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This chapter presents the evolution of the higher education sector and some policy reforms in Africa, looking particularly at the area of university governance. It situates the trends in African higher education governance reform within the broader context of international, continental, national, and institutional policy shifts. It highlights a range of factors, control mechanisms, and challenges that continue to impede the progress of university reform in African higher education. After presenting the general trends of higher education governance and its reform in the continent, the chapter focuses on the governance of Ethiopian higher education as an illustrative case.
To evaluate the performance of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) to identify thinness in the late adolescence period (aged 15–19 years) in Ethiopia.
We conducted a school-based cross-sectional study. The receiver operating characteristics curve was used to examine the validity of MUAC compared with BMI Z-score to identify adolescents with thinness (BMI Z-score <−2 sd).
Fifteen high schools (grade 9–12) located in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
A total of 851 adolescent (456 males and 395 females) were included in the study.
The prevalence of thinness and severe thinness among high-school adolescents in Addis Ababa was 9·5 % (95 % CI 7·7, 11·7 %). The overall AUC for MUAC against BMI Z-score <−2 SD was 0·91 (95 % CI 0·88, 0·93). The optimal MUAC cut-offs to identify thinness were 23·3 cm for males and 22·6 cm for females. These cut-off points give high sensitivity and specificity for both males (a sensitivity of 87·9 % and a specificity of 75·9 %) and females (a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity 88·2 %).
MUAC has a comparable level of accuracy with BMI Z-score to identify thinness in adolescents aged 15–19 years. Hence, MUAC could be used as an alternative tool for surveillance and screening of thinness among adolescents aged 15–19 years. The optimum cut-off proposed by this study may incorrectly include a large number of adolescents when used in a relatively well-nourished population. In this situation, it would be necessary to choose a cut-off with greater positive predictive value.
After their failure at Gallipoli in 1915, attempts by the Allies to undermine the Ottoman Empire ranged from the eastern Sahara to the Arabian desert, with the resources of India becoming indispensable to the effort against the Turks, especially in Mesopotamia. Returning to India from South Africa in 1914, Mahatma Gandhi supported the war on the grounds that a strong showing would strengthen India’s hand in its relationship with Britain. Most Indians rallied behind the Allied cause and, thanks largely to T. E. Lawrence, Arabs sustained a successful revolt against the Turks. The British had no intention of giving India the degree of self-government that it wanted, and they and the French had no intention of rewarding the Arab contribution with postwar independence (and especially not with Palestine, which the Balfour Declaration of 1917 promised to the Zionists), but within the context of World War I the ends appeared to justify the means. Just as the wartime movements in India and the Arab world foreshadowed future developments, Turkey’s Armenian genocide presaged subsequent state-sponsored attempts to exterminate specific civilian populations. On the fringes of the war in the Middle East, local conflicts from Darfur to Ethiopia and Somalia likewise pointed the way to a grim future.
The present study aimed to estimate the consumption of Na and K and to assess salt-related knowledge, attitude and behaviour among adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted. Estimates of Na and K intake were made using repeated multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall as well as using random urine. The usual intake of Na and K from the 24-h dietary recall was determined using the National Cancer Institute methodology. Estimated 24-h Na and K excretion was calculated using International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure and Tanaka formula.
Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia.
Individuals aged 20 years and above residing in the city.
The mean Na and K intake estimated using the diet recall data was 3·0 (0·9) g/d and 1·9 (0·6) g/d, respectively. Based on the urine analysis, the estimated mean Na and K intakes were 3·3 (0·7) g/d and 1·9 (0·4) g/d, respectively. Moreover, the analysis showed that the mean Na:K ratio was 2·5 (1·4). The daily intake of K was below the recommended amount for all study participants. More than 98 % and 90 % of participants had an excess intake of Na and Na:K ratio, respectively.
We found a high prevalence of inadequate K intake as well as excess intake of Na resulting in an increased prevalence of excess Na:K ratio. Thus, interventions targeting to decrease Na intake and to increase K intake are needed.
To improve the national average yield of potato in Ethiopia, which is very low as compared to its potential, factors that influence technical efficiency of potato production need to be determined. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the determinants of technical efficiency using a cross-sectional data collected from 368 randomly selected potato producers in Northern Ethiopia using a multi-stage sampling technique. The study employed Cobb–Douglas stochastic frontier model to get farm-level technical efficiency scores. Tobit model and principal component analysis were used to determine the factors that influence technical efficiency of farm households. The results revealed that chemical fertiliser, seed potato, plot size and labour are statistically significant factors that affect potato yield. The average technical efficiency score was estimated to be 75%; and education, experience, off-farm income, household size, membership in a farmers’ association, use of irrigation water, extension contact, use of improved seed, access to product market and weak coordination of stakeholders’ were significant factors influencing technical efficiency. The findings of the study suggest that there is a need for government intervention to create strong market linkage between producers and buyers and to give appropriate training to agricultural extension agents.
This study analysed trends (1990–2017) in the availability of absorbable Zn in the national food supply of Ethiopia.
The supply statistics of ninety-five food groups were obtained from the Ethiopian Food Balance Sheets compiled by FAO. Zn and phytate contents were determined using multiple composition databases and absorbable Zn estimated via the ‘Miller’ equation. Estimated average requirement cut-point method was performed to estimate proportions at risk of inadequate intake. Physiological Zn requirements set by Institute of Medicine (IOM) and International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG) were applied. Time trend was tested using Mann–Kendall statistics and Z-score and P-values are provided.
Between 1990 and 2017, the supply of total dietary Zn was increased by 33 % from 9·8 to 13·0 mg/person/d (Z = 6·46, P < 0·001). However, that of absorbable Zn remained constant around 2·7 mg/person/d (Z = 1·87, P > 0·05). Over the period, the phytate supply was increased by 48 % from 1415 to 2095 mg/person/d (Z = 6·50, P < 0·001) and fractional Zn absorption declined from 27·0 to 20·9 % (Z = –6·62, P < 0·001). The contribution of animal source foods for bioavailable Zn was reduced by 45 % and the share of cereals raised by 11·3 %. Over the period, prevalence of inadequate Zn intake estimated using IZiNCG and IOM requirements remained constant around 10 and 50 %, respectively.
Between 1990 and 2017, Ethiopia considerably increased the total supply of Zn; however, meaningful changes in bioavailable Zn and prevalence of deficiency were not observed due to proportional rise in phytate and concomitant decline in Zn absorption.
Focusing on the role of religion and ethnicity in times of conflict, Terje Østebø investigates the Muslim-dominated insurgency against the Ethiopian state in the 1960s, shedding new light on this understudied case in order to contribute to a deeper understanding of religion, inter-religious relations, ethnicity, and ethno-nationalism in the Horn of Africa. Islam, Ethnicity and Conflict in Ethiopia develops new theoretical perspectives on the interrelations between ethnic and religious identities, considering ethnic and religious groups as mutually exclusive categories by applying the term peoplehood as an analytical tool, one that allows for more flexible perspectives. Exploring the interplay of imagination and lived, affective reality, and inspired by the 'materiality turn' in cultural- and religious studies, Østebø argues for an integrated approach which recognizes and explores embodiment and emplacement as intrinsic to formations of ethnic and religious identities.
The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of participation in the land rental market on smallholder farmers’ commercialization using farm household panel data in Tigrai, Ethiopia. Regression results reveal that 1 hectare increase in area rented in by tenant households leads to a 60% increase in the likelihood of participation in the output market as a crop seller and increases the marketed output sold by tenant households by US$ 200/year. The results appear to indicate that land rental market in the land secrecy economy to some extent contributes positively in the facilitation of transformation toward smallholders’ commercialization.
This chapter draws upon the firsthand perspectives of high-needs secondary school students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia so as to highlight programmatic supports that enabled them to overcome barriers to finish secondary school and pursue higher education. Using a resilience lens, this chapter outlines a network of school-based supports and relationships that empowered students to achieve success despite challenging life circumstances. The spotlighting of these oft-unheard student voices as they reflect upon contextualized resilience processes represents a critical addition to the research literature, as well as an important stakeholder perspective to inform the crafting of school-based programs and policies in high-need countries and contexts.
Despite global efforts made to address anaemia, the prevalence remains high in most Sub-Saharan African countries. In Ethiopia, anaemia poses a very strong public health concern. The purpose of the present study was to examine the key risk factors related to anaemia among children aged 6–24 months (younger age group) and 25–59 months (older age group). We used the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey data, collected from 11 023 mothers with under five children. Ordered logistic regression modelling was used for assessing risk factors of childhood anaemia. The results suggest that the prevalence of anaemia was 72 % in the younger and 49 % in the older age groups. The risk factors for anaemia in the younger age group were morbidity (odds ratio (OR) 1⋅77; CI 1⋅21, 2⋅60), having no piped water source (OR 1⋅76; CI 1⋅07, 3⋅01) and no toilet facility (OR 1⋅60; CI 1⋅07, 2⋅38). The key risk factors for anaemia in the older age group were no micronutrient intake (OR 1⋅69; CI 1⋅23, 2⋅31), having a young mother (15–24 years old) (OR 1⋅35; CI 0⋅84, 1⋅91) and a non-working mother (OR 1⋅50; CI 1⋅15, 1⋅96). Anaemia also varied by region, place of residence and economic factors. Multiple factors contributed to the high prevalence of anaemia. Given the structural problem that the country has intervention strategies should consider the unique characteristics of regions and rural residences where the prevalence of anaemia is above the national average.
To explore influences on adolescent diet and physical activity, from the perspectives of adolescents and their caregivers, in Jimma, Ethiopia.
Qualitative design, using focus group discussions (FGD).
A low-income setting in Jimma, Ethiopia.
Five FGD with adolescents aged 10–12 years and 15–17 years (n 41) and three FGD with parents (n 22) were conducted.
Adolescents displayed a holistic understanding of health comprising physical, social and psychological well-being. Social and cultural factors were perceived to be the main drivers of adolescent diet and physical activity. All participants indicated that caregivers dictated adolescents’ diet, as families shared food from the same plate. Meals were primarily determined by caregivers, whose choices were driven by food affordability and accessibility. Older adolescents, particularly boys, had opportunities to make independent food choices outside of the home which were driven by taste and appearance, rather than nutritional value. Many felt that adolescent physical activity was heavily influenced by gender. Girls’ activities included domestic work and family responsibilities, whereas boys had more free time to participate in outdoor games. Girls’ safety was reported to be a concern to caregivers, who were fearful of permitting their daughters to share overcrowded outdoor spaces with strangers.
Adolescents and caregivers spoke a range of social, economic and cultural influences on adolescent diet and physical activity. Adolescents, parents and the wider community need to be involved in the development and delivery of effective interventions that will take into consideration these social, economic and cultural factors.
This chapter presents an overview of the history of humanitarian efforts as seen according to a new periodisation scheme, which identifies three main phases of engagement. These are the laissez-faire 'ad hoc humanitarianism' of the nineteenth century, the 'organised humanitarianism' associated with Taylorism and mass society (c. 1900–70), and the 'expressive humanitarianism' characterising the period since 1968. We combine this with background information on the context of the three case studies: relief efforts during the Great Irish Famine of the 1840s; the famine that ravaged Soviet Russia and the Ukraine in 1921–3; and the devastating famine in Ethiopia of the mid-1980s.
Rheumatic heart disease is the most common cardiac diseases in developing countries including Ethiopia. The current study aimed to describe the immediate surgical outcome following valve surgery for rheumatic heart disease in Ethiopia.
Data were collected through chart abstraction from two centres in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: the Cardiac Center of Ethiopia and El Ouzier cardiac centre. Included were all patients who were operated for rheumatic valvular heart disease in the mentioned centres by local cardiac surgical team during the period from June 2017 to April 2020. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the study population at admission and within 30 days of the index cardiac surgery were collected. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0 for windows was used to analyse the data.
Of the 114 patients included in the study (median age 31 years with interquartile range of 23–40), 62 (54.4%) of them were female. Surgical procedures done were triple valve surgery 9 (7.9%) patients, mitral and tricuspid valves 26 (22.8%) patients, double-valve 16 (14.0%) patients, single-valve surgery 50.9% (11 aortic and 47 mitral valves) of patients, redo mitral valve surgery 3 (2.6%) patients, and left maze with mitral valve surgery 2 (1.8%) patients. Of the total, 103 (90.4%) of them had mitral valve surgery. Post-operatively, 5 (4.4%) patients died within 30 days following the index surgery.
Immediate surgical outcome following valve surgery for rheumatic heart disease had excellent outcome in our setting. This evidence can be taken as a show of success in building local capacity to manage rheumatic heart disease surgically.
This article deals with marriage as mobilized by the Ethiopian Empire as part of its consolidation processes after 1941. It particularly concentrates on post-liberation anxiety and how the Ethiopian Empire envisioned tackling this disquiet by reforming marriage. Within the context of (re)building the empire, policies, laws, and discourses around monogamous marriage instilled normative ideas to produce the imperial subjects — procreative and productive — that a modernizing empire required. Sex was articulated within the confines of a heterosexual union, not only as a legitimate act but also as a responsibility of couples who were accountable for the consolidation of the empire. Sexual relations out of marriage were condemned as a source of degeneracy and the ensuing danger that confronted the empire. New laws were introduced to legislate sex to tackle the unease the empire felt about non-normative sex and associated pleasure(s). What started out as a battle against the Italian legacy continued more forcefully in the 1950s and 1960s with the rise of ‘new problems’ that educated young women and men posed. The article relies on a range of sources such as policy, legal, religious, and travel documents; newspapers; and novels, as well as self-help books produced between the 1940s and 1960s.
Is ethnic federalism good or bad for Ethiopia? Scholars of various kinds disagree. For some consequentialists, ethnic federalism deepens ethnic differences and leads to separatism; for others, it is preferred to the forced integration of distinctive ethnic groups and the suppression of group rights. To some constitutionalists, ethnic federalism will succeed with greater fidelity to the Ethiopian Constitution, yet others view the Constitution as limiting ethnic federalism’s efficacy. Whatever the perspective, no consensus exists on its merits. This chapter examines ethnic federalism as an institutional design mechanism to balance the tension between the Constitution’s transformational and preservative elements. Although the Constitution was initially transformational, ethnic federalism was likely the most attractive preservative institutional design mechanism for the ruling elite to maintain power. The tension became clear during the 2005 election, marking the end of the first period of transformational Ethiopian constitutionalism. The chapter views the adoption of ethnic federalism as a preservative tool consistent with the ruling elite’s incentives.
Stone tools are the least familiar objects that archaeologists recover from their excavations, and predictably, they struggle to understand them. Eastern Africa alone boasts a 3.4 million-year-long archaeological record but its stone tool evidence still remains disorganized, unsynthesized, and all-but-impenetrable to non-experts, and especially so to students from Eastern African countries. In this book, John J. Shea offers a simple, straightforward, and richly illustrated introduction in how to read stone tools. An experienced stone tool analyst and an expert stoneworker, he synthesizes the Eastern African stone tool evidence for the first time. Shea presents the EAST Typology, a new framework for describing stone tools specifically designed to allow archaeologists to do what they currently cannot: compare stone tool evidence across the full sweep of Eastern African prehistory. He also includes a series of short, fictional, and humorous vignettes set on an Eastern African archaeological excavation, which illustrate the major issues and controversies in research about stone tools.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) established the practice of indicator-based governance in international development. Yet, knowledge about their effectiveness in re-steering domestic policy remains limited. This chapter explores the extent and pathways of domestic policy adjustment to MDG 3, intended to promote gender equality. The study combines a comprehensive mapping of gender policy adoption in 15 Sub-Saharan African countries over 15 years with two case studies of the causal mechanisms of MDG adjustment in Kenya and Ethiopia. The principal findings are threefold: (1) there was considerable policy adjustment to MDG 3 across countries, pointing to the effectiveness of GPI-based development governance in re-steering policy priorities. (2) Despite the significant effects on policy goal-setting, further implementation remained limited, suggesting superficial behavioral change. (3) Process-tracing of the Kenyan and Ethiopian policy processes shows that behavioral change was primarily driven by the causal mechanisms of aid conditionality, social influence, and civil-society mobilization, all enabled through MDG intense performance monitoring. The decisive role of incentive-based mechanisms in generating policy change, and the limited elite socialization, explains why MDG 3 implementation was slow and contested. These findings have implications for debates about development GPIs and gender equality change and the reproduction of global power structures.
Chapter 5 explores the collapse of the EPRDF-PFDJ and NRM-RPF relationships between 1998 and 2001, until that point the main fulcrum of regional security policy for all four governing elites. The chapter explains how longstanding tensions within both pairings rose violently to the surface during this period. At the heart of both disagreements were feelings of superiority and inferiority dating back to affinities established during the struggle era and deep-seated militarism within each movement. These conflicts were, however, catalysed by changes in all four movements’ regional position in the post-liberation era. The intensely personal nature of EPRDF-PFDJ and NRM-RPF elite relations prior to this point, it is argued, rendered the subsequent violence and inter-state antagonism all the more acute and damaging, and the chapter underlines the significant regional repositioning the clashes forced all four states to undergo, and the unlikely regional alliances that this led to.
Chapter 6 chronicles the fragmentation of the four sets of post-liberation elites, and the purging of many established veterans between the late 1990s and ca. 2006. The chapter shows how each movement during these years was shaken to its foundations by internal criticism and major splits which pitted the leadership and a new, younger generation of loyalists against many senior liberation war cadres. Though these splits were notionally focused around questions of movement governance and leadership they were provoked by regional security crises. Indeed, in all four cases, debates on loyalty, ideological purity and movement integrity were laid on top of more long-standing disagreements on each movement’s relationship with its struggle-era regional ally. In mapping these splits and the removal of a significant part of the founding post-liberation elite from the policy arena, this chapter demonstrates how fundamentally inter-linked regional and domestic politics have been in these four states, at least with regard to relations with states governed by a one-time liberation war partner. It also underscores the degree to which gaining and maintaining office can be intrinsically destabilising – even destructive – for militarised, revolutionary movements such as those examined in this study.