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The National Arts Festival (NAF) in Grahamstown – now Makhanda – is South Africa’s largest, longest-lasting, and most prestigious festival. Although other post-apartheid festivals have launched new work, only NAF hosts African, European, and American work alongside local fare mostly in English and in national languages such as Xhosa, Zulu, or Afrikaans. It has also developed training and employment to offset inequality in the Eastern Cape. While these endeavours to enrich artistic practice, please audiences, and ensure the well-being of ordinary citizens are praiseworthy, NAF sponsors do not fully acknowledge the history of this inequity, which dates from Grahamstown’s founding in 1812 and extends through Anglophile pageants challenging Afrikaner cultural dominance but not the political economy of apartheid in the mid-twentieth century to initially cautious genteel efforts to diversify the festival in the 1980s, which provoked anti-apartheid boycotts. Despite advances since the 1990s, systematic representation of South Africa’s many cultural forms – from African variety through testimonial theatre and township musicals to performance art – was achieved only in the twenty-first century.
This article argues certainty in trusts is better understood by recognising a fourth certainty: “distributional certainty”. Distributional certainty is required in private trusts that involve dividing the property between beneficiaries: their shares must be clear. Distributional uncertainty is not, as usually understood, merely an instance of uncertainty of property: it has differing consequences, special resolution techniques, and may explain “administrative unworkability” in discretionary trusts. Distributional certainty is not required in charitable trusts. But this is not, as usually understood, merely an instance of the rule that charitable trusts do not need certainty of objects: it is an independent proposition.
This chapter starts off by reviewing the three primary functions that financial markets perform. First, financial markets release information to aid the price discovery process. Second, markets provide a platform to trade. The main trading mechanisms, quote-driven and order-driven markets, are discussed. Finally, markets provide an infrastructure to settle trades. The remainder of the chapter provides a detailed description of the main financial markets in the EU (the money, bond, equity, derivatives, and foreign exchange markets).
Chronic diseases are highly important for the future level and distribution of health and well-being in western societies. Consequently, it seems pertinent to assess not only efficiency of chronic care but also its impact on health equity. However, operationalisation of health equity has proven a challenging task. Challenges include identifying a relevant and measurable evaluative space. Various schools of thought in health economics have identified different outcomes of interest for equity assessment, with capabilities as a proposed alternative to more conventional economic conceptualisations. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the conceptualisation of health equity evaluation in the context of chronic disease management. We do this by firstly introducing an equity enquiry framework incorporating the capabilities approach. Secondly, we demonstrate the application and relevance of this framework through a content analysis of equity-related principles and aims in national chronic disease management guidelines and the national diabetes action plan in Denmark. Finally, we discuss how conceptualisations of equity focused on capabilities may be used in evaluation by scoping relevant operationalisations. A promising way forward in the context of chronic care evaluation may emerge from a combination of concepts of capabilities developed in economics, health sciences and psychology.
The changing nature of work offers both opportunities and challenges for organizations. Among those challenges are issues related to maintaining compliance with labor and employment legal obligations. As work, and the workforce, changes, traditional strategies for maintaining compliance may no longer meet organizational needs and legal requirements. In this chapter, we highlight several areas in which the changing nature of work, the workforce, and the legal landscape may pose legal challenges for organizations going forward. We focus on four primary areas: (1) the classification of workers as “employees” versus “independent contractors,” (2) the occurrence of off-the-clock work, (3) pay equity, and (4) applications of big data for solving human capital problems. The chapter provides a brief background of the relevant legal standards, after which we address each of the four topic areas.
Variable annuities are products offered by pension funds and life offices that provide periodic future payments to the investor and often have ancillary benefits that guarantee survival benefits or sums insured on death. This paper extends the benchmark approach to value and hedge long-dated variable annuities using a combination of cash, bonds and equities under a variety of market models, allowing for dependence between financial and insurance markets. Under a simplified case of independence, the results show that when the discounted index is modelled as a time-transformed squared Bessel process, less-expensive valuation and reserving is achieved regardless of the short rate model or the mortality model.
Field schools are essential for undergraduate students pursuing careers in archaeology, but they are expensive and, consequently, inaccessible to many. Although there have been efforts to rectify this through the creation of scholarships, there have been no systematic studies of the full cost of archaeological field schools. Here, we present a study of 208 field schools from 2019, including their tuition, room and board, and airfare, as well as the wages that students may lose by participating in them rather than working. We also explore how archaeologists interviewed for Heath-Stout's dissertation study of diversity issues in the discipline have navigated finding field experiences. We argue that scholarships are an ineffective and insufficient means of promoting equity and accessibility in the field because the root of the problem lies in institutionalized inequality and exclusivity. We provide strategies that students and faculty can use to address these problems on both individual and systemic levels. By making field schools affordable and accessible to a more diverse set of undergraduate students, we can create a more just and inclusive discipline.
This chapter on executive compensation and stock options is effectively a continuation of Chapter 9 on performance pay. It provides an overview of executive compensation and an intuitive, non-technical treatment of stock options that focuses on the worker incentives that options create. There is a lot of discussion of risk (of income loss) that builds on Chapter 9, and the “pay for luck” discussion that ends the chapter concerns the possibility of firms’ reneging on CEOs’ bonus payments, which echoes the wage-theft themes from Chapter 2. Section 10.2 covers the executive bonuses known as “80/120” plans, representing them pictorially as nonlinear functions of a performance measure (that are upward-sloping in some parts, as in the performance-pay graphs of Chapter 9). The section on stock options is detailed and explains all of the key terminology and the most important concepts in this area. The distinction between the intrinsic value and the market value of an option is made carefully, with an intuitive, non-technical discussion of the Black–Scholes–Merton options valuation formula, and the role of risk is explained in detail.
Discusses the jurisdiction or right to tax international commercial transactions, including identification of relevant connecting factors, which may be based on the person deriving the income or activities producing the income. In the context of persons, the discussion considers the characterisation of persons under domestic law and its interaction with entity characterisation under tax treaties. It moves to consider residence as a connecting factor, both under domestic law and tax treaties and tax treaty tiebreakers applicable to dual residents. Residence is fundamental to the application of tax treaties. The discussion briefly considers the location of activities that found a jurisdiction to tax based on source of income. These matters are compared to the scope of the fundamental freedoms and relevant Directives under EU Law. The discussion then considers divided economic allegiance and particularly where source and residence are divided between countries. Various notions of neutrality and efficiency are discussed, as well as rules preventing cross-border restrictions, including nondiscrimination. Focus moves to the internation relationship including the OECD harmful tax competition project and BEPS project. These are compared with EU state aid rules and the EU code of conduct on harmful tax practices. Methods of allocating tax rights are discussed.
Despite progress in gender equality, women continue to be disadvantaged compared with men. Worldwide, women are more often confronted with poverty, violence, and mental health problems, and they have less access to food and education. All these factors do not only affect women themselves, but also have a negative impact on the child’s early environment and impair its early development, thereby reducing the health and well-being of future generations. Framing gender equality as a women’s issue fails to highlight the importance of gender equality for the health and well-being of the next generation. As a scientific community investigating early human development and health, we have failed to fully recognize and underscore the importance of gender equality in achieving the best possible start for every child. If women and men had equal rights and opportunities, their children would be more likely to reach their full potential which would improve the health and well-being of future generations. Our studies and interventions have not fully taken into account the complexity of gender inequality and women’s disadvantaged positions in society. We need better insight into the complex adaptive interactions between various societal and human factors contributing to gender inequality and find approaches that take this complexity into account. If we want DOHaD science to have societal impact, we should strive beyond gender equality for gender equity and help women achieve equal rights and opportunities. We need to work with public health professionals, human rights activists, and policymakers to gauge the importance of gender equality. After all, gender equality is not only a fundamental human right, but also a necessary foundation for healthier future generations.
This paper illustrates the development of Primary Health Care (PHC) public sector in Malaysia, through a series of health reforms in addressing equitable access. Malaysia was a signatory to the Alma Ata Declaration in 1978. The opportunity provided the impetus to expand the Rural Health Services of the 1960s, guided by the principles of PHC which attempts to address the urban–rural divide to improve equity and accessibility. The review was made through several collation of literature searches from published and unpublished research papers, the Ministry of Health annual reports, the 5-year Malaysia Plans, National Statistics Department, on health systems programme and infrastructure developments in Malaysia. The Public Primary Care Health System has evolved progressively through five phases of organisational reforms and physical restructuring. It responded to growing needs over a 40-year period since the Alma Ata Declaration in 1978, keeping equity, accessibility, efficiency and universal health coverage consistently in the backdrop. There were improvements of maternal, infant mortality rates as well as accessibility to health services for the population. The PHC Reforms in Malaysia are the result of structured and strategic investment. However, there will be continuing dilemma between cost-effectiveness and equity. Hence, continuous efforts are required to look at opportunity costs of alternative strategies to provide the best available solution given the available resources and capacities. While recognising that health systems development is complex with several layers and influencing factors, this paper focuses on a small but crucial aspect that occupies much time and energies of front-line managers in the health.
This important chapter focusses on the development and core characteristics of Augustine of Hippo’s views on justification, which were one of the most significant factors in shaping the western theological tradition’s reflections on this theme in the Middle Ages and during the Reformation debates of the sixteenth century. The chapter opens by considering the overall trajectory of Augustine’s views on grace, and how Paul’s concept of justification fits into this development. Augustine consistently interprets the Pauline concept of ‘justification’ to mean ‘a making righteous’, and does not develop a reputational or forensic approach to the concept. Augustine’s concept of the ‘righteousness of God is considered in some detail, with particular attention being paid to the manner in which Augustine distinguishes this theological use of the concept from its secular counterparts – as seen, for example, in the works of Cicero. The chapter also considers the ways in which Augustine’s approach to justification was affected by the Pelagian controversy, which tended to focus on the framework within which the concept of justification was set, rather than the notion of justification itself.
The objective of the Caribbean Strong Summit was to plan an intersectoral summit to address the equity of community health and resilience for disaster preparedness, response and recovery and develop a set of integrated and actionable recommendations for Puerto Rico and the Caribbean Region post Hurricanes Irma and Maria. A three-day meeting was convened with a wide range of community, organizational and private sector leaders along with representatives from Puerto Rico, the Caribbean, the Americas, and global experts to generate recommendations for enhanced resilience based upon lessons learned and evidence-based approaches. More than 500 participants from the region gave 104 presentations with recommendations for resilience. Over 150 recommendations were generated and ranked for importance and actionability by participants. A representative sample of these are presented along with five major themes for building health resilient communities in the Caribbean. This summit was successful in compiling a set of integrated recommendations from more than 19 diverse sectors and in defining five major thematic areas for future work to enhance resilience for all types of future disasters. A follow-up meeting should be planned to continue this discussion and to showcase work that has been accomplished in these areas. A complete set of the recommendations from the Caribbean Strong Summit and their analysis and compilation would be published and should serve as a foundational effort to enhance preparedness and resiliency towards future disasters in the Caribbean.
Promoting student access in higher education institutions in South Africa remains a challenge given the limitations and resources that institutions face. The chapter presents a brief history of schooling in South Africa, describes the transition towards fair and equal higher education admissions, and details the policies, practices, and criteria associated with admissions. A discussion of the National Benchmark Tests is also provided. Finally, the chapter discusses issues related to ensuring access, success, and sustainability of the higher education system in South Africa.
Equity, diversity, and inclusion are key strengths of higher education institutions and are fundamental to achieving excellence in learning, teaching, and research. This chapter focuses on cross-cultural and global competencies and how they contribute to a more inclusive and diverse campus. The chapter provides a discussion of Indigenous Canadian students and how culturally inclusive approaches to admissions contributes to decolonizing practices in higher education. It also provides a summary on the significant growth and demand of international student mobility to Canadian universities, the need for Canadian students to gain cross-cultural competence by studying abroad, and the policies and practices that could be used to emphasize cross-cultural and global competencies for learners.
Dissemination and implementation (D&I) science is dedicated to studying how to effectively translate and apply research in real-world contexts. There has been increasing interest in health equity within the D&I field to ensure the equitable implementation of evidence-based programs/practices across a range of diverse populations and settings. At the same time, health equity researchers recognize the potential of D&I science to promote the more widespread dissemination, implementation, and sustainment of evidence-based interventions to address health inequities. The National Center for Accelerating Clinical and Translational Science Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Program has been a champion for community engagement and translational scholarship in its mission to improve individual and population health. The overall CTSA infrastructure and resources within and among CTSA hubs are well-equipped to facilitate a health equity focus to D&I across the phases of translational research. This paper proposes a framework that demonstrates the interaction and opportunities between health equity and D&I science and highlights how CTSAs can support and facilitate wider efforts in translational research with a focus on equitable D&I.
− Allocation & Access in ESG–Agency studies is broadly seen as the process of sharing resources among multiple users, where efficiency and equity are the analytical tools for allocation and access, respectively.
− Within ESG–Agency scholarship, the allocation of and access to water, food, land, and forest systems is studied widely, but is especially focused on developing countries in Asia, Africa, and South America.
− Opportunities for future research include furthering understanding the trade-offs and synergies in conservation policies and potential conflicts with ownership and livelihoods, the role of gender in resource management (especially water resources), evaluating the types of power wielded in this area, and understanding how people acquire it.
We develop an N-regime Markov-switching model in which the latent state variable driving the regime switching is endogenously determined with the model disturbance term. The model’s structure captures a wide variety of patterns of endogeneity and yields a simple test of the null hypothesis of exogenous switching. We derive an iterative filter that generates objects of interest, including the model likelihood function and estimated regime probabilities. Using simulation experiments, we demonstrate that the maximum likelihood estimator performs well in finite samples and that a likelihood ratio test of exogenous switching has good size and power properties. We provide results from two applications of the endogenous switching model: a three-state model of US business cycle dynamics and a three-state volatility model of US equity returns. In both cases, we find statistically significant evidence in favor of endogenous switching.
In this chapter, the authors draw upon Abraham Maslow’s self-actualization theory, Eli Finkel’s suffocation model of marriage, and Arthur and Elaine Aron’s self-expansion model in the process of examining relationship maintenance among members of various cultural groups. A review of the literature on nationality as culture (following Goodwin) suggests limited support for the effects of a nation-level East–West dichotomy on mean levels of relationship maintenance behaviors (i.e., where such an effect exists, persons in Western nations sometimes engage in significantly higher levels of relationship maintenance behaviors than do persons in Eastern nations) and the effects of such a dichotomy on covariance between equity norms and relationship maintenance behaviors (i.e., where such an effect exists, within Western nations only, individuals are more likely to engage in relationship maintenance behaviors when they perceive their relationships as equitable rather than unequitable). However, the effects in question are not consistent and do not generalize to ethnic group differences in means or covariance involving relationship maintenance behaviors within Eastern or Western nations. Implications for studies that integrate cultural psychology with relationship science are discussed.