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Chapter 7 focuses on justice for temporary labor migrants. Though the chapter surveys many normative issues concerning temporary labor migration, the focus is on new sources of concern, such as those introduced by private recruitment companies, which are often guilty of serious deception, fraud, abuse, and failures to protect migrants, while destination and home countries fail to take responsibility for oversight. Labor migration is often characterized as beneficial to the migrants, along with both sending and receiving countries. While the logic of mutual advantage has a place in considering labor migration justice, especially considering the scale of global unemployment, there should be important constraints on such programs. These include requirements to ensure robust measures are in place that can offer reasonable human rights protections for migrant workers. The chapter discusses which rights deserve protection. There is scope for migrants to trade off protection of certain rights in exchange for labor market access, if they so choose. The chapter also offers principles to navigate which rights are “tradable” and which deserve rigorous protection.
Noncompete clauses (NCCs), or agreements by employees to not work for a competitor or start a competing business, have recently faced increased public scrutiny and criticism. This article provides a qualified defense of NCCs. I focus on the argument that NCCs should be banned because they unfairly restrict the options of employees. I argue that this argument fails because it neglects the economist Thomas Schelling’s insight that limiting exit options can be beneficial for a person. This employee-based defense of NCCs does not absolve all their uses, but it does give us a rough test for evaluating the permissibility of NCCs. With this test in hand, I turn to some of the more controversial uses of NCCs. For those who weigh heavily the interests of employees, the question is not whether NCCs, but when.
Inequality is a major global issue, destroying the social cohesion necessary for stability and security, the subject of Sustainable Development Goal 10. Poverty results from failures of redistribution within the economic system, stagnating wages, chronic unemployment and lack of opportunity, while less attention has been paid to the increasing global wealth going to the already wealthy as returns on capital, producing a social backlash. A new multilateral specialized agency should be created within the reformed UN system specifically to address growing economic inequality and to promote more equitable distribution of the world’s resources. While some countries have advanced, inequality between states remains a long-term problem, with development aid failing to address root causes. Various options and policies are available to redress global inequality between and within countries, including progressive taxation, employment creation, gender equality, a universal basic income and other provisions for social security. Design principles for a more just and sustainable economy are reflected in the UN 2030 Agenda. One priority is to establish a global regulatory framework for social and environmental responsibility in the private sector, creating a level playing field for business. Another is to rethink the global economic and financial architecture.
By the end of 2017, some 6 million Syrians had fled Syria, mostly to surrounding countries. Syrian refugees have been able to survive due to stop-gap efforts by aid agencies and the UN, as well as donor nations and mostly sympathetic host governments. However, aid agencies have had chronic funding shortages, and the refugee crisis has put host governments under political and economic pressure. This chapter surveys some of what is known about the situation of Syrians outside of Syria who have stayed in the region and argues that – considering the dangers posed by concentrations of impoverished refugees – the international community should take a pro-active and pragmatic approach that encourages host countries to absorb Syrians into their sociopolitical systems as much as possible to avoid leaving them in limbo for the undetermined future. It posits that the present chaotic situation, with ongoing instability and violence in Syria, raises larger questions about community cohesion, Syrian national identity, and whether the present wave of Syrians who were dispersed and displaced since 2011 may be seen less as (refugees) or (migrants) and more as the start of a new ’diaspora’.
Childcare policies have become an important element of social investment reforms, but in most countries access to childcare has remained socially unequal. Some studies have suggested that a trend towards more gender egalitarian work–family attitudes has facilitated the expansion of childcare provision. Yet, we know little about the repercussions of an unequal expansion of childcare provision on public attitudes towards the work–family nexus. Building on multilevel models of 18 European countries and two waves of the International Social Survey Programme, this analysis examines the effects of an unequal childcare expansion on attitudes towards maternal employment. The results reveal that individuals with lower income remain more skeptical of maternal employment when childcare provision is highly unequal. The unequally distributed benefits of an expansion of childcare provision contribute to a divergence of attitudes across socio-economic groups, which might create a more difficult political terrain for the implementation of expansive social investment reforms.
The story of the Australian light vehicle industry from the very first developments before World War I, through the era of importing vehicles, the imposition of import controls, the decision to create a fully fledged automotive industry, its growth, decline and end, as it lost control of its domestic market and never achieved sufficient export volumes in compensation. The principal reason for its demise is identified as lack of sufficient scale, compared to the global giants, rather than external factors such as labour costs. The impact of its going on the balance of trade and employment is identified as relatively modest. Some unrealistic proposals for reviving it are dismissed.
We investigate how lower courts respond to a change in the legal rule by an appellate court. We create a dataset comprising 525 cases from the Tax Court of Canada over the period 1997 to 2017 that determine whether a worker is an employee or an independent contractor for tax purposes. We look at how this lower court responds to a 2006 decision by the Federal Court of Appeals introducing a new factor in a multi-factor test to be applied by the lower court. We find only limited evidence that this change in the legal rule has any impact upon the outcomes of lower court cases.
This article presents the Illinois Work and Well-Being Model as a framework that can be applied to facilitate the career development of people with diabetes mellitus. The model emphasizes the interaction of contextual and career development domains to improve participation in the areas of work, society, community, and home. This article provides a brief discussion of the potential implications of vocational rehabilitation research, service, and policy, with the overall goal of reinforcing career development as the foundation of vocational rehabilitation services for adults with diabetes mellitus and other chronic health conditions.
This chapter is concerned with ways in which Iranian women’s magazines conveyed the idea of "the modern woman" while presenting themselves as family guides and experts to modern day living. Appealing to the family, provided these magazines a traditional and familiar framework to present divergent notions of womanhood by a range of experts, and simultaneously debate with their audiences on them. Catering the family and the re-signification of the housewife’s status within the confines of the home by way of enhanced scientific motherhood, glamorizing technological domestic labor, and maternal nationalism, was a form of symbolic defense against perceived threats to older values and fears, especially with women entering into the salaried workforce in swelling numbers. While the magazines expressed their absolute support of women’s education, they were more ambivalent toward women’s work outside the home. Their depiction of the domestic sphere in the 1960s and 1970s continued to convey the conservative ideology of “a good wife and educated mother” that had been cultivated in previous decades. At the same time, they underscored women’s civic duties and role in the Pahlavi campaign of pre-Islamic national revivalism.
This article examines working-class entrepreneurialism in Turkey from a comparative perspective. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in a working-class neighborhood of İstanbul, the article focuses on the perceptions, aspirations, and entrepreneurial attempts of manual workers employed in formal jobs. It aims to contribute to the understudied literature on working-class entrepreneurialism, which is often overlooked or underestimated by the critical research on labor and the working class. First, the article demonstrates that the level of entrepreneurialism among manual workers is rather high. Alongside revealing the popularity of aspirations for self-employment and the working-class roots of many self-employed individuals, I present an ethnographic account of five workers’ transition from wage work to self-employment. Second, the article finds that a colloquial phrase, “el işi” or “a stranger’s business,” is widely used to refer to wage work. I argue that this phrase perfectly manifests the popular resentment felt toward wage labor in a social milieu where self-employment seems accessible. Finally, by drawing on a review of a scattered set of studies, I claim that entrepreneurialism among working-class men seems to be quite common, especially in peripheral countries.
Alongside an increasing focus on ‘prevention’, moving homeless adults into work is frequently considered an important part of helping them overcome homelessness and sustain an ‘independent’ life. However, a growing evidence base shows that work does not always offer the means to escape poverty, and many in employment face housing insecurity. Relatedly, there is increasing concern about the phenomenon of ‘in-work homelessness’. Drawing on new data from a study of people’s experience of homelessness in Wales, this article considers the hitherto underexplored topic of being both in work and homeless. The article provides a critical examination of how homelessness policy operates in practice, through presenting evidence of the experiences of a marginalised group (namely, working homeless people as users of homelessness services). It also considers how policy and practice could be modified to improve outcomes for homeless people and how prevention could play out in other contexts and welfare regimes.
Many persons with dementia live at home and are cared for by their relatives. If the relatives are still employed, this can lead to higher burden and losses in their work-life. The interplay between informal care-giving and working is complex. Different studies have explored this issue, but the results have not been yet synthesised. In this mixed-studies review, we elucidate the underlying complexity. Our objective is to identify the factors related to care-giving that influence employment, and to describe their impact on dementia care-givers’ employment. We performed a literature search of primary studies using four databases and one meta-database, and retrieved English- and German-language articles. We used the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool to assess their methodological quality. Evidence identified was synthesised by a parallel-results convergent synthesis design. We included 55 qualitative, quantitative and mixed-method studies published up to January 2018. The emerging model identified factors linked to the care recipient with dementia, the informal care-giver and the care-giving context. The impacts of these factors on care-givers’ employment are mostly negative (e.g. stopped/reduced work, decreased job performance). Nevertheless, the results provide encouraging insights as working can counterbalance care-giving strain, and managing both roles can enhance care-givers’ wellbeing. Practical efforts should focus on enabling informal care-givers to better manage the balance between care-giving and work responsibilities.
In all countries, the organic sector of the agricultural industry is increasing, with Europe traditionally leading this trend. A survey of different stakeholders (employers) was carried out in 2015 in seven European countries to evaluate the employment market for the organic agricultural industry in Europe. Results indicate the willingness to employ qualified graduates. From the employers' perspective, the most desirable knowledge skills among the graduates of organic agricultural studies include plant production, food quality and plant protection. Further, the study revealed the work skills most desired by the employers are practical expertise, teamwork and problem-solving, and the most important method of learning is cooperation with enterprises (internships/training) in the organic agricultural sector.
This chapter presents and discusses some of the most comprehensive data on workplaces (establishments) and jobs on federally recognized American Indian reservations. Although the distribution of workplaces across industries is similar for reservations and nearby county areas, the number of reservation workplaces per resident is about 30 percent lower. Nonetheless, the overall number of jobs located within reservations is roughly on par with or even somewhat higher than in the county comparison areas, largely due to high job counts in the gaming industry and government sector. Outcomes can vary significantly from one reservation to another within the overall group of reservations. Nonetheless, the overall pattern suggests an opportunity to expand tribal economies by diversifying their private sectors beyond the gaming and government workplaces that dominate reservation job numbers today.
Chapter 5 focuses on constructions of occupational identity, which were central to notions of selfhood. Drawing on the diaries of three middle-rank tradespeople, and applying insights drawn from studies of female work to men’s productive activities, it considers the precariousness of work not only a function of maintenance, but as problem of identity. In an insecure economy, people took on multiple forms of employment in order to make ends meet. This complicated links between masculinity and work, because men were traditionally associated with a single occupation. The chapter investigates how men and their households established stable work identities. It considers the different forms that work took, and how words denoting labour such as ‘employment’ and ‘business’ were actually understood. Work was defined not only as monetised labour, but also as an activity that was productive or generated status and credit. Work’s value and contribution to identity and status changed over the course of the life cycle. It was carried out and understood in relation to others, especially men’s wives, rather than merely supporting notions of power and independence.
The recent success of right-wing populist parties (RPPs) in Europe has given rise to different explanations. Economic factors have proven to be significant mainly at the aggregate level. As for the individual level, it has been argued that the so-called ‘losers of globalization’ – the less educated and less skilled, profiles with higher job insecurity – are more likely to support RPPs. Nevertheless, RPPs perform strikingly well in countries less affected by the Great Recession, gathering high levels of support among profiles not considered the losers of globalization. Moreover, the effect of age on support for RPPs is not clear, as, on the one hand, the young are better educated and skilled, but, on the other, they suffered the effects of the economic crisis more. To address this puzzle, we focus on the impact of unemployment and employment insecurity among the youth on voting for RPPs in 17 European countries. We find that youth support for RPPs can be explained by the precariousness of the youth labour market.