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This paper examines genetic erosion in rice landraces thriving in traditional smallholder agricultural systems in the Sarangani uplands, Philippines. In these marginal areas, the crop is closely interwoven with tribal culture and is vital in ensuring food security among upland households. Field visits unveiled high varietal diversity for upland rice and a rich tapestry of indigenous knowledge associated with its cultivation and use. Study results, however, revealed the tapering of the crop's genetic base due to farmers' changing priorities, pest infestation, weakening seed supply systems, shift to cash crops, natural calamities, environmental degradation, government programmes and peace and order problems. Consequently, these pressures undermined traditional agricultural systems in Sarangani upland communities causing food and water scarcity, hunger and suffering on a catastrophic scale. Interdisciplinary strategies aimed at simultaneously averting further varietal losses and environmental degradation while improving human well-being are therefore warranted. Furthermore, making traditional rice farming a lucrative endeavour will induce the younger generation to remain in the uplands and choose farming as a profession. This way, biocultural restoration of agriculture will be attained and the continued presence of the tribal groups in the Sarangani uplands will be ensured for a very long time.
SDG3, Health and Wellbeing for All, depends on many other SDGs but there are also potential conflicts and trade-offs. In this chapter, ee stress the importance of forests to global health and well-being as well as for Indigenous and local populations. In contrast, short-term economic and human health gains from further forest conversion (e.g. deforestation for food production) will create direct and indirect health risks for humans, as well as for other biota. Controlling indiscriminate burning and clearing of forests can reduce significant harm to health and well-being, via improved quality of water, soil and air, by reducing exposure to some infectious diseases, through preservation of traditional (and future) medicines, and by supporting other forest resources and services, including climate regulation. Many infectious diseases are associated with forest disturbance and intrusions and some may be prevented or modified through forest management. Universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including family planning, is a critical SDG3 target to decrease demographic pressures on forests at local, regional and global scales, and to enhance well-being. Greater exposure to green space, including the ‘urban forest’, is likely to have many benefits for mental, social and physical health for the increasingly urban global population.
India began the process of market liberalization that opened it to significant interactions with the world economy in 1991. In this essay, we provide an overarching view of the country's journey toward integration with the global innovation and entrepreneurship network. Major nodes in this global network have two major components that may be metaphorically referred to as ‘pillars and ivy’. Globally connected multinational enterprises (MNEs) form the pillars. Agile startups are the ivy, and their success (metaphorically, the height to which they can climb) depends on their symbiotic connections with the pillar MNEs. Both components are essential and reinforce each other. Without MNEs, the scaling of startups is hampered. Without a vibrant population of startups, MNEs’ interest in a location remains driven by cost, rather than capability and creativity. MNEs (mainly foreign) provided the initial sparks for the formation of the Indian innovation and entrepreneurship ecosystem. We chart the subsequent growth of India's startups. They began in the information technology (IT) sector but now cover a much wider range of industries. Today, India's innovation and entrepreneurship ecosystem is one of the largest in the world, with global integration in terms of technology, financing, human capital, and administration.
The South China Sea (SCS) is a biodiversity hotspot, however, most biodiversity surveys in the region are confined to shallow water reefs. Here, we studied the benthic habitat and fish assemblages in the upper mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs; 30–40 m) and SWRs (8–22 m) at three geographic locations (Luzon Strait; Palawan; and the Kalayaan Group of Islands) in the eastern SCS (also called the West Philippine Sea) using diver-based survey methods. Mean coral genera and fish species richness ranged from 17–25 (per 25 m2) and 11–17 (per 250 m2) in MCEs, respectively; although none of these were novel genera/species. Coral and fish assemblages were structured more strongly by location than by depth. Location differences were associated with the variability in benthic composition, wherein locations with higher hard coral cover had higher coral genera richness and abundance. Locations with higher algae and sand cover had higher diversity and density of fish herbivores and benthic invertivores. Fishing efforts may also have contributed to among-location differences as the highly exploited location had the lowest fish biomass. The low variation between depths may be attributed to the similar benthic composition at each location, the interconnectivity between depths due to hydrological conditions, fish motility, and the common fishing gears used in the Philippines that can likely extend beyond SWRs. Results imply that local-scale factors and anthropogenic disturbances probably dampen across-depth structuring in coral genera and fish species assemblages.
The basis for the Global Environmental Accounts (GENA) that are proposed in this book are the internationally agreed System of Environmental and Economic Accounts (SEEA). However, some economic terminology and the focus on the national boundaries are removed from the framework. This chapter also looks at stock/flow accounting and the network perspective of species and ecosystems as well as the idea of planetary boundaries and other environmental limits to nature and resources.
The previous chapters have shown that there is one powerful community (“the GDP multinational") which is being challenged by a heterogeneous and weakly organised community (“the Beyond-GDP cottage industry). The ever-expanding range of Beyond-GDP initiatives will not lead to success however. A new strategy is based on the GDP success story and aims to create an institutionalised community with a clear goal and coherent structure based on a common language. The chapter argues that the community should not be based on the SDGs, green accounting or the SEEA. It also argues that the community should not be based on economic terminology and theory but rather on multidisciplinary building blocks such as stock/flow accounting, networks and limits. The aim of the community is to enhance well-being and sustainability and one of its most important features is its common language: the System of Global and National Accounts (SGNA). The SGNA has four system accounts (environment, society, economy and distribution), which describe how the systems are developing. However, this does not yet tell people whether the developments are good or bad. This is left to the quality accounts.
The colonization features of ciliate communities have proved to be a useful tool for indicating water quality status in aquatic ecosystems. To determine an optimal water depth for bioassessment using these ecological bioindicators, the colonization process of periphytic ciliates was studied at four depths of 1, 2, 3.5 and 5 m in Chinese coastal waters. Samples were collected at time intervals of 3, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 days using glass slides. The periphytic ciliate communities represented similar colonization dynamics from a depth of 1 to 3.5 m: (1) the temporal variability was well fitted to the MacArthur-Wilson and logistic models; (2) the species composition reached an equilibrium during the exposure time periods of 10–14 days; and (3) the maximum abundances were definitely higher at a depth of 1 m than those at 3.5 m. PERMANOVA test revealed that the colonization pattern at 1 m depth was significantly different from those at the other three depths. Results suggest that the colonization dynamics of periphytic ciliates may be influenced by water depth in coastal waters. These findings provide an important reference for establishing an optimal sampling strategy for bioassessment on large spatial/temporal scales in marine ecosystems.
Mesophotic ecosystems have been relatively poorly studied in the Indo-Pacific and in particular within the Coral Triangle region. Here we used a mini-ROV to explore the changes in major benthic groups at two sites (~200 m apart) in the Wakatobi Marine National Park, SE Sulawesi, Indonesia spanning shallow water coral reefs (5 m) to deeper water mesophotic ecosystems (80 m). We found very similar patterns at both sites where coral cover peaked at 15 m, declined rapidly by 30 m, and was virtually absent at 50 m. As coral declined there was a marked increase in sponges, soft corals and other encrusting organisms (including ascidians, bryozoans, tubeworms, gorgonians and molluscs). Importantly, our results differ from most previous studies in other geographic locations where hard corals extend much deeper. It is unclear what drives this difference but it may be related to higher levels of turbidity and therefore reduced light penetration in the Wakatobi compared with other areas, which limits the vertical extent of coral development.
Few studies document the impacts of conservation management practices such as extensive grazing or mowing on the new ecosystems created by industrial conversions. In southern France, the Rhône channelling led to the construction of dykes to protect the Tricastin industrialized area from floods. Aiming to control plant dynamics for safety reasons and to favour plant biodiversity, mowing or extensive grazing by cattle were recently tested. Monitoring from both permanent plots and aerial photographs shows that three years of extensive grazing and annual mechanical mowing have modified plant composition, significantly increasing plant species richness, evenness and heterogeneity. The increase in evenness and beta-diversity from grazing was significantly higher than from mowing. Only grazing was able to reduce the height and cover of the dominant tussock perennial grass species (Brachypodium phoenicoides), while increasing bare soil cover and thus the contribution of annual species. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) obtained through aerial photographic analyses confirmed the correlation between NDVI, aboveground biomass and plant species richness for the grazed site alone, allowing the results obtained from quadrats to be generalized to the scale of the grazed site. On the Rhône’s artificial dykes, extensive grazing appears to be a better management tool than mowing to enhance plant biodiversity and meet safety objectives.
Studies on threatened species in highly modified and unprotected landscapes are necessary for the development of appropriate conservation policies. This is particularly important for species with large home ranges, such as the giant armadillo Priodontes maximus, whose occurrence in anthropogenic landscapes is poorly known despite its categorization as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. We searched and surveyed for the giant armadillo within human-modified areas in central Brazil using direct and indirect methods across a wide region dominated by diverse farming environments and scattered remnants of natural vegetation. During a 14-year period (2003–2016), we located 54 records of the species, including three road-kills and two instances of poaching. Most of the occurrence points (83%) were in native vegetation, with 17% in anthropogenic environments (pastures and roads). We confirmed the presence of the giant armadillo within a wide, intensely human-altered region. These findings indicate that Cerrado and Atlantic Forest remnants in modified landscapes in central Brazil play an important role as refuges for this armadillo species. In addition to habitat loss, road-kills and poaching persist as threats to the giant armadillo. Conservation actions are necessary to minimize human impacts and facilitate the persistence of the giant armadillo in this region. Policies that both deter illegal deforestation and strengthen incentives for the protection of natural vegetation remnants and restoration of biological corridors such as gallery forests would aid conservation of the giant armadillo in this area.
Symbiotic relationships are a common phenomenon among marine invertebrates, forming both obligatory and facultative dependencies with their host. Here, we investigate and compare the population structure of two crustacean species associated with both shallow and mesophotic ecosystems: an obligate symbiont barnacle (Ceratoconcha domingensis), of the coral Agaricia lamarcki and a meiobenthic, free-living harpacticoid copepod (Laophontella armata). Molecular analyses of the Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI) gene revealed no population structure between mesophotic and shallow barnacle populations within south-west Puerto Rico (ΦST = 0.0079, P = 0.33). The absence of population structure was expected due to the pelagic naupliar larvae of the barnacles and the connectivity patterns exhibited by the coral itself within the same region. Laophontella armata exhibited significant structure based on the mitochondrial COI gene between the mesophotic reef ecosystem of El Seco, Puerto Rico and mangrove sediments of Curaçao (ΦST = 0.2804, P = 0.0). The El Seco and Curaçao copepods shared three COI haplotypes despite the obligatory benthic development of harpacticoid copepods and the geographic distance between the two locations. Three other COI haplotypes from El Seco exhibited higher than expected (up to 7%) intra-species variability, potentially representing three new cryptic species of harpacticoid copepods or rare, deeply divergent lineages of L. armata. This result is evidence for the urgent need of a deeper investigation into the meiofauna diversity associated with mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs), arguably the most diverse metazoan component of MCEs.
Accidental and intentional global movement of species has increased the frequency of novel plant–insect interactions. In Patagonia, the European woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, has invaded commercial plantations of North American pines. We compared the patterns of resin defenses and S. noctilio-caused mortality at two mixed-species forests near San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina. We observed lower levels of resin flow and higher levels of mortality in Pinus contorta compared with Pinus ponderosa. In general, S. noctilio attacked trees with lower resin compared with neighboring trees. Resin production in P. ponderosa was not related to growth rates, but for P. contorta, slower growing trees produced less resin than faster growing conspecifics. For all infested trees, attack density and number of drills (ovipositor probes) per attack did not vary with resin production. Most attacks resulted in one or two drills. Attack rates and drills/attack were basically uniform across the bole of the tree except for a decrease in both drills/attack and attack density in the upper portion of the crown, and an increase in the attack density for the bottom 10% of the tree. Planted pines in Patagonia grow faster than their counterparts in North America, and produce less resin, consistent with the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis. Limited resin defenses may help to explain the high susceptibility of P. contorta to woodwasps in Patagonia.
John Lee's, David Fedman's, and Lisa Brady's essays persuasively show the value of studying environmental issues on the Korean peninsula. Each of the essays carefully explains how drives led by individuals and entities, such as the state, engineered nature for human needs, security, and later economic growth. In so doing, they show how these drives simultaneously altered nature and remade institutions, systems, and cultures that influenced people's agency and identity and reshaped forms of consciousness. By judiciously making visible the agents and social forces behind the reconstitution of nature, the essays collectively introduce diverse approaches to the study of environmental issues in Asia and elsewhere. Most of all, they demonstrate that transnational environmental history on the Korean peninsula can no longer be overlooked when dwelling on and debating major historical and theoretical issues in Korean, Asian, and environmental studies.
The Pampas cat Leopardus colocolo occurs in a variety of habitats from northern Ecuador to southern Argentina, yet the species has been poorly studied. There is scant information about its northern distribution or about populations in desert and dry forest. We aimed to determine the presence of the Pampas cat in the Sechura Desert and seasonally dry forest of north-western Peru and south-western Ecuador, identify threats to the species, and describe people's perceptions of it. Using 32 camera traps and compiling confirmed and unpublished records, we mapped the species’ distribution and identified 12 new localities, three in the Sechura Desert and nine in the dry forest. The first records of the Pampas cat in the Ecuadorian dry forest are reported from La Ceiba Natural Reserve and Jorupe Reserve; the northernmost record in the dry forest is from Cerros de Amotape National Park, Peru. In 56 semi-structured interviews with local people we found that most of them (76.8%) did not know the species; 61.5% of those who knew the species had a neutral perception and did not think the cat affected their personal activities. Here we update the northern distribution of the Pampas cat, describe threats to the species in arid ecosystems, and highlight the need for further studies to identify other possible threats and mitigation methods.
Recent studies have improved our understanding of nearshore marine ecosystems surrounding Ascension Island (central Atlantic Ocean), but little is known about Ascension's benthic environment beyond its shallow coastal waters. Here, we report the first detailed physical and biological examination of the seabed surrounding Ascension Island at 100–1000 m depth. Multibeam swath data were used to map fine scale bathymetry and derive seabed slope and rugosity indices for the entire area. Water temperature and salinity profiles were obtained from five Conductivity, Temperature, Depth (CTD) deployments, revealing a spatially consistent thermocline at 80 m depth. A camera lander (Shelf Underwater Camera System; SUCS) provided nearly 400 images from 21 sites (100 m transects) at depths of 110–1020 m, showing high variability in the structure of benthic habitats and biological communities. These surveys revealed a total of 95 faunal morphotypes (mean richness >14 per site), complemented by 213 voucher specimens constituting 60 morphotypes collected from seven targeted Agassiz trawl (AGT) deployments. While total faunal density (maximum >300 m−2 at 480 m depth) increased with rugosity, characteristic shifts in multivariate assemblage structure were driven by depth and substratum type. Shallow assemblages (~100 m) were dominated by black coral (Antipatharia sp.) on rocky substrata, cup corals (Caryophyllia sp.) and sea urchins (Cidaris sp.) were abundant on fine sediment at intermediate depths (250–500 m), and shrimps (Nematocarcinus spp.) were common at greater depths (>500 m). Other ubiquitous taxa included serpulid and sabellid polychaetes and brittle stars (Ophiocantha sp.). Cold-water corals (Lophelia cf. pertusa), indicative of Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs) and representing substantial benthic carbon accumulation, occurred in particularly dense aggregations at <350 m but were encountered as deep as 1020 m. In addition to enhancing marine biodiversity records at this locality, this study provides critical baseline data to support the future management of Ascension's marine environment.
Lichens as sessile and slow-growing symbiotic associations have evolved various carbon-based secondary compounds (CBSCs) to mitigate the effects of some stressors in the extreme environments in which they often grow. The mat-forming lichen Cladonia stellaris, an important fodder for reindeer, produces usnic acid in the outermost layer and perlatolic acid in the medulla. Here, we studied effects of simulated global warming on these CBSCs in C. stellaris cultivated in climate chambers with: 1) ambient conditions as control or 2) ambient conditions +4°C. The chambers simulated, at an hourly resolution, an averaged 10-year growing season dynamic from a long-term monitored boreal mire in northern Sweden. After two months of acclimation, +4°C warming in one simulated growing season increased the concentration of usnic acid by 31% compared with ambient conditions, whereas the warming decreased the concentration of perlatolic acid by 14%. Since lichen CBSCs play important roles in ecosystem processes such as lichenivory and decomposition, these changes may profoundly affect lichen-dominated ecosystems.
The Serra Negra belongs to the Mantiqueira mountain complex, Minas Gerais, Brazil. It has a vegetation mosaic dominated by ombrophilous and seasonal forest and grassland formations. Woody physiognomies occur on patches of quartzite soils. The aim of the present study was to investigate the patterns of structure and diversity of woody vegetation on quartzite soils in Serra Negra. Ten plots (20 × 50 m) were randomly placed in patches of woody vegetation on quartzite soils along the landscape. The diameter and height of all woody plants with a diameter of ≥ 3 cm at 30 cm from the soil were measured. The 1899 individuals sampled represented 30 plant families and 68 species. A strong ecological dominance was found, with about 30% of individuals belonging to a single species, Eremanthus incanus (Asteraceae). The Shannon diversity index (H′) was 2.74 nats/individual and evenness (J) 0.65. The two most abundant and ecologically important species in this vegetation type, Eremanthus incanus and Eremanthus erythropappus, called ‘candeias’, are exploited in the region, mainly for firewood. This exploitation, combined with other factors (e.g. increased tourism), can pose risks to the conservation of the whole flora of the region.
The ‘Shinkai Seep Field’ is a serpentinite-hosted chemosynthetic ecosystem in the Southern Mariana Forearc. In June 2015 the site was revisited and a number of rissoiform gastropods were collected. Taxonomic investigations revealed that these specimens represent a hitherto undescribed species of Provanna (Gastropoda: Abyssochrysoidea), described herein as Provanna cingulata n. sp. This new species is characterized by numerous spiral keels, lack of significant axial sculpture, rounded and inflated whorls, and large size for the genus. With the shell height exceeding 16.5 mm (may reach 20 mm), it is the largest Provanna species known thus far. Phylogenetic analysis using 411 bp of the cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI) gene confirmed its systematic placement within the genus Provanna. This is the only gastropod from a family endemic to chemosynthetic ecosystems thus far known from the ‘Shinkai Seep Field’. Furthermore, with a collection depth of 5687 m, it represents the deepest known bathymetric range for the superfamily Abyssochrysoidea as a whole.