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Based on two syntactically annotated corpora, and within the theoretical tradition of dependency grammar, the current study investigates the quantitative differences and similarities between written and spoken French. Our findings support the assumption that spoken and written French are two realizations of one language that do not differ in the syntactic categories, but in the frequency of these categories, and also in their organization in sentence. The subjects in spoken French are mostly pronouns, whereas in written French the subjects are mostly nouns and pronouns. Spoken and written French share many syntactic relations, but with different frequencies. For instance, dislocations are more diverse and frequent in spoken French. Spoken French and written French differ in the word order of vocative nominal phrases. Finally, written French is slightly more difficult to process than spoken French.
This chapter examines how computers and smartphones are used with (or instead of) face-to-face (F2F) interactions for relationship maintenance. After explicating two different definitions of the phrase “relationship maintenance,” we summarize research on the role of particular communication technologies in relationship maintenance. We argue that much contemporary relationship maintenance in romantic relationships occurs in mixed-media relationships, which occur when the “parties conduct in whole or in part through the use of multiple media, including F2F” (Parks). The primary focus of this chapter is on the maintenance of romantic relationships, yet we also review research on other types of relationships when the processes examined seem applicable to close relationships more broadly. We conclude with several important points for future research on relational maintenance and communication technologies, including recognizing that (a) even though technologies can help people maintain their relationships, they also can create burdens and problems; (b) the way people use technologies influences the effects of those technologies in relationships; (c) there is a need for more research on the specific behaviors using technologies in romantic relationships; and (d) even with the rise of communication technologies, face-to-face maintenance behaviors remain important.
The impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction on the efficiency of Alberta’s dairy industry is assessed through a technical efficiency analysis over the period 1996–2016, with and without emissions included as a “bad” output. Environmentally adjusted technical efficiency and technical efficiency estimates are highly correlated; thus, reducing GHG emissions may not result in decreased efficiency. Increased milk per cow, a southern Alberta location, and increased use of forage are associated with greater environmentally adjusted technical efficiency. The opportunity cost of foregone milk revenue associated with reduced emissions is Can$308.29 per metric ton of GHG. The results imply possible policy strategies to reduce emissions.
This study attempts to investigate fiducial marker (FM) migration and calculate the prostate planning target volume (PTV) margin considering the setup errors after translation corrections alone (T) and translation plus rotational corrections (T+R) and anatomy variation with respect to the corrected fiducial position, analysed on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images.
Methods and materials:
CBCT images from 25 patients are analysed for FM movements, setup error and anatomy variation with respect to the seed match positions. Systematic and random components of setup error and prostate movements are used to calculate the PTV margin for CBCT-based FM localisation in two scenarios, translation corrections only and translation plus rotational correction. MTNW887825 soft tissue gold markers (Civco, Orange City, FL, USA) were used with the department-specific immobilisation system and rectal and bladder filling protocols.
The average directional inter-marker distance variation is −0·05 ± 0·90 mm. The systematic setup errors for T+R are 0·40, 0·63 and 0·80 mm in right–left (RL), anterior–posterior (AP) and superior–inferior (SI), respectively. The corresponding values for T only are 0·54, 0·69 and 0·90 mm. The systematic prostate movement from T+R corrected FM positions are 0·65, 1·27 and 1·32 mm in the RL, AP and SI directions.
Minimal FM movements are noted from the study. The PTV margins to incorporate the daily T+R corrected setup error and prostate deformation are found to be 2·5, 4·5 and 5·2 mm in the RL, AP and SI directions, respectively. The corresponding margins for T only corrected scenario are found to be 2·8, 4·8 and 5·7 mm.
In this chapter we investigate the regularity
properties of the sub-Riemannian distance from a
fixed point. In particular, we prove that the
sub-Riemannian distance is smooth on an open and
dense subset of every compact ball, but as soon as
the distribution is not full dimensional at the
point, every level set of the distance contains a
nondifferentiability point of the distance
The 1880s inaugurated the movement from analogue to digital communication as the global possibilities of electronic communications became visible for the first time. This chapter considers the effects of what Paul Virilio has called ‘tele-contact’ on two painters, Evelyn de Morgan and Burne-Jones, and a poet, Swinburne. All three reinvent old forms in the context of newly imagined global distance and possibilities of transmission, communication and signal-failure and loss. Evelyn De Morgan’s The Sea Maidens (sometimes called The Sea Sisters) of 1885-6 and Burne-Jones’s The Depths of the Sea (1887) take up the ancient emblem of the mermaid to consider both the seductive and the dangerous possibilities of global connectivity. Their paintings dramatise the paradox of contactless contact. Swinburne re-makes the medieval French verse form of the rondeau in his A Century of Roundels (1883), a sequence of poems which undermines sequentiality and suggests the degeneration of meaning during transmission. All these works pose sharp questions about the relation of structure to meaning, of surface to depth, and of transmission to communication in the 1880s. These were fundamental questions for aesthetics, but they were also political questions.
In the literature, there have been several methods and definitions for working out whether two theories are “equivalent” (essentially the same) or not. In this article, we do something subtler. We provide a means to measure distances (and explore connections) between formal theories. We introduce two natural notions for such distances. The first one is that of axiomatic distance, but we argue that it might be of limited interest. The more interesting and widely applicable notion is that of conceptual distance which measures the minimum number of concepts that distinguish two theories. For instance, we use conceptual distance to show that relativistic and classical kinematics are distinguished by one concept only.
Why are some voters less likely to align with their group when group-based voting is both the norm and advantageous? I argue that the answer to this question can be found in the extent to which individuals are apparently consistent with the prototypical individual in their group. I develop a concept of racial distance, which improves upon the in-group out-group focus of the race and ethnic politics literature. Empirically, I investigate this relationship in South Africa using an original panel survey, which brackets the 2014 national elections. I find that those who are not readily identified as members of their group are less likely to vote with their group and more likely to change their vote due to an election campaign. Analyzing data from the South Africa 2016 the US 2012 elections suggests that this relationship holds for racial majorities but only minorities with a relatively weak sense of solidarity.
Chapter Five explores how, in the wake of the 1973 campaign, the Shanghai government intensified efforts to help urban youth leave the fields, launching projects such as technical workshops in Shanghai in which youth could participate during their home visits as well as distance-learning courses offered for sent-down youth in rural areas. This promotion of education and technical training enhanced the opportunities for sent-down youth to escape fieldwork and take on less physically taxing jobs in rural areas as office clerks, accountants, electrical engineers, machine technicians, and barefoot teachers and doctors. In some areas, the Shanghai government provided material and financial resources for the establishment of small factories and sent-down youth stations; urban outposts scattered across the rural landscape that were entirely independent of the village economy. Although these programs were ostensibly initiated to support the sent-down youth movement, they inadvertently intensified a new boundary in the countryside that divided sent-down youth and villagers. They also turned urban youth into educated and skilled rural residents who became some of the most privileged residents in the countryside.
We show that several machine learning estimators, including square-root least absolute shrinkage and selection and regularized logistic regression, can be represented as solutions to distributionally robust optimization problems. The associated uncertainty regions are based on suitably defined Wasserstein distances. Hence, our representations allow us to view regularization as a result of introducing an artificial adversary that perturbs the empirical distribution to account for out-of-sample effects in loss estimation. In addition, we introduce RWPI (robust Wasserstein profile inference), a novel inference methodology which extends the use of methods inspired by empirical likelihood to the setting of optimal transport costs (of which Wasserstein distances are a particular case). We use RWPI to show how to optimally select the size of uncertainty regions, and as a consequence we are able to choose regularization parameters for these machine learning estimators without the use of cross validation. Numerical experiments are also given to validate our theoretical findings.
In this chapter, Alfano argues that the pathos of distance is a distinctively Nietzschean virtue. He shows that Nietzsche is, among other things, highly focused on when and how one should embody the emotions of contempt and disgust. Alfano argues that the pathos of distance is the virtue that governs the expression of these two emotions, which are largely neglected both in the secondary literature on Nietzsche and in contemporary virtue theory. According to Alfano, the pathos of distance enables one to embody fitting contempt not only for other people and institutions, but also for oneself – a process that Nietzsche sometimes calls spernere se ipsum and sperenere se sperni. These are essential attitudes for someone who wants to inquiry well in the domain of moral psychology and recognize flaws in himself.
In this chapter, Alfano explores the Nietzschean virtue of curiosity. Curiosity, in this reading, is a drive to engage in and positively evaluate the process of inquiry, especially challenging inquiry into difficult and problematic questions. If this is right, then curiosity is less about static states (e.g., true belief, settled knowledge) and more about epistemic activity in its own right. Alfano connects his account of Nietzschean curiosity both with a large number of relevant passages from Nietzsche's writings and with contemporary accounts of intellectual virtue and vice. In so doing, he establishes curiosity as an intellectual virtue worthy of the attention of both Nietzsche scholars and contemporary virtue epistemologists.
The Low Countries' Early Iron Age is marked by the emergence of lavish burials known as chieftains’ graves or princely burials. These extraordinary elite burials of the Hallstatt C/D period contain weaponry, bronze vessels as well as decorated wagons and horse-gear imported from the Hallstatt culture of Central Europe, where the same objects are found in the famous Fürstengräber. While the connection between these regions has long been recognized, the nature of this contact remains poorly understood. Here we present the preliminary results of an on-going re-examination of elite funerary practices in both regions and the likely direct long-distance interactions reflected in them. Similarities and differences in the treatment of objects and the dead in funerary rituals indicate that, to a certain extent at least, these geographically separated social groups were integrated in a specific elite burial practice, indicating frequent contact across hundreds of kilometres.
Grain boundaries (GBs) play an important role in material behavior, so considerable effort has gone into determining their structure and properties. Studies of GBs have revealed a correlation between the GB energy and expansion of the planes normal to the GB, or the so-called normal volume expansion. In this investigation, the volume expansion at several GBs was experimentally determined using extended energy-loss fine structure (EXELFS) analysis in a scanning/transmission electron microscope, allowing changes in the nearest-neighbor (n.n.) distances to be determined with nanometer spatial resolution. EXELFS performed on three-model GBs showed that the average n.n. distances at the GBs increased with increasing GB energy. Additionally, the total volume expansion at the GBs, calculated using complementary plasmon energy profiles, showed excellent agreement with volume expansions measured using other experimental techniques. Hence, this study demonstrates that EXELFS is a useful technique to measure the normal volume expansion at GBs. When combined with the results from complementary studies on the same GBs using valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy, this work further shows that the GB energy increases in relation to both the decrease in electron density at the GB and an accompanying increase in specific volume expansion at the GB.
Can children tell how different a speaker's accent is from their own? In Experiment 1 (N = 84), four- and five-year-olds heard speakers with different accents and indicated where they thought each speaker lived relative to a reference point on a map that represented their current location. Five-year-olds generally placed speakers with stronger accents (as judged by adults) at more distant locations than speakers with weaker accents. In contrast, four-year-olds did not show differences in where they placed speakers with different accents. In Experiment 2 (N = 56), the same sentences were low-pass filtered so that only prosodic information remained. This time, children judged which of five possible aliens had produced each utterance, given a reference speaker. Children of both ages showed differences in which alien they chose based on accent, and generally rated speakers with foreign accents as more different from their native accent than speakers with regional accents. Together, the findings show that preschoolers perceive accent distance, that children may be sensitive to the distinction between foreign and regional accents, and that preschoolers likely use prosody to differentiate among accents.
The classical Monge–Kantorovich (MK) problem as originally posed is concerned with how best to move a pile of soil or rubble to an excavation or fill with the least amount of work relative to some cost function. When the cost is given by the square of the Euclidean distance, one can define a metric on densities called the Wasserstein distance. In this note, we formulate a natural matrix counterpart of the MK problem for positive-definite density matrices. We prove a number of results about this metric including showing that it can be formulated as a convex optimisation problem, strong duality, an analogue of the Poincaré–Wirtinger inequality and a Lax–Hopf–Oleinik–type result.
Social media play an important role in emergency management. The location of citizens and distance from a disaster influence the social media usage patterns. Using the Tianjin Port Explosion, we apply the correlation analysis and regression analysis to explore the relationship between online engagement and location. Citizens’ online engagement is estimated by social media. Three dimensions of the psychological distance – spatial, temporal, and social distances – are applied to measure the effects of location and distance. Online engagement is negatively correlated to such 3 kinds of the distance, which indicates that citizens may pay less attention to a disaster that happens at a far away location and at an area of less interaction or at a relatively long period of time. Furthermore, a linear model is proposed to measure the psychological distance. The quantification relationship between online engagement and psychological distance is discussed. The result enhances our understanding of social media usage patterns related to location and distance. The study gives a new insight on situation awareness, decision-making during disasters.
In this paper we address the problem of coverage path planning (CPP) for multiple cooperating mobile robots. We use a ‘partition and cover’ approach using Voronoi partition to achieve natural passive cooperation between robots to avoid task duplicity. We combine two generalizations of Voronoi partition, namely geodesic-distance-based Voronoi partition and Manhattan-distance-based Voronoi partition, to address contiguity of partition in the presence of obstacles and to avoid partition-boundary-induced coverage gap. The region is divided into 2D×2D grids, where D is the size of the robot footprint. Individual robots can use any of the single-robot CPP algorithms. We show that with the proposed Geodesic-Manhattan Voronoi-partition-based coverage (GM-VPC), a complete and non-overlapping coverage can be achieved at grid level provided that the underlying single-robot CPP algorithm has similar property.We demonstrated using two representative single-robot coverage strategies, namely Boustrophedon-decomposition-based coverage and Spanning Tree coverage, first based on so-called exact cellular decomposition and second based on approximate cellular decomposition, that the proposed partitioning scheme completely eliminates coverage gaps and coverage overlaps. Simulation experiments using Matlab and V-rep robot simulator and experiments with Fire Bird V mobile robot are carried out to validate the proposed coverage strategy.
The first part of this survey is a heuristic, non-technical discussion of what an HHS is, and the aim is to provide a good mental picture both to those actively doing research on HHSs and to those who only seek a basic understanding out of pure curiosity. It can be read independently of the second part, which is a detailed technical discussion of the axioms and the main tools to deal with HHSs.