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To validate digitally displayed photographic portion-size estimation aids (PSEA) against a weighed meal record and compare findings with an atlas of printed photographic PSEA and actual prepared-food PSEA in a low-income country.
Participants served themselves water and five prepared foods, which were weighed separately before the meal and again after the meal to measure any leftovers. Participants returned the following day and completed a meal recall. They estimated the quantities of foods consumed three times using the different PSEA in a randomized order.
Two urban and two rural communities in southern Malawi.
Women (n 300) aged 18–45 years, equally divided by urban/rural residence and years of education (≤4 years and ≥5 years).
Responses for digital and printed PSEA were highly correlated (>91 % agreement for all foods, Cohen’s κw = 0·78–0·93). Overall, at the individual level, digital and actual-food PSEA had a similar level of agreement with the weighed meal record. At the group level, the proportion of participants who estimated within 20 % of the weighed grams of food consumed ranged by type of food from 30 to 45 % for digital PSEA and 40–56 % for actual-food PSEA. Digital PSEA consistently underestimated grams and nutrients across foods, whereas actual-food PSEA provided a mix of under- and overestimates that balanced each other to produce accurate mean energy and nutrient intake estimates. Results did not differ by urban and rural location or participant education level.
Digital PSEA require further testing in low-income settings to improve accuracy of estimations.
To (i) determine the proportion of deaths from CVD that could be avoided in both rural and metropolitan Australia if public health recommendations were met; (ii) assess the impact on the rural CVD mortality; and (iii) determine if policy priorities should be different by rurality for CVD prevention.
A macro-simulation modelling study of population data. Population, risk factor and CVD death data stratified by rurality were analysed using the Preventable Risk Integrated Model. The baseline scenario was the current risk factor levels (including physical activity, smoking, diet and alcohol). The counterfactual scenario was the population levels of these risk factors expected if public health recommendations were met.
Metropolitan and rural Australia.
Rural- and metropolitan-dwelling adults in Australia.
Both populations would experience similar relative declines in the proportion of deaths from CVD. A total of 14 892 deaths from CVD would be avoided annually; with similar declines in the proportions of deaths by rurality. Critically, the order of policy priorities for public health recommendation attainment would differ by rurality CVD prevention, with addressing fat intakes being a higher priority in rural areas.
Achieving public health recommendations in Australia would result in large declines in CVD mortality. Despite declines in overall CVD mortality under this scenario, an inequality in CVD burden would persist for rural populations. The order of risk factor priorities would differ by rurality.
To investigate preferences for and ease-of-use perceptions of different aspects of printed and digitally displayed photographic portion-size estimation aids (PSEA) in a low-resource setting and to document accuracy of portion-size selections using PSEA with different visual characteristics.
A convergent mixed-methods design and stepwise approach were used to assess characteristics of interest in isolation. Participants served themselves food and water, which were weighed before and after consumption to measure leftovers and quantity consumed. Thirty minutes later, data collectors administered a meal recall using a PSEA and then a semi-structured interview.
Blantyre and Chikwawa Districts in the southern region of Malawi.
Ninety-six women, aged 18–45 years.
Preferences and ease-of-use perceptions favoured photographs rather than drawings of shapes, three and five portion-size options rather than three with four virtual portion-size options, a 45° rather than a 90° photograph angle, and simultaneous rather than sequential presentation of portion-size options. Approximately half to three-quarters of participants found the portion-size options represented appropriate amounts of foods or water consumed. Photographs with three portion sizes resulted in more accurate portion-size selections (closest to measured consumption) than other format and number of portion-size option combinations. A 45° angle and simultaneous presentation were more accurate than a 90° angle and sequential presentation of images.
Results from testing PSEA visual characteristics separately can be used to generate optimal PSEA, which can improve participants’ experiences during meal recalls.
We aimed to investigate the trends of breast milk lutein concentrations at different times and their relationship with dietary lutein intake during the 12 weeks after delivery. Breast milk samples were collected from 37 mothers at 4, 8, and 12 weeks postpartum. A HPLC detection method was used to measure breast milk lutein concentrations. Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and then dietary lutein intake was calculated. The correlations between dietary lutein intake and breast milk lutein concentrations during lactation were investigated by Pearson’s correlation coefficient. General linear regression models were used to evaluate the optimal regression equation. The mean values of dietary lutein intake at 4, 8, and 12 weeks postpartum were 5.22 ± 3.60, 7.28 ± 4.30, and 7.33 ± 4.24 (mg/d), respectively. The mean values of breast milk lutein concentrations at 4, 8, and 12 weeks postpartum were as follows: 46.41 ± 41.36, 57.96 ± 40.00, and 62.33 ± 30.10 (μg/L), respectively. Breast milk lutein concentrations were positively associated with dietary lutein intake at 4 weeks postpartum (r = 0.527, P < 0.05), which was consistent with the positive correlations observed at 8 and 12 weeks postpartum (r = 0.444, P < 0.05; r = 0.468, P < 0.05) by the sensitivity analysis. Increased dietary lutein intake can increase the concentration of lutein in the breast milk, and women are recommended to increase their dietary intake of green leafy vegetables and fruits that are rich in lutein during the pregnancy and postpartum periods.
Excess energy intake is recognised as a strong contributing factor to the global rise of being overweight and obese. The aim of this paper was to investigate if oral sensitivity to complex carbohydrate relates to ad libitum consumption of complex carbohydrate foods in a sample group of female adults. Participants’ [(n = 51 females): age 23.0 ± 0.6 years (range 20.0 – 41.0 years); excluding restrained eaters] sensitivity towards maltodextrin (oral complex carbohydrate) and glucose (sweet taste) were assessed by measuring detection threshold (DT) and suprathreshold intensity perception (ST). A crossover design was used to assess consumption of two different iso-caloric preload milkshakes and ad libitum milkshakes – 1) glucose based milkshake, 2) maltodextrin based milkshake. Ad libitum intake (primary outcome) and eating rate, liking, hunger, fullness, and prospective consumption ratings were measured. Participants who were more sensitive towards complex carbohydrate (maltodextrin DT) consumed significantly more maltodextrin based milkshake in comparison to less sensitive participants (P=0.01) and this was independent of liking. Participants who had higher liking for glucose based milkshake consumed significantly more glucose based milkshake in comparison to participants with lower hedonic ratings (P=0.049). The results provide support regarding the role of the oral system sensitivity (potentially taste) to complex carbohydrate and the prospective to overconsume complex carbohydrate based milkshake in a single sitting. The trial was registered at the ANZCTR as ACTRN12617000551392.
Nutrition plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology and management of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and periodontal disease (PD). As PD can have profound effects on an individual’s functional ability to eat and can affect nutrient intake, we aimed to evaluate the role of PD severity on dietary intake (DI) and quality in PAD patients and compare it with current dietary recommendations for CVD. PD stages of 421 consecutive PAD patients were determined according to a standardised basic periodontal examination (Periodontal Screening and Recording Index) (‘healthy’, ‘gingivitis’, ‘moderate periodontitis’ and ‘severe periodontitis’). Dietary intake (24-h recall), dietary quality (food frequency index (FFI)) and anthropometrical data were assessed. Nutritional intake was stratified according to the severity of PD. No significant differences in DI of macronutrients, nutrients relevant for CVD and FFI were seen between the PD stages. Only median alcohol intake was significantly different between gingivitis and severe periodontitis (P = 0·001), and positively correlated with PD severity (P = 0·001; r 0·159). PD severity and the patient’s number of teeth showed no correlation with investigated nutritional parameters and FFI. Few subjects met the recommended daily intakes for fibre (5 %), SFA (10 %), Na (40 %) and sugar (26 %). Macronutrient intake differed from reference values. In our sample of patients with PAD and concomitant PD, we found no differences in DI of macronutrients, nutrients relevant for CVD and diet quality depending on PD severity. The patients’ nutrition was, however, poor, deviating seriously from dietary guidelines and recommendations.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) and its possible association with B12 dietary intake, body adiposity and immunosuppressive drugs. In this cross-sectional study, we included 225 KTR, aged 47·50 (sd 12·11) years, and 125 (56 %) were men. Serum levels of B12 were determined by chemiluminescent microparticle intrinsic factor assay and the cut-off of 200 pg/ml was used to stratify KTR into B12-sufficient or B12-deficient group. B12 dietary intake was evaluated by three 24 h dietary recalls and was considered adequate when ≥2·4 μg/d. Body adiposity was estimated after taking anthropometric measures and using the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method. B12 deficiency was seen in 14 % of the individuals. B12-deficient group, compared with the B12-sufficient group, exhibited lower intake of B12 (median 2·42 (interquartile range (IQR) 1·41–3·23) v. 3·16 (IQR 1·94–4·55) μg/d, P = 0·04) and higher values of waist circumference (median 96·0 (IQR 88·0–102·5) v. 90·0 (IQR 82·0–100·0) cm, P = 0·04). When the analysis included only women, B12 deficiency was associated with higher total and central body adiposity measurements obtained with anthropometry (BMI, body adiposity index, waist and neck circumferences) and DXA (total and trunk body fat). Among individuals with adequate intake of B12, the deficiency of this vitamin was more frequently seen in those using mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) (17 %) v. azathioprine (2 %), P = 0·01. In conclusion, the prevalence of B12 deficiency in KTR was estimated as 14 % and was associated with reduced intake of B12 as well as higher adiposity, especially in women, and with the use of MMF.
Animal sterols, plant sterols and bile acids in stool samples have been suggested as biomarkers of dietary intake. It is still unknown whether they also reflect long-term habitual dietary intake and can be used in aetiological research. In a subgroup of the Cooperative Health Research in the Augsburg Region (KORA FF4) study, habitual dietary intake was estimated based on repeated 24-h food list and a FFQ. Stool samples were collected according to a standard operating procedure and those meeting the quality criteria were extracted and analysed by means of a metabolomics technique. The present study is based on data from 513 men and 495 women with a mean age of 60 and 58 years, respectively, for which faecal animal and plant sterols and bile acids concentrations and dietary intake data were available. In adjusted regression models, the associations between food intake and log-normalised metabolite concentrations were analysed. Bonferroni correction was used to account for multiple testing. In this population-based sample, associations between habitual dietary intake and faecal concentrations of animal sterols were identified, while the impact of usual diet on bile acids was limited. A habitual diet high in ‘fruits’ and ‘nuts and seeds’ is associated with lower animal faecal sterols concentrations, whereas a diet high in ‘meat and meat products’ is positively related to faecal concentrations of animal sterols. A positive association between glycocholate and fruit consumption was found. Further studies are necessary for evaluation of faecal animal sterols as biomarkers of diet. The findings need to be confirmed in other populations with diverse dietary habits.
To describe continuity over time in reports of valuing sustainable diet practices and investigate relationships between values, household meal behaviours and dietary intake.
Observational study. Participant ratings of how important it is for food to be produced as organic, not processed, locally grown and not GM were categorized to represent whether they valued (very/somewhat important) or did not value (a little/not at all important) each practice. Diet quality markers (e.g. fruit servings) were based on an FFQ.
Mailed and online surveys.
Young adults (n 1620; 58 % female, mean age 31 (sd 1·6) years) who were participating in Project EAT (Eating and Activity among Teens and Young Adults) and responded to follow-up surveys in 2003–2004 and 2015–2016.
One-third (36·1 %) of participants reported valuing <2 practices at both assessments; 11·1 and 34·5 % respectively reported valuing ≥2 practices in 2003–2004 only and in 2015–2016 only; 18·3 % reported valuing ≥2 practices at both assessments. Regression models including demographics, parental status and vegetarian status showed that valuing ≥2 practices was associated with preparation of meals with vegetables at least a few times/week, less frequent purchase of family meals from fast-food restaurants, and higher diet quality in 2015–2016. For example, those who valued ≥2 practices consumed nearly one full vegetable serving more than other young adults on an average day and part of this difference was specifically associated with intake of dark green and red/orange vegetables.
Addressing the sustainability of food choices as part of public health messaging may be relevant for many young adults.
We collected dietary records over the course of nine months to comprehensively characterize the consumption patterns of Malagasy people living in remote rainforest areas of north-eastern Madagascar.
The present study was a prospective longitudinal cohort study to estimate dietary diversity and nutrient intake for a suite of macronutrients, micronutrients and vitamins for 152 randomly selected households in two communities.
Madagascar, with over 25 million people living in an area the size of France, faces a multitude of nutritional challenges. Micronutrient-poor staples, especially rice, roots and tubers, comprise nearly 80 % of the Malagasy diet by weight. The remaining dietary components (including wild foods and animal-source foods) are critical for nutrition. We focus our study in north-eastern Madagascar, characterized by access to rainforest, rice paddies and local agriculture.
We enrolled men, women and children of both sexes and all ages in a randomized sample of households in two communities.
Although the Household Dietary Diversity Score and Food Consumption Score reflect high dietary diversity, the Minimum Dietary Diversity–Women indicator suggests poor micronutrient adequacy. The food intake data confirm a mixed nutritional picture. We found that the median individual consumed less than 50 % of his/her age/sex-specific Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, B12, D and E, and Ca, and less than 100 % of his/her EAR for energy, riboflavin, folate and Na.
Malnutrition in remote communities of north-eastern Madagascar is pervasive and multidimensional, indicating an urgent need for comprehensive public health and development interventions focused on providing nutritional security.
Home cooking has been suggested as a key to healthy dietary intakes. However, little is known about the association between cooking behaviour and nutrient intake among young-to-middle-aged women. We aimed to investigate the association between home cooking frequency and nutrient intake adequacy among married Japanese women. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess the weekly frequency of cooking dinner at home and habitual nutrient intake during the preceding month. We evaluated nutrient intake adequacy by comparing the self-reported intake with two indices of the dietary reference intakes for Japanese (2015): the estimated average requirement (EAR) of fourteen nutrients, and the ‘tentative dietary goal for preventing lifestyle-related diseases’ (DG) of seven nutrients. A total of 143 participants (25–44 years old) completed the questionnaires, with 32·9 % of participants reporting a weekly home cooking frequency of seven times/week. Women with a higher home cooking frequency (seven times/week) were more likely to have children (P = 0·001) than those with a lower home cooking frequency (0–6 times/week). Of the nutrients evaluated, there was no significant difference between the two groups in meeting EAR and DG. Our findings suggest that daily home cooking may not be necessary to achieve adequate nutrient intake, specifically among married, young-to-middle-aged Japanese women.
Paediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has increased in parallel with childhood obesity. Dietary habits, particularly products rich in sugars, may influence both hepatic fat and insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)). The aim of the study was to examine the association of the consumption of foods and food components, dairy desserts and substitutes (DDS), sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), as well as total and added sugars, with hepatic fat and HOMA-IR. Dietary intake (two non-consecutive 24 h-recalls), hepatic fat (MRI) and HOMA-IR were assessed in 110 overweight/obese children (10·6 (sd 1·1) years old). Linear regression analyses were used to examine the association of dietary intake with hepatic fat and HOMA-IR adjusted for potential confounders (sex, age, energy intake, maternal educational level, total and abdominal adiposity and sugar intake). The results showed that there was a negative association between cereal intake and hepatic fat (β=–0·197, P<0·05). In contrast, both SSB consumption (β=0·217; P=0·028) and sugar in SSB (β=0·210, P=0·035), but not DDS or sugar in DDS or other dietary components, were positively associated with hepatic fat regardless of potential confounders including total sugar intake. In conclusion, cereal intake might decrease hepatic fat, whereas SSB consumption and its sugar content may increase the likelihood of having hepatic steatosis. Although these observations need to be confirmed using experimental evidence, these results suggest that healthy lifestyle intervention programs are needed to improve dietary habits as well as to increase the awareness of the detrimental effects of SSB consumption early in life.
Knowing who eats what, understanding the various eating habits of different population groups, according to the geographical area, is critical to develop evidence-based policies for nutrition and food safety. The FAO/WHO Global Individual Food consumption data Tool (FAO/WHO GIFT) is a novel open-access online platform, hosted by FAO and supported by WHO, providing access to harmonised individual quantitative food consumption (IQFC) data, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). FAO/WHO GIFT is a growing repository, which will serve as the global FAO/WHO hub to disseminate IQFC microdata. Currently five datasets from LMIC are available for dissemination, and an additional fifty datasets will be made available by 2022. To facilitate the use of these data by policy makers, ready-to-use food-based indicators are provided for an overview of key data according to population segments and food groups. FAO/WHO GIFT also provides an inventory of existing IQFC data worldwide, which currently contains detailed information on 188 surveys conducted in seventy-two countries. In order for end-users to be able to aggregate the available data, all datasets are harmonised with the European Food Safety Authority's food classification and description system FoodEx2 (modified for global use). This harmonisation is aimed at enhancing the consistency and reliability of nutrient intake and dietary exposure assessments. FAO/WHO GIFT is developed in synergy with other global initiatives aimed at increasing the quality, availability and use of IQFC data in LMIC to enable evidence-based decision-making and policy development for better nutrition and food safety.
We aimed to examine associations between early educators’ feeding practices and opinions and children’s dietary intake at pre-school, in a context where uniform meals are served and pre-schools are highly regulated.
Cross-sectional study. Food consumption data of the children consisted of two-day food records from pre-school kept by early educators. Early educators also reported their feeding practices and opinions on pre-school food. Serving style was observed.
Municipal pre-schools in Southern and Western Finland.
Pre-schoolers (n 586) aged 3–6 years and early educators (n 378).
Early educators’ positive opinion of the food served at pre-school and the opinion that sufficient vegetables were available for the children were positively associated with children’s vegetable consumption. Early educators’ role modelling and a positive opinion of the food were negatively associated with children’s energy intake. Encouragement to eat fruit and vegetables was associated with higher fibre intake. Intake of added sugar was low (4·4 % of energy).
Some of the feeding practices and opinions of early educators were related to healthier dietary intake (higher vegetable consumption and fibre intake) among the children. However, in some respects, the results contradicted previous findings. Overall, early educators’ feeding practices and opinions contribute to children’s dietary intake and should be taken into account when promoting healthy food intake among pre-school children.
Incidence rates of breast cancer (BC) are increasing in South Africa. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary intake and BC risk in black South African women. The study population included 396 BC cases and 396 population-based controls matched on age and residence, participating in the South African Breast Cancer study. Diet was assessed using a validated quantified FFQ from which twelve energy-adjusted food groups were formed and analysed. OR were estimated using conditional logistic regressions, adjusted for confounding factors, comparing highest v. lowest median intake. Fresh fruit consumption showed an inverse association with BC risk (OR=0·3, 95 % CI 0·12, 0·80) in premenopausal women, whilst red and organ meat consumption showed an overall inverse association with BC risk (OR=0·6, 95 % CI 0·49, 0·94 and OR=0·6, 95 % CI 0·47, 0·91). Savoury food consumption (sauces, soups and snacks) were positively associated with BC risk in postmenopausal women (OR=2·1, 95 % CI 1·15, 4·07). Oestrogen receptor-positive stratification showed an inverse association with BC risk and consumption of nuts and seeds (OR=0·2, 95 % CI 0·58, 0·86). Based on these results, it is recommended that black South African women follow a diet with more fruit and vegetables together with a decreased consumption of less energy-dense, micronutrient-poor foods such as savoury foods. More research is necessary to investigate the association between BC risk and red and organ meat consumption. Affordable and practical methods regarding these recommendations should be implemented within health intervention strategies.
Adherence to dietary guidelines (DG) may result in higher intake of polyphenols via increased consumption of fruits, vegetables and whole grains. We compared polyphenol dietary intake and urinary excretion between two intervention groups in the Cardiovascular risk REduction Study: Supported by an Integrated Dietary Approach study: a 12-week parallel-arm, randomised controlled trial (n 161; sixty-four males, ninety-seven females; aged 40–70 years). One group adhered to UK DG, whereas the other group consumed a representative UK diet (control). We estimated polyphenol dietary intake, using a 4-d food diary (4-DFD) and FFQ, and analysed 24-h polyphenol urinary excretion by liquid chromatography-tandem MS on a subset of participants (n 46 control; n 45 DG). A polyphenol food composition database for 4-DFD analysis was generated using Phenol-Explorer and USDA databases. Total polyphenol intake by 4-DFD at endpoint (geometric means with 95 % CI, adjusted for baseline and sex) was significantly higher in the DG group (1279 mg/d per 10 MJ; 1158, 1412) compared with the control group (1084 mg/d per 10 MJ; 980, 1197). The greater total polyphenol intake in the DG group was attributed to higher intake of anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and hydroxycinnamic acids, with the primary food sources being fruits, cereal products, nuts and seeds. FFQ estimates of flavonoid intake also detected greater intake in DG compared with the control group. 24-h urinary excretion showed consistency with 4-DFD in their ability to discriminate between dietary intervention groups for six out of ten selected, individual polyphenols. In conclusion, following UK DG increased total polyphenol intake by approximately 20 %, but not all polyphenol subclasses corresponded with this finding.
To categorize the home food environment and dietary intake of young children (5–7 years old) from racially/ethnically diverse households using objectively collected data.
In-home observations in Minneapolis/Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA.
Families with 5–7-year-old children who identified as Black, White, Hmong, Latino, Native American or Somali.
There were many significant differences by race/ethnicity for child dietary intake and for the home food environment, with specific patterns emerging by race/ethnicity. For example, Somali children had high Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) scores, but low daily intakes of fruits and vegetables. Black children had low HEI-2010 scores and a pattern of low intake of healthful foods and high intake of unhealthful foods. White and Latino families had high levels of both healthful and unhealthful home food availability and children with high HEI-2010 scores.
Results indicate that the home food environment of young children varies across racial/ethnic group. Study findings also provide new information regarding the home food environment of young children in previously understudied racial/ethnic groups and indicate that interventions working to improve the home food environment and dietary intake of children may want to consider race/ethnicity.
A wide variety of methods are available to assess dietary intake, each one with different strengths and weaknesses. Researchers face multiple challenges when diet and nutrition need to be accurately assessed, particularly in the selection of the most appropriate dietary assessment method for their study. The goal of the current collaborative work is to present a collection of available resources for dietary assessment implementation.
As a follow-up to the 9th International Conference on Diet and Physical Activity Methods held in 2015, developers of dietary assessment toolkits agreed to collaborate in the preparation of the present paper, which provides an overview of each toolkit. The toolkits presented include: the Diet, Anthropometry and Physical Activity Measurement Toolkit (DAPA; UK); the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) Dietary Assessment Primer (USA); the Nutritools website (UK); the Australasian Child and Adolescent Obesity Research Network (ACAORN) method selector (Australia); and the Danone Dietary Assessment Toolkit (DanoneDAT; France). An at-a-glance summary of features and comparison of the toolkits is provided.
The present review contains general background on dietary assessment, along with a summary of each of the included toolkits, a feature comparison table and direct links to each toolkit, all of which are freely available online.
This overview of dietary assessment toolkits provides comprehensive information to aid users in the selection and implementation of the most appropriate dietary assessment method, or combination of methods, with the goal of collecting the highest-quality dietary data possible.
Individuals born small have an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Altered food preferences in these subjects seem to play a role; however, limited evidence is available on the association between being born small-for-gestational-age (SGA) at term and food intake in adolescence. Alterations in leptin, ghrelin and dopamine levels are suggested mechanisms linking SGA with later food intake. From a large prospective Danish National Birth Cohort, we compared dietary intake of adolescents being born SGA with normal-for-gestational-age (NGA) adolescents. Intake of foods and nutrients was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire in a subsample of 15,607 14-year-old individuals born at term. SGA was defined by birth weight (BW) <10th percentile (n = 1470) and NGA as BW between 10 and 90th percentile (n = 14,137) according to sex and gestational age-specific BW standard curves. Girls born SGA had a 7% (95% CI: 3–12%, P = 0.002) higher intake of added sugar and a 2–8% lower intake of dietary fibre, vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and total n−6, compared with NGA girls (P < 0.05). Adjusting for parental socio-occupational status, maternal smoking and diet in pregnancy did not substantially change the differences in dietary intake, except from dietary fibre, which were no longer statistically significant. No significant differences in dietary intake between SGA and NGA boys were found. In summary, girls born SGA had an unfavourable dietary intake compared with NGA girls. These differences persisted after controlling for potential confounders, thus supporting a fetal programming effect on dietary intake in girls born SGA at term. However, residual confounding by other factors operating early in childhood cannot be excluded.
Various indicators and assessment tools exist to measure diets and nutrition. Most studies eventually rely on one approach. Relatively little is known about how closely results match when different tools are used in the same context. The present study compares and correlates different indicators for the same households and individuals to better understand which indicators can be used as proxies for others.
A survey of households and individuals was carried out in Kenya in 2015. Seven-day food consumption and 24 h dietary recalls were administered at household and individual level, respectively. Individual height and weight measures were taken. Different indicators of food access (energy consumption, household dietary diversity scores), dietary quality (individual dietary diversity scores, micronutrient intakes) and nutrition (anthropometric indicators) were calculated and correlated to evaluate associations.
Rural farm households in western Kenya.
Data collected from 809 households and 1556 individuals living in these households (782 female adults, 479 male adults, 295 children aged 6–59 months).
All measures of food access and dietary quality were positively correlated at individual level. Household-level and individual-level dietary indicators were also positively correlated. Correlations between dietary indicators and anthropometric measures were small and mostly statistically insignificant.
Dietary indicators from 7d food consumption recalls at the household level can be used as proxies of individual dietary quality of children and male and female adults. Individual dietary diversity scores are good proxies of micronutrient intakes. However, neither household-level nor individual-level dietary indicators are good proxies of individual nutritional status in this setting.