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Human neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a worldwide neglected disease caused by Taenia solium metacestode and responsible for various complications and neurological disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the use of specific immunoglobulin Y (IgY) produced by laying hens immunized with a hydrophobic fraction of Taenia crassiceps metacestodes (hFTc) in NCC diagnosis. Egg yolk IgY antibodies were fractionated, purified and characterized. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out to evaluate the production kinetics and avidity maturation of anti-hFTc IgY antibodies throughout the IgY obtention process. Antigen recognition tests were carried out by Western blotting and immunofluorescence antibody test using purified and specific anti-hFTc IgY antibodies for detection of parasitic antigens of T. crassiceps and T. solium metacestodes. Sandwich ELISA was performed to detect circulating immune complexes formed by IgG and parasitic antigens in human sera. The results showed high diagnostic values (93.2% sensitivity and 94.3% specificity) for immune complexes detection in human sera with confirmed NCC. In conclusion, specific IgY antibodies produced from immunized hens with hFTc antigens were efficient to detect T. solium immune complexes in human sera, being an innovative and potential tool for NCC immunodiagnosis.
In recent decades, the invasive Aedes albopictus vector has spread across Europe and is responsible for numerous outbreaks of autochthonous arboviral disease. The aim of this study was to identify epidemiological and sociological risk factors related to individual levels of exposure to Aedes albopictus bites. A multidisciplinary survey was conducted with volunteer blood donors living in areas either colonised or not by Aedes albopictus in mainland France. Individual levels of exposure were evaluated by measuring the IgG level specific to Aedes albopictus saliva. The most striking risk factors concerned the localisation and characteristics of the dwelling. Individuals living in areas colonised prior to 2009 or recently colonised (between 2010 and 2012) had higher anti-salivary gland extract IgG levels compared with those who were living in areas not yet colonised by Ae. albopictus. The type of dwelling did not seem to impact the level of exposure to Aedes bites. People living in apartments had a higher anti-salivary gland extract IgG level than those living in individual houses but the difference was not statistically significant. Interestingly, the presence of air conditioning or window nets was associated with a noticeable reduction in bite intensity.
This research communication reports the evaluation of cathelicidin in dairy goat milk for its relationship with the somatic cell count (SCC) and microbial culture results. Considering the limited performances of SCC for mastitis monitoring in goats, there is interest in evaluating alternative diagnostic tools. Cathelicidin is an antimicrobial protein involved in innate immunity of the mammary gland. In this work, half-udder milk was sampled bimonthly from a herd of 37 Alpine goats along an entire lactation and tested with the cathelicidin ELISA together with SCC and bacterial culture. Cathelicidin and SCC showed a strong correlation (r = 0.72; n = 360 milk samples). This was highest in mid-lactation (r = 0.83) and lowest in late lactation (r = 0.61), and was higher in primiparous (0.80, n = 130) than in multiparous goats (0.71, n = 230). Both markers increased with stage of lactation, but cathelicidin increased significantly less than SCC. In addition, peak level in late lactation was lower for cathelicidin (5.05-fold increase) than for SCC (7.64-fold increase). Twenty-one (5.8%) samples were positive to bacteriological culture, 20 for coagulase-negative staphylococci and one for Streptococcus spp.; 18 of them were positive to the cathelicidin ELISA (85.71% sensitivity). Sensitivity of SCC >500 000 and of SCC >1 000 000 cells/ml was lower (71.43 and 23.81%, respectively). Therefore, the high correlation of cathelicidin with SCC during the entire lactation, along with its lower increase in late lactation and good sensitivity in detecting intramammary infection (IMI), indicate a potential for monitoring subclinical mastitis in dairy goats. However, based on this preliminary assessment, specificity should be improved (40.41% for cathelicidin vs. 54.57 and 67.85% for SCC >500 000 and >1 000 000 cells/ml, respectively). Therefore, the application of cathelicidin for detecting goat IMI will require further investigation and optimization, especially concerning the definition of diagnostic thresholds.
Uveitis is one of the commonest causes of vision loss worldwide and its exact etiology is still not clarified in most patients. The current study is a trial to assess the efficacy of serum anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a diagnostic tool for ocular toxocariasis (OT) and to detect OT prevalence and the associated ocular manifestations in sera of patients with uveitis. One hundred and twelve patients (62 females and 50 males) with uveitis were diagnosed by ophthalmologists, radiologists and rheumatologists according to ocular manifestations, laboratory and radiological investigations. Serum anti-Toxocara IgG titers were determined by ELISA in sera of all patients. Our results revealed that OT is highly associated with intermediate and posterior uveitis. Children and young adult females, especially those residing in rural areas, complained mainly of diminution of vision in the left eye, with strabismus and leukocoria. At a cut-off value of 0.258, the sensitivity and specificity of IgG ELISA were 93.3% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, at a novel cut-off value of 0.258 the serum anti-Toxocara IgG ELISA is predicted to be a diagnostic tool for OT regarding sensitivity and specificity. Also, it has potential importance in the interpretation and differential diagnosis of OT. Thus, serum anti-Toxocara IgG ELISA should be a routine test for screening of suspected cases.
Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that has been suggested as a possible etiologic agent of asthma. The objective of the present study was to investigate possible significant association between Toxocara seroprevalence and asthma in a clinic-based case-control study. Blood samples were collected from human subjects aged 5–70 years, 50 of whom had signs of asthma and 50 of whom had no signs of asthma. Risk factors for asthma and Toxocara spp. infection were assessed by a questionnaire given to each patient. Blood samples were analysed to measure levels of anti-Toxocara spp. immunoglobulin G (IgG). Patients with bronchial asthma were observed to have higher Toxocara spp. seropositivity than that of the non-asthmatic controls (6 vs 2%, P = 0.47). The mean anti-Toxocara spp. antibody titre was not significantly higher in patients with bronchial asthma than in individuals without asthma (P = 0.395, 95% CI = 0.579–1.45). There was no significant difference in the mean age, sex, social class, exposure to smoking and presence of domestic dog or cat at home between the two groups (P ≥ 0.05). The presence of anti-Toxocara spp. IgG was statistically associated with higher blood eosinophils, but it was not associated with asthma (P ≥ 0.05). The observed relationship between exposure to Toxocara spp. infection and bronchial asthma in Iranian patients warrants further evaluation. An understanding of any potential influence on the pathogenesis of human asthma provides a potential avenue for prevention.
Over the recent years, potential associations between Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection and cancer risk have attracted a lot of attention. Nevertheless, the association between T. gondii infection and oral cancer remains relatively unexplored. We performed a case–control study of 861 oral cancer patients and 861 control subjects from eastern China with the aim to detect antibodies to T. gondii by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in these patients. The results showed that oral cancer patients (21.72%, 187/861) had a significantly higher seroprevalence than control subjects (8.25%, 71/861) (P < 0.001). Among them, 144 (16.72%) oral cancer patients and 71 (8.25%) control subjects were positive for IgG antibodies to T. gondii, while 54 (6.27%) oral cancer patients and 9 (1.05%) controls were positive for IgM antibodies to T. gondii. In addition, multiple logistic analysis showed that T. gondii infection in oral cancer patients was associated with blood transfusion history, keeping cats at home, and oyster consumption. To our knowledge, this is the first study that provided a serological evidence of an association between T. gondii infection and oral cancer patients. However, further studies are necessary to elucidate the role of T. gondii in oral cancer patients.
Diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis (CE) is at present mainly based on imaging techniques. Serology has a complementary role, partly due to the small number of standardized and commercially available assays. Therefore we examined the clinical performance of the SERION ELISA classic Echinococcus IgG test. Using 10 U/ml as a cut-off point, and serum samples from 50 CE patients and 105 healthy controls, the sensitivity and specificity were 98.0% and 96.2%, respectively. If patients with other infectious diseases were used as negative controls, the specificity decreased to 76.9%, which causes poor positive predictive values. However, if results between 10 and 15 U/ml are classified as indecisive, the specificity of positive results (≥15 U/ml) increased to 92.5% without greatly affecting the sensitivity (92.0%). Using this approach in combination with imaging studies, the SERION ELISA classic Echinococcosis IgG test can be a useful aid in the diagnosis of CE.
Reducing the risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission is still a public health priority. The development of effective control strategies relies on the quantification of the effects of prophylactic and therapeutic measures in disease incidence. Although several assays can be used to estimate HIV incidence, these estimates are limited by the poor performance of these assays in distinguishing recent from long-standing infections. To address such limitation, we have developed an assay to titrate p24-specific IgG3 antibodies as a marker of recent infection. The assay is based on a recombinant p24 protein capable to detect total IgG antibodies in sera using a liquid micro array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Subsequently, the assay was optimised to detect and titrate anti-p24 IgG3 responses in a panel of sequential specimens from seroconverters over 24 months. The kinetics of p24-specific IgG3 titres revealed a transient peak in the 4 to 5-month period after seroconversion. It was followed by a sharp decline, allowing infections with less than 6 months to be distinguished from older ones. The developed assay exhibited a mean duration of recent infection of 144 days and a false-recent rate of ca. 14%. Our findings show that HIV-1 p24-specific IgG3 titres can be used as a tool to evaluate HIV incidence in serosurveys and to monitor the efficacy of vaccines and other transmission control strategies.
Oligosaccharides are broadly present on Leishmania cell surfaces. They can be useful for the leishmaniases diagnosis and also helpful in identifying new cell markers for the disease. The disaccharide Galα1-3Galβ is the immunodominant saccharide in Leishmania cell surface and is the unique non-reducing terminal glycosphingolipids structure recognized by anti-α-Gal. This study describes an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used to measure serum levels of anti-α-galactosyl (α-Gal) antibodies in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Optimal ELISA conditions were established and two neoglycoproteins (NGP) containing the Galα1-3Gal terminal fraction (Galα1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc-HAS and Galα1-3Gal-HAS) and one Galα1-3Gal NGP analogue (Galα1-3Galβ1-3GlcNAc-HAS) were used as antigens. Means of anti-α-Gal antibody titres of CL patients were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the healthy individuals for all NGPs tested. Sensitivity and specificity of all NGPs ranged from 62.2 to 78.4% and 58.3 to 96.7%, respectively. In conclusion, the NGPs can be used for CL diagnosis.
Although serological assays have been widely used for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), they present different performances depending on the clinical profile of the dogs. This study evaluated the accuracy of serological tests, immunochromatographic (Dual Path Platform: DPP®) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA EIE®), for CVL in relation to the detection of Leishmania DNA through real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) in samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs from a non-endemic area in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Serum from 140 dogs (39 symptomatic and 101 asymptomatic) was tested by DPP and ELISA followed by real-time PCR. From a total of 140 samples evaluated, Leishmania DNA was detected by real-time PCR in 41.4% (58/140). Moreover, 67.2% of samples positive in real-time PCR were positive in both DPP and ELISA (39/58), showing moderate agreement between methods. In the symptomatic group, one sample non-reactive in both serological assays was positive in real-time PCR, whereas in the asymptomatic group, 17.8% non-reactive or undetermined samples in serological assays were positive in the molecular method. Leishmania DNA was not detected in 17.9% reactive samples by serological assays from the symptomatic group, and in 3.9% from asymptomatic dogs. Real-time PCR demonstrated greater homogeneity between symptomatic and asymptomatic groups compared with DPP and ELISA. The molecular method can help to establish the correct CVL diagnosis, particularly in asymptomatic dogs, avoiding undesirable euthanasia.
The hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been described in humans and various animal species in different regions of the world. However, the knowledge on natural HEV infection in non-human primates and the corresponding risk of zoonotic transmission is scarce. To determine whether primates in captivity are affected by HEV infection, we investigated 259 individual sera of clinically healthy non-human primates of 14 species from nine German zoos. Using a commercial double-antigen-sandwich ELISA and a commercial IgG ELISA, 10 animals (3·9%) reacted positive in at least one assay. Three ape species and one Old World monkey species were among the seropositive animals: bonobo (Pan paniscus), gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), lar gibbon (Hylobates lar) and drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus). Testing for anti-HEV-IgM antibodies by commercial ELISA and for viral RNA by reverse-transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction resulted in negative results for all animals indicating the absence of acute HEV infections. In the past, no clinical signs of hepatitis were recorded for the seropositive animals. The results suggest that non-human primates in zoos can get naturally and subclinically infected with HEV or related hepeviruses. Future studies should evaluate potential sources and transmission routes of these infections and their impact on human health.
A study was carried out, from 2012 to 2015, in 10 French départements to estimate the serological prevalence of Q fever and the frequency of abortive episodes potentially related to Coxiella burnetii in a large sample of cattle, sheep and goat herds. The serological survey covered 731 cattle, 522 sheep and 349 goat herds, randomly sampled. The frequency of abortive episodes potentially related to C. burnetii was estimated by investigating series of abortions in 2695 cattle, 658 sheep and 105 goat herds using quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses and complementary serological results when needed. The average between-herd seroprevalence was significantly lower for cattle (36·0%) than for sheep (55·7%) and goats (61·0%) and significantly higher for dairy herds (64·9% for cattle and 75·6% for sheep) than for meat herds (18·9% for cattle and 39·8% for sheep). Within-herd seroprevalence was also significantly higher for goats (41·5%) than for cattle (22·2%) and sheep (25·7%). During the study period, we estimated that 2·7% (n = 90), 6·2% (n = 48) and 16·7% (n = 19) of the abortive episodes investigated could be ‘potentially related to C. burnetii’in cattle, sheep and goat herds, respectively. Overall, strong variability was observed between départements and species, suggesting that risk factors such as herd density and farming practices play a role in disease transmission and maintenance.
Trypanosoma evansi, the causative agent of surra, is widespread in domestic livestock and wildlife in South East Asia. Surra can affect cattle, buffaloes, horses and also Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Despite the ‘threatened to extinction’ CITES status of elephant, surra's impact has not been thoroughly assessed yet in this species. This work offers to adapt an antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) protocol, to detect Trypanosoma evansi antibodies in elephant serum. The test was validated with 365 negative-reference samples, which allowed the determination of a 16% positive threshold. The test was applied to a serological survey including 375 individuals. The estimated global seroprevalence was 2·1% (95% CI 1·1–4·2%). Therefore, surra does not appear to be endemic in Thai domestic elephants, but occasional outbreaks were reported to our laboratory during the survey period. These outbreaks seemed to be linked to close proximity to cattle or buffaloes, and led to severe clinical signs in elephants. Frequent relapses were observed after treatment with diminazene aceturate, the only trypanocide drug currently available in Thailand. Therefore, care should be taken to keep elephants away from bovine reservoirs, and to monitor the disease in this endangered species. ELISA proved to be reliable for screening purposes as well as for post-treatment monitoring.
Bovine calf scours reported to be caused by multiple aetiologies resulting in heavy mortality in unweaned calves and huge economic loss to the dairy farmers. Among these, cryptosporidiosis is an emerging waterborne zoonoses and one of the important causes of neonatal calf diarrhoea. Poor immune response coupled with primary cryptosporidial infections predispose neonatal calves to multiple secondary infections resulting in their deaths. In the present study, faecal samples from 100 diarrhoeic calves randomly picked up out of 17 outbreaks of bovine calf diarrhoea in periurban Ludhiana, Punjab in Northern India were subjected to conventional (microscopy, modified Zeihl–Neelsen (mZN) staining) and immunological and molecular techniques (faecal antigen capture ELISA and PCR) for detection of primary Cryptosporidium parvum infection as well as other frequently reported concurrent pathogens, viz. rotavirus and coronavirus, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria spp. The faecal antigen capture ELISA and PCR revealed 35% prevalence of C. parvum in contrast to 25% by mZN staining with a relatively higher prevalence (66·7%) in younger (8–14-day-old) calves. The detection rate of the other enteropathogens associated with C. parvum was 45·71% for C. perfringens followed by Salmonella spp (40·0%), rotavirus (36·0%), coronavirus (16·0%), E. coli (12·0%) and Eimeria spp (4·0%) The sensitivity for detection of C. parvum by ELISA and mZN staining in comparison to PCR was 97·14% and 72·72%, respectively. An important finding of the study was that C. parvum alone was found in only 10% of the diarrhoeic faecal samples, whereas, majority of the samples (90%) showed mixed infections ranging from a combination of two to five agents. This is the first documentary proof of C. parvum and associated pathogens responsible for severe periurban outbreaks of bovine calf diarrhoea culminating in heavy mortality from Northern India.
Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is a major veterinary concern and a public health issue. Serological data are essential for disease management. Several antigens used in serological assays have specificity related problems preventing relevant seropositivity values establishment. Herein we report significant seropositivity level disparity in a study cohort with 384 dogs from eight countries, for antigens traditionally used in CanL – soluble promastigote Leishmania antigens (SPLA) and K39 recombinant protein (rK39): 43·8 and 2·9% for SPLA and rK39, respectively. To better understand the reasons for this disparity, CanL-associated serological response was characterized using, for complement serological evaluation, a ubiquitous antigen – soluble Escherichia coli antigens (SECAs). Using cohorts of CanL dogs and dogs without clinical evidences of CanL from non-endemic regions of Portugal, the serological response of CanL animals followed specific trend of seropositivity rK39 > SPLA > SECA absent in non-diseased animals. Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, these characteristic trends were converted in ratios, SPLA/SECA, rK39/SECA and rK39/SPLA, that presented high predictive for discriminating the CanL cohort that was potentiated when applied in a scoring system involving positivity to four out of five predictors (rK39, SPLA, SPLA/SECA, rK39/SECA and rK39/SPLA). In fact, this approach discriminated CanL with similar sensitivity/specificity as reference antigens, diminishing seropositivity in European cohort to 1·8%. Ultimately, non-related antigens like SECA and seropositivity ratios between antigens enable different perspectives into serological data focusing on the search of characteristic serological signatures and not simple absolute serology values contributing to comprehensive serological status characterization.
Angiostrongylus vasorum is a cardiovascular nematode increasingly found in dogs and foxes in endemic foci throughout Europe. The present study evaluates ELISAs for detection of circulating antigens and specific antibodies against A. vasorum in foxes. Blood and worm burdens (WBs) from carcasses of 215 Swiss wild red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and from 75 farmed foxes of different age groups experimentally inoculated once or repeatedly with infective doses of 50, 100 or 200 third-stage larvae were obtained. Antigen detection in the naturally infected Swiss foxes had 91·2% sensitivity and 89·4% specificity, whereas the corresponding figures for antibody detection were 42·2 and 92·0%. The experimentally infected foxes became positive for circulating antigens 5–10 weeks post-inoculation (wpi) and remained highly positive up to 22 wpi, irrespectively of further challenge inoculation. The antibody responses in the same foxes were highly variable: high optical density (OD) values were reached 5–7 wpi in all animals, followed by a decrease in over half of the animals despite accumulating and consequently high WBs resulting in persistent infections. After each challenge, a slight increase of OD values was observed 7 weeks later. We hypothesize that infected foxes develop a variable and non-protective immunity. Such parasite tolerance allows long-term survival of A. vasorum in the animals, and may explain why the parasite appears to spread rapidly within a fox population, an epidemiological dynamic that is evident in many parts of Europe where A. vasorum has been found over the last decades.
The purpose of this study was to describe prevalence and spatial distribution of Coxiella burnetii infections in dairy cow sheds in Latvia and to investigate risk factors contributing to C. burnetii infections. Blood serum samples from abortion cases from 1010 sheds have been tested by ELISA for the presence of C. burnetii antibodies and bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from 252 sheds have been tested by real time polymerase chain reaction and ELISA for the presence of C. burnetii DNA and antibodies. Prevalence of C. burnetii antibody-positive sheds in cases of abortion was 13·4%. A total of 10·7% and 13·2% of dairy cow sheds tested positive for the presence of C. burnetii DNA and antibodies in BTM, respectively. Two distinct areas of clustering of test-positive dairy cattle sheds were identified by spatial scan statistics of abortion cases and randomly sampled BTM samples. Three factors were identified as significantly contributing to the risk of C. burnetii DNA presence in BTM – number of cattle in shed (>200 animals/shed) (OR 3·93), location of the shed within risk area in Northern Latvia (OR 8·29) and for the first time, purchasing cattle from abroad has been shown to significantly increase risk (OR 2·68) of C. burnetii infection in dairy cows in Latvia.
We report results of the studies relating to the fabrication of nanostructured zirconia (nZrO2) based immunosensor for cardiac troponin I biomarker (acute myocardial infarction) detection. One step, low temperature hydrothermal process was used for the synthesis of nZrO2 (∼5 nm). This nZrO2 was functionalized with 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane (APTES) and thereafter it was electrophoretically deposited on to indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass electrode. EDC/NHS surface chemistry was used for covalent immobilization of monoclonal anti-troponin-I (anti-cTnI) antibodies onto APTES/nZrO2/ITO electrode. The structural, morphological and functional characterization of the synthesized nanoparticles and the fabricated immunoelectrode were conducted via X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and electrochemical techniques. The results of electrochemical response studies of BSA/anti-cTnI/APTES/nZrO2/ITO immunoelectrode reveal that, this platform can be used for efficient detection of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) biomarker with a wide linear detection range (0.1–100 ng/mL) and sensitivity [3.9 µA mL/(ng cm2)].
Feline leishmaniasis has been reported in various parts of the world in recent years, occurring mainly in areas where zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic. The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of natural infection by Leishmania spp. in domestic cats (Felis catus) in the municipality of Teresina, Piauí state, Brazil, an endemic area of VL in Brazil. The prevalence of infection by Leishmania spp. in the population under study was 4% (3/83) in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and 4% (3/83) by smear observation and isolation in a culture medium, using popliteal lymphnode sample. Only one of the three infected cats was positive for ELISA, also being positive for feline immunodeficiency virus. In the haematologic parameters, normocytic normochromic anaemia was the most common change, being present in the three infected animals. In the biochemical measurements also were observed alterations in infected animals. The Leishmania spp. strains isolated from the culture medium were characterized as L. infantum. The presence of L. infantum infection in cats in the city of Teresina, an area endemic for VL, suggests the possible involvement of these animals in the epidemiological chain of L. infantum in high-transmission areas.
Acanthamoeba spp. are free-living protists widely distributed in environment, able to cause keratitis, encephalitis and skin lesions in humans and animals. Acanthamoeba spp. exist in two forms: an infective trophozoite and a dormant cyst. Several factors contribute to the pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba spp. The parasite adhesion to the host cell is the primary step for infection and is mediated by a mannose binding-protein, expressed in the surface and considered the main pathogenicity factor in Acanthamoeba spp. So far, there was no evidence of another surface protein of Acanthamoeba spp. relevant for host invasion or infection by these organisms. The aims of this study were to identify and characterize an Acanthamoeba castellanii surface protein and to evaluate its diagnostic potential. In silico predictions of surface proteins allowed to identify the A. castellanii calreticulin as a possible surface antigen. The coding sequence of a predicted extracellular domain of A. castellanii calreticulin was cloned by in vivo homologous recombination and the recombinant polypeptide (AcCRT29–130) was produced. Its immunodiagnostic potential was assessed in a recombinant antigen-based ELISA with sera from experimentally infected rats that developed keratitis and encephalitis, and sera from patients with encephalitis. The AcCRT29–130 was significantly more recognized by sera from encephalitis infected rats in comparison with the non-infected controls. Human sera from encephalitis patients, however presented no significant response. These results showed the AcCRT29–130 potential for A. castellanii infection immunodiagnosis in animals, with further studies being required for assessment of its use for human infections.