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The dopamine transporter gene (DAT1), striatal network dysfunction, and visual memory deficits have been consistently reported to be associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to examine the effects of the DAT1 rs27048 (C)/rs429699 (T) haplotype on striatal functional connectivity and visual memory performance in youths with ADHD.
After excluding those who had excessive head motion, a total of 96 drug-naïve youths with ADHD and 114 typically developing (TD) youths were assessed with the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and the delayed matching to sample (DMS) task for visual memory. We examined the effects of ADHD, DAT1 CT haplotype, and the ADHD × CT haplotype interaction on the functional connectivity of five striatal seeds. We also correlated visual memory performance with the functional connectivity of striatal subregions, which showed significant diagnosis × genotype interactions.
Compared with TD youths, ADHD youths showed significant hypoconnectivity of the left dorsal caudate (DC) with bilateral sensorimotor clusters. Significant diagnosis × genotype interactions were found in the connectivity between the left DC and the right sensorimotor cluster, and between the right DC and the left dorsolateral prefrontal/bilateral anterior cingulate clusters. Furthermore, the connectivity of the left DC showing significant diagnosis × genotype interactions was associated with DMS performance in youths with ADHD who carried the DAT1 CT haplotype.
A novel gene-brain-behavior association between the left DC functional connectivity and visual memory performance in ADHD youths with the DAT1 rs27048 (C)/rs429699 (T) haplotype suggests a differential effect of DAT1 genotype altering specific brain function causing neuropsychological dysfunction in ADHD.
Adolescence represents a highly sensitive period of mammalian neurodevelopment wherein critical synaptic and structural changes are taking place in brain regions involved in cognition, self-regulation and emotional processing. Importantly, neural circuits such as the mesocorticolimbic pathway, comprising the prefrontal cortex, sub-cortical mesolimbic dopamine system and their associated input/output centres, are particularly vulnerable to drug-related insults. Human adolescence represents a life-period wherein many individuals first begin to experiment with recreational drugs such as nicotine and cannabis, both of which are known to profoundly modulate neurochemical signalling within the mesocorticolimbic pathway and to influence both long-term and acute neuropsychiatric symptoms. While a vast body of epidemiological clinical research has highlighted the effects of adolescent exposure to drugs such as nicotine and cannabis on the developing adolescent brain, many of these studies are limited to correlative analyses and rely on retrospective self-reports from subjects, making causal interpretations difficult to discern. The use of pre-clinical animal studies can avoid these issues by allowing for precise temporal and dose-related experimental control over drug exposure during adolescence. In addition, such animal-based research has the added advantage of allowing for in-depth molecular, pharmacological, genetic and neuronal analyses of how recreational drug exposure may set up the brain for neuropsychiatric risk. This review will explore some of the advantages and disadvantages of these models, with a focus on the common, divergent and synergistic effects of adolescent nicotine and cannabis exposure on neuropsychiatric risk.
The present study investigated the effects of Porphyra yezoensis enzyme degradation extract (PYEDE) on the brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases due to oxidative stress. We used in vitro antioxidant systems to verify the antioxidant potential of PYEDE. The results indicated that the PYEDE alleviated weight loss and organ atrophy, reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation and elevated reduced glutathione (GSH) content in the serum and brains of the d-galactose-induced ageing model mice. The PYEDE also renewed the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capability activities, down-regulated the inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels, normalised the hippocampal neurons and modulated multiple neurotransmitter systems by inhibiting the activities of acetylcholinesterase and monoamine oxidase in the up-regulation of acetylcholine, dopamine and noradrenaline levels. Overall, the PYEDE is a promising supplement for the alleviation of oxidative stress and age-associated brain diseases.
In this paper, the behavioral learning of robots through spiking neural networks is studied in which the architecture of the network is based on the thalamo-cortico-thalamic circuitry of the mammalian brain. According to a variety of neurons, the Izhikevich model of single neuron is used for the representation of neuronal behaviors. One thousand and ninety spiking neurons are considered in the network. The spiking model of the proposed architecture is derived and prepared for the learning problem of robots. The reinforcement learning algorithm is based on spike-timing-dependent plasticity and dopamine release as a reward. It results in strengthening the synaptic weights of the neurons that are involved in the robot’s proper performance. Sensory and motor neurons are placed in the thalamus and cortical module, respectively. The inputs of thalamo-cortico-thalamic circuitry are the signals related to distance of the target from robot, and the outputs are the velocities of actuators. The target attraction task is used as an example to validate the proposed method in which dopamine is released when the robot catches the target. Some simulation studies, as well as experimental implementation, are done on a mobile robot named Tabrizbot. Experimental studies illustrate that after successful learning, the meantime of catching target is decreased by about 36%. These prove that through the proposed method, thalamo-cortical structure could be trained successfully to learn to perform various robotic tasks.
Serotonergic dysfunction may play an important role in motor and nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP) has been used to evaluate serotonergic activity. Therefore, this study aimed to determine central serotonergic activity using LDAEP in de novo PD according to the age at onset and changes in serotonergic activity after dopaminergic treatment.
A total of 30 patients with unmedicated PD, 16 in the early-onset and 14 in the late-onset groups, were enrolled. All subjects underwent comprehensive neurological examination, laboratory tests, the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, and LDAEP. The LDAEP was calculated as the slope of the two N1/P2 peaks measured at the Cz electrode, first at baseline conditions (pretreatment) and a second time after 12 weeks (post-treatment) following dopaminergic medications.
The absolute values of pretreatment N1/P2 LDAEP (early-onset: late-onset, 0.99 ± 0.68: 1.62 ± 0.88, p = 0.035) and post-treatment N1 LDAEP (early-onset: late-onset, −0.61 ± 0.61: −1.26 ± 0.91, p = 0.03) were significantly lower in the early-onset group compared with those of the late-onset group. In addition, a higher value of pretreatment N1/P2 LDAEP was significantly correlated with the late-onset group (coefficient = 1.204, p = 0.044). The absolute value of the N1 LDAEP decreased after 12 weeks of taking dopaminergic medication (pretreatment: post-treatment, −1.457 ± 1.078: −0.904 ± 0.812, p = 0.0018).
Based on the results of this study, LDAEP could be a marker for serotonergic neurotransmission in PD. Central serotonergic activity assessed by LDAEP may be more preserved in early-onset PD patients and can be altered with dopaminergic medication.
Phytase enzyme is used as a dietary supplement in broiler nutrition to improve phosphorous bioavailability. Phytase deliberates phosphate groups from phytic acid and produces myo-inositol after total dephosphorylation. Myo-inositol is a bioactive compound having beneficial modulatory effects on metabolism in humans. However, it is not well understood if and how phytic acid degradation products, particularly myo-inositol, can modulate metabolism in broiler chicken. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of dietary supplements of phytase and myo-inositol on the blood plasma metabolome profile of broiler chickens. Broilers were provided a nutrient-adequate control diet or the same diet supplemented with either 3.5 g myo-inositol or 500, 1500 or 3000 units of phytase, per kilogram of feed (grower diet). Broilers were group-housed in floor pens (eight pens per diet) and provided one of the treatment diets for 22 days. Then, blood was collected from one bird per pen, resulting in eight replicated measurements per diet. A targeted metabolomics approach was applied to the heparin plasma. Body weight of the birds was not significantly affected by the treatments. Plasma myo-inositol concentrations were significantly increased by myo-inositol supplementation and phytase supplementation at 500 and 1500 units/kg. Metabolites generally affected by phytase supplementation belonged to the groups of acyl-carnitines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, lysophosphatidylcholine, biogenic amines and amino acids. Compared to the control diet, phytase supplements had significantly higher plasma concentrations of kynurenine and creatinine, but lower concentrations of histamine and cis-4-hydroxyproline. Myo-inositol supplementation significantly increased plasma concentrations of dopamine and serotonine. While some metabolites were similarly affected by myo-inositol and phytase supplementation, others were distinctly differently affected. We conclude that myo-inositol, either as a directly added supplement or indirectly released from phytate upon phytase supplementation, can affect specific metabolic pathways. Additional effects found on phytase supplementation may be related to intermediary phytate degradation products. Results are indicative for innovative hypothesis to be tested in future experiments, for instance, with regard to relationships between phytase or myo-inositol supplements and bird immunity or behaviour.
Mixed presentations, defined by simultaneous occurrence of depressive and manic symptoms, are difficult to treat. Antidepressants, although commonly used, have weak evidence of efficacy and may increase risk of mood destabilization. The aim of this pooled post hoc analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of cariprazine in the treatment of bipolar depression with or without concurrent manic symptoms.
Patients from 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies who met DSM-IV-TR or DSM-5 criteria for bipolar I disorder with a current major depressive episode were identified to have concurrent manic symptoms by baseline Young Mania Rating Scale total score ≥4. Efficacy was assessed in cariprazine 1.5 and 3 mg/day dose groups versus placebo; analyses included the least squares mean change from baseline to week 6 in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score.
Of 1383 patients randomized to treatment, 808 (58.4%) had concurrent manic symptoms. For patients with manic symptoms, mean reduction in MADRS total score from baseline to week 6 was significantly greater for both cariprazine 1.5 and 3 mg/day compared with placebo, with least squares mean differences (LSMDs) versus placebo of −2.5 (p = .0033) and −2.9 (p = .0010), respectively; for patients without manic symptoms, the LSMD was significant for 1.5 mg/day (−3.3; p = .0008), but not for 3 mg/day (−1.9; p = .0562).
The results of this post hoc analysis suggest that cariprazine may be an appropriate treatment option for patients with bipolar I depression with or without manic symptoms, with higher doses potentially more effective in patients with manic symptoms.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. It is characterised by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. The cause of degeneration is not well understood; however, both genetics and environmental factors, such as nutrition, have been implicated in the disease process. Deficiencies in one-carbon metabolism in particular have been associated with increased risk for PD onset and progression, though the precise relationship is unclear. The aim of the present review is to determine the role of one-carbon metabolism and elevated levels of homocysteine in PD onset and pathology and to identify potential mechanisms involved. A search of PubMed, Google Scholar and Web of Science was undertaken to identify relevant human and animal studies. Case–control, prospective cohort studies, meta-analyses and non-randomised trials were included in the present review. The results from human studies indicate that polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism may increase risk for PD development. There is an unclear role for dietary B-vitamin intake on PD onset and progression. However, dietary supplementation with B-vitamins may be beneficial for PD-affected individuals, particularly those on l-DOPA (levodopa or l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) treatment. Additionally, one-carbon metabolism generates methyl groups, and methylation capacity in PD-affected individuals is reduced. This reduced capacity has an impact on expression of disease-specific genes that may be involved in PD progression. During B-vitamin deficiency, animal studies report increased vulnerability of DA cells through increased oxidative stress and altered methylation. Nutrition, especially folates and related B-vitamins, may contribute to the onset and progression of PD by making the brain more vulnerable to damage; however, further investigation is required.
Road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death among young people. Recognition of the contribution of impulsive behaviour may help novice drivers to behave more safely. Previously a brief intervention focusing on impulsive traffic behaviour conducted by psychologists in driving schools had been effective. The aim of this study was an independent re-evaluation of the effect of the intervention, as conducted by driving school teachers, and assessment of the potential associations with candidate genotypes.
Driving school students (mean age 22.5, SD=7.9) were divided into intervention (n=704) and control (n=737) groups. Driving school teachers were trained to administer the intervention which consisted of a lecture and group work (1.5 h in total) on impulsivity. Traffic offences and crashes were monitored during 3 years, using police and traffic insurance fund databases. Functional polymorphisms of the dopamine transporter (DAT) and serotonin transporter genes (DAT1 VNTR and 5-HTTLPR) were assessed.
The intervention significantly lowered general traffic risk and prevalence of traffic accidents. DAT1 VNTR 9R carriers, particularly males, had higher general traffic risk in the whole sample. Female 5-HTTLPR s’ allele carriers of the intervention group had the lowest general traffic risk. Intervention was most effective in female DAT1 VNTR 10R/10R homozygotes.
Brief impulsivity-centred intervention appears as a promising strategy for preventing risk-taking behaviour in novice drivers and can be fully integrated to driving school curriculum.
Stimulant drugs can cause persistent changes in the brain. Imaging studies show that these changes are most apparent in dopamine transporter (DAT) or receptor availability within the striatum.
This work focuses on influences of stimulant use on dopaminergic function assessed using nuclear-medicine imaging (PET/SPECT). Included are 39 studies on 655 cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine or nicotine users, as well as 690 healthy controls. Metaanalyses were conducted separately for D2/D3 receptors and dopamine transporters of the entire striatum, its subregions caudate and putamen respectively.
Meta-analyses results regarding nicotine did not show significant effects between smokers and nonsmokers. In cocaine users there was a significant decrease in dopamine receptor availability in all regions. The striatal DAT availability was significantly increased in cocaine users. Methamphetamine users showed a significantly decreased dopamine receptor and transporter density in all regions. Significant results also indicate a lower transporter availability in all regions. Amphetamine users showed reduced DAT availability in the striatum, as well as in the sub regions.
This meta-analysis provides evidence that there are ongoing changes in the dopaminergic system associated with the use of stimulants. Especially the results of cocaine, methamphetamine and amphetamine use mainly showed a downregulation. In addition, this meta-analysis is the first to include nicotine. This subset of studies showed evidence for a decreased receptor and DAT availability but no significant results were found in the metaanalyses.
In community settings, negative symptoms and cognitive deficits are the primary barriers to independent living, stable relationships, and employment for individuals suffering from schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. In contrast, however, positive psychotic symptoms (e.g., command hallucinations and persecutory delusions) often drive behavior which serves as the gateway to arrest and criminalization. Historically, the keystone of treatment for positive psychotic symptoms has been antagonism of dopamine D2 receptors in the mesolimbic tract. In this article, we review and explore the principles underlying dopamine antagonism for the treatment of psychosis; optimization of dopamine antagonists in treating positive psychotic symptoms; the advantages of depot dopamine antagonist antipsychotics in forensic settings; the concepts of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic treatment failures; and the role of medication plasma concentrations in optimizing and managing treatment.
This study tested whether the association between interparental conflict and adolescent externalizing symptoms was moderated by a polygenic composite indexing low dopamine activity (i.e., 7-repeat allele of DRD4; Val alleles of COMT; 10-repeat variants of DAT1) in a sample of seventh-grade adolescents (Mean age = 13.0 years) and their parents. Using a longitudinal, autoregressive design, observational assessments of interparental conflict at Wave 1 predicted increases in a multi-informant measurement of youth externalizing symptoms 2 years later at Wave 3 only for children who were high on the hypodopaminergic composite. Moderation was expressed in a “for better” or “for worse” form hypothesized by differential susceptibility theory. Thus, children high on the dopaminergic composite experienced more externalizing problems than their peers when faced with more destructive conflicts but also fewer externalizing problems when exposed to more constructive interparental conflicts. Mediated moderation findings indicated that adolescent reports of their emotional insecurity in the interparental relationship partially explained the greater genetic susceptibility experienced by these children. More specifically, the dopamine composite moderated the association between Wave 1 interparental conflict and emotional insecurity 1 year later at Wave 2 in the same “for better” or “for worse” pattern as externalizing symptoms. Adolescent insecurity at Wave 2, in turn, predicted their greater externalizing symptoms 1 year later at Wave 3. Post hoc analyses further revealed that the 7-repeat allele of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene was the primary source of plasticity in the polygenic composite. Results are discussed as to how they advance process-oriented Gene x Environment models of emotion regulation.
Cariprazine is a new atypical antipsychotic drug (APD) with a unique pharmacodynamic profile, different from both typical and atypical APDs. Specifically, cariprazine acts as a partial agonist at the dopamine (DA) D2 and D3 receptors and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors, and as an antagonist at the 5-HT2B receptors. Moreover, it shows moderate affinities for adrenergic, histaminergic, and cholinergic receptors that are involved in mediating the side effects characteristic of typical APDs. In this review, we discuss the contribution of DA D3 receptors (D3Rs) in the etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia and the potential benefits that may be associated with a more selective targeting of D3R by APDs, as compared to other dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic receptor subtypes. Cariprazine, by acting on D3Rs, ameliorates anhedonia and cognitive deficits in animal models based on environmental or pharmacological manipulation. The reviewed results support the potential benefits of cariprazine in treating negative symptoms and cognitive deficits of schizophrenia, and therefore representing a promising approach in addressing the unmet clinical needs for the improved treatment of this serious neuropsychiatric disorder.
The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is caused by a deletion on chromosome 22 locus q11.2. This copy number variant results in haplo-insufficiency of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, and is associated with a significant increase in the risk for developing cognitive impairments and psychosis. The COMT gene encodes an enzyme that primarily modulates clearance of dopamine (DA) from the synaptic cleft, especially in the prefrontal cortical areas. Consequently, extracellular DA levels may be increased in prefrontal brain areas in 22q11DS, which may underlie the well-documented susceptibility for cognitive impairments and psychosis in affected individuals. This study aims to examine DA D2/3 receptor binding in frontal brain regions in adults with 22q11DS, as a proxy of frontal DA levels.
The study was performed in 14 non-psychotic, relatively high functioning adults with 22q11DS and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs), who underwent DA D2/3 receptor [18F]fallypride PET imaging. Frontal binding potential (BPND) was used as the main outcome measure.
BPND was significantly lower in adults with 22q11DS compared with HCs in the prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate gyrus. After Bonferroni correction significance remained for the anterior cingulate gyrus. There were no between-group differences in BPND in the orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex.
This study is the first to demonstrate lower frontal D2/3 receptor binding in adults with 22q11DS. It suggests that a 22q11.2 deletion affects frontal dopaminergic neurotransmission.
The aims of this meta-analysis are (i) to estimate the pooled relative risk (RR) of developing non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and affective psychotic disorder (APD) among migrants and their children; (ii) to adjust these results for socioeconomic status (SES); (iii) to examine the sources of heterogeneity that underlie the risk of NAPD.
We included population-based incidence studies that reported an age-adjusted RR with 95% confidence interval (CI) published 1 January 1977–12 October 2017 and used a random-effects model.
We retrieved studies performed in Europe (n = 43), Israel (n = 3), Canada (n = 2) and Australia (n = 1). The meta-analysis yielded a RR, adjusted for age and sex, of 2.13 (95% CI 1.99–2.27) for NAPD and 2.94 (95% CI 2.28–3.79) for APD. The RRs diminished, but persisted after adjustment for SES. With reference to NAPD: a personal or parental history of migration to Europe from countries outside Europe was associated with a higher RR (RR = 2.94, 95% CI 2.63–3.29) than migration within Europe (RR = 1.88, 95% 1.62–2.18). The corresponding RR was lower in Israel (RR = 1.22; 0.99–1.50) and Canada (RR = 1.21; 0.85–1.74). The RR was highest among individuals with a black skin colour (RR = 4.19, 95% CI 3.42–5.14). The evidence of a difference in risk between first and second generation was insufficient.
Positive selection may explain the low risk in Canada, while the change from exclusion to inclusion may do the same in Israel. Given the high risks among migrants from developing countries in Europe, social exclusion may have a pathogenic role.
Psychotic symptoms have been linked to salience abnormalities in the brain reward system, perhaps caused by a dysfunction of the dopamine neurotransmission in striatal regions. Blocking dopamine D2 receptors dampens psychotic symptoms and normalises reward disturbances, but a direct relationship between D2 receptor blockade, normalisation of reward processing and symptom improvement has not yet been demonstrated. The current study examined the association between blockade of D2 receptors in the caudate nucleus, alterations in reward processing and the psychopathology in a longitudinal study of antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients.
Twenty-two antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients (10 males, mean age 23.3) and 23 healthy controls (12 males, mean age 23.5) were examined with single-photon emission computed tomography using 123I-labelled iodobenzamide. Reward disturbances were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using a modified version of the monetary-incentive-delay task. Patients were assessed before and after 6 weeks of treatment with amisulpride.
In line with previous results, patients had a lower fMRI response at baseline (0.2 ± 0.5 v. 0.7 ± 0.6; p = 0.008), but not at follow-up (0.5 ± 0.6 v. 0.6 ± 0.7), and a change in the fMRI signal correlated with improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale positive symptoms (ρ = −0.435, p = 0.049). In patients responding to treatment, a correlation between improvement in the fMRI signal and receptor occupancy was found (ρ = 0.588; p = 0.035).
The results indicate that salience abnormalities play a role in the reward system in schizophrenia. In patients responding to a treatment-induced blockade of dopamine D2 receptors, the psychotic symptoms may be ameliorated by normalising salience abnormalities in the reward system.
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), one of the most common recurrent copy number variant disorders, is associated with dopaminergic abnormalities and increased risk for psychotic disorders.
Given the elevated prevalence of substance use and dopaminergic abnormalities in non-deleted patients with psychosis, we investigated the prevalence of substance use in 22q11DS, compared with that in non-deleted patients with psychosis and matched healthy controls.
This cross-sectional study involved 434 patients with 22q11DS, 265 non-deleted patients with psychosis and 134 healthy controls. Psychiatric diagnosis, full-scale IQ and COMT Val158Met genotype were determined in the 22q11DS group. Substance use data were collected according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview.
The prevalence of total substance use (36.9%) and substance use disorders (1.2%), and weekly amounts of alcohol and nicotine use, in patients with 22q11DS was significantly lower than in non-deleted patients with psychosis or controls. Compared with patients with 22q11DS, healthy controls were 20 times more likely to use substances in general (P < 0.001); results were also significant for alcohol and nicotine use separately. Within the 22q11DS group, there was no relationship between the prevalence of substance use and psychosis or COMT genotype. Male patients with 22q11DS were more likely to use substances than female patients with 22q11DS.
The results suggest that patients with 22q11DS are at decreased risk for substance use and substance use disorders despite the increased risk of psychotic disorders. Further research into neurobiological and environmental factors involved in substance use in 22q11DS is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms involved.
Individual differences in trait levels of openness to experience and creativity have been theoretically linked to dopamine function. However, empirical evidence for this assumption is scarce, especially for causal connections. The present study aims to directly assess the influence of dopamine activity on the established association between openness to experience and divergent thinking (i.e., an index of creativity). We hypothesized that manipulating dopamine activity alters the relationship between self-reported openness to experience and ideational fluency and flexibility. In a placebo-controlled between-subjects design, 193 healthy male volunteers completed four divergent thinking tasks after they received either the dopamine-receptor blocker sulpiride (200 mg) or a placebo. The data revealed an interaction such that openness to experience was more positively associated with divergent thinking in the dopamine blocker group (r = 0.304) than in the placebo group (r = −0.002). Specifically, highly open individuals in the dopamine blocker group reached the highest divergent thinking scores. Thus, sulpiride administration selectively affected divergent thinking as a function of trait levels of openness to experience. Although somewhat limited by the unexpected absence of the association between openness to experience and divergent thinking in the placebo group, the present study provides novel evidence for an association between dopamine activity and both openness to experience and divergent thinking.
A lack of motivation and anhedonia represent frequent and pervasive symptoms in depression, although with poor specificity. Historically described as a response bias, reward-related impairments in depression may account for the important aspects of the cognitive impairments associated with diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Reward processing is a broad psychological construct that can be parsed into 3 distinct components known as “reinforcement learning” (learning), “reward responsiveness” (liking), and “motivation to obtain a reward” (wanting). Depressed patients respond hyposensitively to reward and maladaptively to punishment: this pattern is related to a dysfunction in the frontostriatal systems modulated by the monoamine systems; seems to be observed in medicated and unmedicated patients with depression and in healthy individuals with high levels of anhedonia; and could be observed in patients with a history of depression, even when in full remission. Considered to be cognitive impairments, reward-related-impairments may also constitute part of an underlying neurobiological vulnerability to major depressive disorder (MDD). For example, the reward-related impairment is state dependent and, more or less, correlated with symptom severity in some studies but has also been proposed as being trait like, with endophenotype characteristics, possibly contributing to the persistence of the disease or treatment resistance. The 3 core aspects of reward processing have specific neurobiological correlates that involve the ventral and dorsal striatum, lateral habenula, ventral tegmental area, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These structures underline the important role of the dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway, but glutamate and serotonin could also have an important role, at least in some aspects of reward-related impairments.