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The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of counselling self-efficacy, trait anxiety and cognitive flexibility in predicting job satisfaction of school counsellors. The study was conducted according to a correlational research design. The sample group consisted of 99 female and 77 male school counsellors voluntarily participating in the study. Data collection tools included the Personal Information Form, Job Satisfaction Scale, Counselor Activity Self-Efficacy Scale, Trait Anxiety Inventory and Cognitive Flexibility Inventory. The data were analysed with Pearson product-moment correlation analysis and hierarchical regression analysis. According to the research findings, the job satisfaction of school counsellors was identified to have moderate significant correlations with counselling self-efficacy, trait anxiety and cognitive flexibility. Counselling self-efficacy and trait anxiety were each concluded to be significant predictors of job satisfaction. Finally, cognitive flexibility was found not to be a significant predictor of job satisfaction. The results are interpreted and discussed in accordance with the relevant literature.
Florida strawberry growers apply the non-selective herbicide paraquat for crop termination. Alternative herbicides are desirable due to recent label restrictions on paraquat use and the occurrence of three paraquat-resistant weed species found in strawberry fields. Field experiments were conducted at the Gulf Coast Research and Education Center at Balm, Florida to compare the efficacy of diquat, paraquat, and glufosinate and determine the optimal rate for strawberry termination. Peak control occurred at 14 d after treatment (DAT) and strawberry foliage desiccation increased as herbicide rate increased. The highest rate of diquat (2240 g ai ha-1) and paraquat (2240 g ai ha-1) provided 59 and 79% strawberry control, respectively, and 39 and 77% strawberry foliage desiccation, respectively. The highest rate of glufosinate (2624 g ai ha-1) provided 82 and 84% strawberry control and desiccation, respectively. From a regression analysis, the rates required to provide 50% (C50) strawberry control measured 1100, 650, and 550 g ha-1 for diquat, paraquat, and glufosinate, respectively, while the rates required to provide 80% (C80) strawberry control measured >2240, >2240, and 2020 g ha-1, respectively. Herbicide rates required to provide 50% (D50) strawberry foliage desiccation measured 480, 550, and 330 g ha-1 for diquat, paraquat, and glufosinate, respectively, while the rates required to provide 80% (D80) strawberry foliage desiccation measured >2240, >2240, and 1150 g ha-1, respectively. Overall, these results indicate that glufosinate is the most effective herbicide, while diquat is the least effective herbicide for strawberry termination.
Velvetleaf is an economically important weed in popcorn production fields in Nebraska. Many PRE herbicides in popcorn have limited residual activity or provide partial velvetleaf control. There are a limited number of herbicides applied POST in popcorn compared to field corn, necessitating the evaluation of POST herbicides for control of velvetleaf. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the efficacy and crop safety of labeled POST herbicides for controlling velvetleaf that survived S-metolachlor/atrazine applied PRE and (2) determine effect of velvetleaf height on POST herbicide efficacy, popcorn injury, and yield. Field experiments were conducted in 2018 and 2019 near Clay Center, Nebraska. The experiments were arranged in a split-plot design with four replications. The main plot treatments were velvetleaf heights (up to 15 cm and up to 30 cm) and sub-plot treatments included a no-POST herbicide control, and eleven POST herbicide programs. Fluthiacet-methyl, fluthiacet-methyl/mesotrione, carfentrazone-ethyl, dicamba, and dicamba/diflufenzopyr provided > 96% velvetleaf control 28 DAT, reduced velvetleaf density to < 7 plants m─2, achieved 99 to 100% biomass reduction, and no effect on popcorn yield. Herbicide programs tested in this study provided > 98% control of velvetleaf 28 DAT in 2019. Most POST herbicide programs in this study provided > 90% control of up to 15 cm and up to 30 cm velvetleaf and no differences between velvetleaf heights in density, biomass reduction, or popcorn yield were observed, except topramezone and nicosulfuron/mesotrione 28 d after treatment (DAT) in 2018. Based on contrast analysis, herbicide programs with fluthiacet-methyl or dicamba provided better control than herbicide programs without them at 28 DAT in 2018. It is concluded that POST herbicides are available for control of up to 30 cm tall velvetleaf in popcorn production fields.
This is a book about two of the core activities integral in the field of human resource management: managing employee performance and managing how employees are rewarded. As we shall see throughout the book, there is a close and complex inter-dependence between these two activities; so much so that it makes little sense to consider them in isolation from each other. Equally, while the book’s central concerns are with performance and reward practices and processes, attention is also paid throughout to recognising and analysing the interconnectedness of these and other aspects of human resource management. Performance management systems provide inputs into other HR functions such as training and employee development, as well as evaluating HR decisions such as recruitment and selection.
The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between three parenting styles (warmth, rejection, and overprotection), coping efficacy and risk-taking behavior in Chinese young adults. A total of 719 subjects completed three instruments: the Egna Minneu av Bardndosnauppforstran, the Coping Efficacy Questionnaire and the Adolescent Risk-Taking Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling results showed that maternal warmth (negatively) and rejection (positively), but not overprotection, correlated with risk-taking behavior via coping efficacy, whereas paternal rejection and overprotection (positively), but not warmth, correlated with risk-taking behavior via coping efficacy. These results suggest that parenting styles indirectly associate with risk-taking behavior through coping efficacy in young adults.
Vocational assessment includes tests designed to measure work-related characteristics, such as interests, values, personality, skills, abilities, and self-efficacy. Vocational assessment is typically conducted to provide information for the client in the context of individual career counseling or other career intervention, but also may be used in other settings within professional psychology. The primary goals typically are to increase individuals’ self-exploration and self-understanding, and to improve outcomes such as career choice fit or job satisfaction. This chapter describes commonly used measures of interests (Strong Interest Inventory, Self-Directed Search, and O*NET Interest Profiler), work values (Minnesota Importance Questionnaire and O*NET Work Importance Profiler), self-efficacy (Skills Confidence Inventory), and career adaptability (Career Adapt-Abilities Scale), as well as using traditional measures of personality. Future directions include integrated assessment platforms, connection of results to databases of occupational information, and attention to intersecting gender and cultural identities.
“Constructive disorientation” is a feeling of arousal brought about by a perceived disconnect between the current and a desired state, accompanied by a sense of efficacy that one is capable of dealing with that disconnect. The chapter discusses the qualities that make disorientation “constructive,” and ways of promoting constructive disorientation in others: posing a clear but manageable challenge, allowing flexibility in managing that challenge, providing an environment conducive to “deep work,” and communicating the freedom to fail.
The purpose of this study was to report the psychometric properties, in terms of validity and reliability, of the Unconscious Version of the Family Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale (FDMSE).
A convenience sample of 215 surrogate decision-makers for critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation was recruited from four intensive care units at a tertiary hospital. Cross-sectional data were collected from participants between days 3 and 7 of a decisionally impaired patient's exposure to acute mechanical ventilation. Participants completed a self-report demographic form and subjective measures of family decision-making self-efficacy, preparation for decision-making, and decisional fatigue. Exploratory factor analyses, correlation coefficients, and internal consistency reliability estimates were computed to evaluate the FDMSE's validity and reliability in surrogate decision-makers of critically ill patients.
The exploratory factor analyses revealed a two-factor, 11-item version of the FDMSE was the most parsimonious in this sample. Furthermore, modified 11-item FDMSE demonstrated discriminant validity with the measures of fatigue and preparation for decision-making and demonstrated acceptable internal consistency reliability estimates.
Significance of results
This is the first known study to provide evidence for a two-factor structure for a modified, 11-item FDMSE. These dimensions represent treatment and palliation-related domains of family decision-making self-efficacy. The modified FDMSE is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used to measure family decision-making self-efficacy among surrogate decision-makers of the critically ill.
To evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of brivaracetam (BRV) in a refractory epilepsy population in an outpatient clinical setting.
Retrospective medical information system review and self-report questionnaire for all patients treated with BRV until the end of 2017.
Thirty-eight patients were included, 73.7% female and mean age 36.2. The mean number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for previous use was 8.9, and for current use was 2.5. Mean seizure frequency in the last 3 months was 12 per month. At 3, 6, 12, and 15 months, the 50% responder rates were 36.1%, 32%, 41.2%, and 45.5%, respectively. Patients took BRV for a median duration of 8.25 months, ranging from 7 days to 60 months. Retention rate was 75.0%, 72.0%, 59.2%, and 47.9% at 3, 6, 12, and 15 months, respectively. Overall, the main reasons for discontinuation were adverse events (AEs) (52.3%), lack of efficacy (35.3%), or both (11.8%). The rate of total AEs was 60.5% according to medical records and 85.7% according to questionnaire, including mostly tiredness, psychiatric, and memory complaints. Psychiatric side effects occurred in 31.6% according to medical records and 47.4% according to questionnaire results, which is higher than previously reported and persisted throughout the study period.
BRV appears to be a useful and safe add-on treatment, even in a very refractory group of patients. In this real-life clinical setting, psychiatric AEs were found at a higher rate than previously published.
The professionalization of politics and the disappearance of party organizations based on activists seems an inescapable trend. This chapter shows the relevance of organizational rules for explaining the reproduction of party activism. Using data from both an online survey of people differing in their levels of engagement with the FA and in-depth interviews with party activists, we show that those with relatively low levels of engagement – “adherents” – and activists differ in their willingness to cooperate with the party and in the amount of time they devote to party activities. Also, we find that reducing the perceived efficacy of political engagement strongly decreases activists’ self-reported willingness to engage with the party, while this reduction has no effect upon adherents. These findings suggest that the design of organizational rules that grant a political role to grassroots organizers can promote party activism.
Uruguay’s Frente Amplio (Broad Front, FA) is a mass-organic institutionalized leftist party. It is a deviant case that helps explicate the reproduction of mass-organic party organization and activism. The peculiar internal structure of the FA and the rules that ensure a role for grassroots activists in the highest decision-making bodies of the party are a product of the extraordinary conditions that existed at the time of the party’s birth in 1971. The intense autonomous activism that occurred during this stage acts as a historical cause. The decision-making authority of the grassroots activists, granted incrementally since the FA’s foundational stage, enables activists to block changes that reduce their power, engendering a lock-in effect and positive feedback. These rules grant FA activists a significant voice, which imbues activists´ participation with a strong sense of efficacy. This perceived efficacy operates as a selective incentive for activists to engage with the party. The chapter develops this theoretical argument and justifies the selection of the FA as a deviant case of party reproduction.
Consistent evidence suggests that face-to-face cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) may be equally effective depression treatments. Current clinical research focuses on detecting the best predictors-moderators of efficacy to guide treatment personalisation. However, individual moderator studies show inconsistent findings. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficacy of CBT and IPT, including combined treatment with antidepressants for depression, and evaluate the predictive power of demographic, clinical presentation and treatment characteristics moderators for both therapies.
PsycArticles, PsycINFO, PubMed and Cochrane Library were systematically searched through December 2017 for studies that have assessed individuals with major depression receiving either CBT or IPT in a face-to-face format both at pre- and post-treatment. Random-effects moderator meta-analyses were conducted.
In total 168 samples from 137 studies including 11 374 participants qualified for the meta-analytic review. CBT and IPT were equally effective across all but one prespecified moderators. For psychotherapy delivered without concomitant antidepressant treatment [antidepressant medications (ADMs)], CBT was superior to IPT (g = 1.68, Qbetweenp = 0.037). Within-CBT moderator analyses showed that increased CBT efficacy was associated with lower age, high initial depression severity, individual format of administration and no adjunctive ADMs. Within-IPT analyses showed comparable efficacy across all moderators.
Clinical guidance around combined treatment (psychotherapy plus ADMs) should be reconsidered. CBT alone is superior to IPT alone and to combined treatment, while IPT alone is non-inferior to combined treatment. More research is needed to assess the moderating effect of older age and number of previous episodes on IPT efficacy.
MD-PhD training programs train physician-scientists to pursue careers involving both clinical care and research, but decreasing numbers of physician-scientists stay engaged in clinical research. We sought to identify current clinical research training methods utilized by MD–PhD programs and to assess how effective they are in promoting self-efficacy for clinical research.
The US MD–PhD students were surveyed in April–May 2018. Students identified the clinical research training methods they participated in, and self-efficacy in clinical research was determined using a modified 12-item Clinical Research Appraisal Inventory.
Responses were received from 61 of 108 MD–PhD institutions. Responses were obtained from 647 MD–PhD students in all years of training. The primary methods of clinical research training included no clinical research training, and various combinations of didactics, mentored clinical research, and a clinical research practicum. Students with didactics plus mentored clinical research had similar self-efficacy as those with didactics plus clinical research practicum. Training activities that differentiated students who did and did not have the clinical research practicum experience and were associated with higher self-efficacy included exposure to Institutional Review Boards and participation in human subject recruitment.
A clinical research practicum was found to be an effective option for MD–PhD students conducting basic science research to gain experience in clinical research skills. Clinical research self-efficacy was correlated with the amount of clinical research training and specific clinical research tasks, which may inform curriculum development for a variety of clinical and translational research training programs, for example, MD–PhD, TL1, and KL2.
Drawing on goal orientation theory, in this study, we examine how an individual's motivational approach relates to the use of two common emotional labor strategies: surface acting and deep acting. In addition, we examine the role of self-efficacy as a mediating mechanism through which different goal orientations are related to different emotional labor strategies. To test our hypotheses, 262 U.S. full-time working adults from a variety of service occupations were surveyed. Consistent with the predictions of goal orientation theory, our results show that learning-oriented service employees tend to use deep acting, while performance-oriented service employees use both emotional labor strategies. Our findings also show that emotional labor self-efficacy plays a mediating role in the relationship between motivational approach and emotional labor strategy use.
On many Australian commercial pig farms, groups of growing pigs are mass-medicated through their drinking water with selected antimicrobials for short periods to manage herd health. However, delivery of medication in drinking water cannot be assumed to deliver an equal dose to all animals in a group. There is substantial between-animal variability in systemic exposure to an antimicrobial (i.e. the antimicrobial concentration in plasma), resulting in under-dosing or over-dosing of many pigs. Three sources of this between-animal variability during a water medication dosing event are differences in: (1) concentration of the active constituent of the antimicrobial product in water available to pigs at drinking appliances in each pen over time, (2) medicated water consumption patterns of pigs in each pen over time, and (3) pharmacokinetics (i.e. oral bioavailability, volume of distribution and clearance between pigs and within pigs over time). It is essential that factors operating on each farm that influence the range of systemic exposures of pigs to an antimicrobial are factored into antimicrobial administration regimens to reduce under-dosing and over-dosing.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective treatment for severe psychiatric disorders. Despite its high efficacy, the use of ECT would be greater if the risk of cognitive side effects were reduced. Over the last 20 years, developments in ECT technique, including improvements in the dosing methodology and modification of the stimulus waveform, have allowed for improved treatment methods with reduced adverse cognitive effects. There is increasing evidence that the electrode placement is important for orienting the electrical stimulus and therefore modifying treatment outcomes, with potential for further improvement of the placements currently used in ECT.
We used computational modelling to perform an in-depth examination into regional differences in brain excitation by the ECT stimulus for several lesser known and novel electrode placements, in order to investigate the potential for an electrode placement that may optimise clinical outcomes.
High resolution finite element human head models were generated from MRI scans of three subjects. The models were used to compare regional differences in average electric field (EF) magnitude among a total of thirteen bipolar ECT electrode placements, i.e. three conventional placements as well as ten lesser known and novel placements.
Results and conclusion:
In this exploratory study on a systemic comparison of thirteen ECT electrode placements, the EF magnitude at regions of interest (ROIs) was highly dependent upon the position of both electrodes, especially the ROIs close to the cortical surface. Compared to conventional right-unilateral (RUL) ECT using a temporo-parietal placement, fronto-parietal and supraorbito-parietal RUL also robustly stimulated brain regions considered important for efficacy, while sparing regions related to cognitive functions, and may be a preferrable approach to the currently used placement for RUL ECT. The simulations also found that regional average EF magnitude varied between individual subjects, due to factors such as head size, and results also depended on the size of the defined ROI.
After the first successes of ART, this technique showed a rapid development, in many countries. It soon appeared to the professionals themselves that a number of important health concerns were related to the new technique, in terms of practice, efficacy and safety. Moreover, the competition between centers requested solid data for the public and health authorities correct knowledge, based on large samples. This resulted in the development of national, regional, and world registries. It needed general agreements on definitions, numerators, denominators, ways of reporting, that were obtained through several workshops that included WHO. This chapter outlines, in a first section, general importance of surveillance, on efficacy, and safety (immediate and long term, women and children). The second section describes the history itself, from national to regional and world (ICMART) registries. It shows that a lot has already been done, even if efforts are still needed to improve quality, but it is better to have insufficient knowledge than none at all.
The relation between the understanding and belief of the site-specific dangers of climate change and the behaviour that individuals take to mitigate their impacts was assessed to investigate the psychological antecedent to pro-environmental behaviour; a necessity to mitigate anthropogenic climate change at the individual level. A quantitative cross-sectional design was employed to measure beliefs and behaviour of university students. Correlation was measured between the belief in one’s ability to affect change and pro-environmental behaviour. The hypothesis that nations facing greater climate threat would behave accordingly was tested on the two largest national representatives of the sample, China and Australia. In addition, a naïve Bayesian network, coupled with a self-organising map, was developed to explore correlations between self-efficacy and participants’ socio-demographic features. Results showed that Chinese students are more likely to have higher self-efficacy, while such trend was not noticed for Australians. Similarly, participants with higher educational qualifications, older, and with higher paid jobs also have a higher chance of presenting pro-environmental behaviour. Despite the study limitations, there seems to be evidence suggesting that educational and climate change policies have affected students’ self-efficacy and individual commitment to mitigation.