodernist fiction of the 1960s and 1970s. I identify a specific caucus of texts, which I call fictions of the not yet, that can be grouped together through a shared formal and philosophical preoccupation with the question of time. The temporal disjointedness that marks our experience in the twenty-first century has given rise to different expressions of the unevenness of the contemporary, at the level of novelistic structure, prose style, generic sampling and non-mimetic interventions into otherwise realist narratives and juxtaposed timescales. The introduction closes with a discussion of non-contemporaneity, the term I use to explore how the contemporary British novels under discussion respond to, and suggestively reshape, the inequalities and unevenness of twenty-first-century social and political life in a distinctly utopian direction.
Ian McEwan claimed in 1978 that the ‘artifice of fiction can be taken for granted’, implying that the avant-garde experimentalism of the postwar era had run its course and that, going forward, writers ought not to fall into the trap of producing ‘self-enclosed “fictions”’ about the nature of fictionality. This chapter examines the ways in which this early stance changed quite considerably over time, as McEwan evolved into a socially engaged novelist of ideas who also uses fiction to deliberate in explicitly self-conscious terms on the history and ethical valences of literary form. Realism and innovation have never been opposed in his work, just as his fiction has inhabited only to refurbish numerous genre models – among them, espionage, the psychological thriller, period romance and topical satire. Lodestones for this chapter will include The Child in Time, Atonement, Saturday and Nutshell.
Established companies turn to new ventures for bolstering exploration activities, but we know relatively little of the product development processes of startups and new ventures and how different stakeholders are utilized in these. The current study investigated the product development activities and experiments of eight Finnish food and beverage ventures in a multiple case study based on 22 interviews. How the developed products fit into the existing portfolio and experience of the ventures seemed to define their enacted development process. Internal experimentation was a constant feature, although the type of experiments varied between different phases of the development process. External-facing experiments were less frequent and more for validation than concept generation. On the other hand, they also carried important market creation functionalities. The results suggest that more nuanced terminology around experimentation would be useful to determine what type of experiments serve different goals in the development process.
The abolition of Agricultural Tax in 2005 was a major policy of the early Hu–Wen administration. But how and why did it happen? Drawing on abundant media reports, archive documents and internal speeches by key policymakers, as well as on the author's interviews, this article argues that this reform was pushed through (the “how”) by “principle-guided policy experimentation” with origins in the period of Jiang Zemin's leadership. Not only does this show policy continuities from the Jiang–Zhu era into the Hu–Wen period, it also reveals a different process of policy experimentation from that identified by Sebastian Heilmann in the economic policy arena. Under principle-guided policy experimentation, Chinese central decision makers first reached consensus on the principle of the Rural Tax and Fee Reform (RTFR) drawing on policy learning from prior bottom-up local experimentation, and then formulated and implemented an experimental programme from the top-down, funding it in order to encourage local governments to participate. The evidence suggests that international, political (rural instability), economic and fiscal considerations came to explain leaders’ decisions (the “why”) on tax reform as much as their individual preferences.
In the economics literature, there are two dominant approaches for solving models with optimal experimentation (also called active learning). The first approach is based on the value function and the second on an approximation method. In principle the value function approach is the preferred method. However, it suffers from the curse of dimensionality and is only applicable to small problems with a limited number of policy variables. The approximation method allows for a computationally larger class of models, but may produce results that deviate from the optimal solution. Our simulations indicate that when the effects of learning are limited, the differences may be small. However, when there is sufficient scope for learning, the value function solution seems more aggressive in the use of the policy variable.
The aims of this study were to replicate previously published experiments and to modify the protocol to detect the effects of chronic antidepressant treatment in mice.
Male Swiss mice (n=6–8/group) housed in reversed light/dark cycle were randomly assigned into receive vehicle (10% sucrose), sub-effective doses (1 and 3 mg/kg) or effective doses (10 and 30 mg/kg) of bupropion, desipramine, and fluoxetine and a candidate antidepressant, sodium butyrate (1–30 mg/kg) per gavage (p.o.) 1 h before the forced swim test (FST). Treatments continued daily for 7 and 14 days during retests 1 and 2, respectively. In an additional experiment, mice received fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) or vehicle (10% sucrose or 0.9% saline) p.o. or i.p. before the FST. Mice housed in reversed or standard light/dark cycles received fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) prior FST. Video recordings of behavioural testing were used for blind assessment of the outcomes.
According to the expected, doses of antidepressants considered sub-effective failed to affect the immobility time of mice in the FST. Surprisingly, acute and chronic treatment with the high doses of bupropion, desipramine, and fluoxetine or sodium butyrate also failed to reduce the immobility time of mice in the FST. Fluoxetine 20 mg/kg was also ineffective in the FST when injected i.p. or in mice housed in normal light/dark cycle.
Data suggest the lack of efficacy of orally administered bupropion, desipramine, fluoxetine in the FST in Swiss mice. High variability, due to high and low immobility mice, may explain the limited effects of the treatments.
Liberal thinkers of the Enlightenment understood that surplus moral constraints, imposed by invalid moral norms, are a serious limitation on liberty. They also recognized that overcoming surplus moral constraints — what we call proper de-moralization — is an important dimension of moral progress. Contemporary philosophical theorists of liberty have largely neglected the threat that surplus moral constraints pose to liberty and the importance of proper de-moralization for human emancipation. This essay examines the phenomena of surplus moral constraints and proper de-moralization, utilizing insights from biological and cultural evolutionary thinking