To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Post-war Sierra Leone has experienced a population explosion that has raised questions among rural farmers about the relationship between family size and poverty. Agricultural decline and the high cost of schooling are not prompting parents to articulate a desire for smaller families; rather, they highlight that the uncertainty around articulating the “right” number of children is unresolvable because the ability to send children to school is predicated on increasing agricultural outputs that decline precisely because population pressure has reduced soil fertility. Bolten and Marcantonio conclude that this renders family size the heart of a paradox, where there is no optimal number of children.
Pensions may be provided for in a modern society by a mix of several methods, namely by voluntary individual savings, mandatory fully-funded occupational pension systems, mandatory social security financed by pay-as-you-go, and old-fashioned hoarding in cash. We call a specific mixture of the four systems a pension composition. We assume that individual workers decide on their own individual savings, that the fully-funded occupational system is decided upon by the age cohort of the median worker, and that social security is decided upon by the median voter. We assume that individual and collective pension savings are the only sources of capital supply. When capital supply equals demand from industry, there is equilibrium in the capital market with a corresponding equilibrium interest rate and pension composition. In this paper, we assume a demography with one hundred age brackets and we investigate how changes in the birth rates, survival rates, and the retirement age affect the pension composition and the capital market equilibrium. Our conclusion is that for a given technology, the pension composition and the interest rate are determined by the demography and cannot be modified at will as a long-term political instrument.
In Cameroon, two-fifths of the population is between the age of 15 and 24. Adolescents and youths are an important social group for the development of the country and the realization of the demographic dividend. The promotion of sexual and reproductive health will enable youth to transform their potential into development. This study aimed to identify the determinants of condom use at last sexual intercourse among single youths, highlight gender differences in the factors associated with condom use and identify the characteristics of youths who were less likely to use condoms. Data were taken from the 2018 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey. The study sample comprised 1464 single females and 989 single males age 15–24. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to test the study hypotheses. Overall, 51% of the female and 66% of the male youths reported using condoms at last sexual intercourse. For both sexes, the protective factor was not having children. Among the females, belonging to the Bamileke or Mbo ethnic groups and delaying first sexual intercourse were also protective, while working in the modern or service sectors was the main risk factor. Among male youths, residing in households whose heads had a higher educational level was protective and household poverty was the main risk factor. These findings support Cameroon’s multi-sectoral approach to HIV/AIDS prevention among youths, and emphasize the importance of involving parents, teachers and youths in prevention strategies.
The northern bald ibis Geronticus eremita was once widespread throughout the Middle East, northern Africa, and southern and central Europe. Habitat destruction, persecution and the impacts of pesticides have led to its disappearance from most of its former range. It disappeared from central Europe > 400 years ago, but has persisted as a relict and slowly growing breeding population in Morocco, where c. 700 wild birds of all ages remain. In Algeria, the last confirmed breeding was in 1984; in Turkey the fully wild population disappeared in 1989, but a population remains in semi-wild conditions. In Syria a small population was rediscovered in 2002, only to subsequently decline to functional extinction. Restoration programmes have been initiated independently in several locations, with over 300 free-flying birds resulting from reintroduction projects in Austria, Germany, Spain and Turkey, to restore both sedentary and fully migratory populations. Maintaining current efforts in Morocco remains a high conservation priority.
Chapter 3 introduces a range of multidisciplinary data sources available to study disasters and history and outlines some of the methodologies through which we can interpret and analyze these sources. The underpinning argument is that we can use history as a laboratory to better understand disasters – testing hypotheses rather than merely describing conspicuous phenomena, albeit with a recognition of what this also demands of us as historians. In particular, we discuss the production of suitable measures and methods to understand hazards and their effects, whilst also keeping in mind the limitations of the historical record and the need for a critical approach to sources. We consider, therefore, state-of-the-art challenges in historical disaster research such as how we can compensate for lacunae in the historical record by incorporating rapidly increasing volumes of data from the natural sciences, and the opportunities and pitfalls of historical ‘big data’. The chapter concludes by arguing for the importance of systematic comparative methodologies in moving beyond the descriptive and towards the analytical, which requires that we pay particular attention to scale and context.
The last decade has seen the development of a range of new statistical and computational techniques for analysing large collections of radiocarbon (14C) dates, often but not exclusively to make inferences about human population change in the past. Here we introduce rcarbon, an open-source software package for the R statistical computing language which implements many of these techniques and looks to foster transparent future study of their strengths and weaknesses. In this paper, we review the key assumptions, limitations and potentials behind statistical analyses of summed probability distribution of 14C dates, including Monte-Carlo simulation-based tests, permutation tests, and spatial analyses. Supplementary material provides a fully reproducible analysis with further details not covered in the main paper.
This chapter examines the practical matter of resources in war-making, both human and material. The first half assesses recruitment practices across the course of Roman history, especially the role of conscription and compulsion, and then the changing size of military forces through time and its likely demographic impact. Consideration is also given to the logistical implications of the size of campaign armies. The second half focuses on the financial costs of maintaining the armed forces in the different periods of Roman history, before turning to the financial benefits of warfare, including booty, indemnities, territory and taxes – as well as the material costs of defeat. The quantitative dimension of all these subjects means that much of the discussion concerns the limitations of the extant evidence.
This chapter provides a brief, non-technical introduction to the strictly linguistic aspects of the evolution of World Englishes: the reasons for the fact that New Englishes have developed distinctive forms of their own, and the processes that have brought these new properties about. These speech forms and habits are shown to be products of language contact situations, with features of indigenous languages taken over into local forms of English, and an interplay of language-internal (such as effects of cognition, tendencies towards simplicity, regularity, or assigning a functional load to language forms) and extralinguistic factors (including demographic proportions, power relationships, prestige and social attitudes and identities). Secondly, it is shown that World Englishes share not only such evolutionary trajectories but also specific forms and features on the levels of vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar (such as reduced or modified vowel and sound systems, semantic shifting and typical word-formation processes, or characteristic grammatical innovations, often starting out at the interface between lexis and grammar). All linguistic forms brought into a contact situation constitute a "pool" of linguistic options, of which some then are successfully selected to become elements of a newly-emerging dialect of English.
Chapter 9 depicts pastoral livelihood strategies in the 1990s and early 2000s. The altered savannah landscape with its far flung network of boreholes and its peculiar vegetation structure (mopane bush and annual species dominating over perennial species) is used by an enormous regional herd. Also the human population increases due to better health provisions and settlement patterns changed. Degradation of rangelands and attempts of herders to access new pastures, a demise of communal control over grazing lands, and subsequent attempts to recapture the commons are hallmarks of this period.
Chapter 3 explores how and where individuals met their future marriage partners. From the eighteenth to the early twentieth century there was a gradual expansion in the spatial range in which the search for a marriage partner took place. The move into towns and cities broadened the spaces for courtship. This chapter also looks at the ages at which people married and the changes that came about in age of marriage over the period. It reveals that from the seventeenth through to the early twentieth century, financial and material considerations formed a central part of the negotiations for the majority of marriages. Marriage was used by families as a means to accumulate additional economic resources or to retain land within a particular family. The size of a dowry could vary, depending on class, family income, and the numbers of daughters requiring a marriage portion. The perception that the dowry and arranged marriages became more pervasive in post-Famine Ireland is, however, not supported by the evidence. Dowries, whatever shape they took, made marriages an explicit business deal. Assets and the rights brought with them, provided the expectation of a wife’s control of her own household, the support of a husband and the safety of a family unit in which all might prosper.
In Chapter 2, we review prior work on scale, discuss obstacles to reaching inferences about the causal role of scale, and lay out our own approach to this difficult question. After surveying extent work on community size and related subjects, we discuss the concept of a political community, which may be of several sorts and of any size. In the third section, we lay out the measurement of community scale, explaining that we transform population from a linear measure into a logarithmic measure. In the fourth section, we consider the difficulty of treating scale as a causal factor. This is a complicated issue, given that the population of political communities is a slow-moving cause, not directly manipulable, and rarely subject to as-if random perturbations. As such, it falls far from the gold standard of experimental research designs. The fifth section lays out the modeling strategies employed in quantitative analyses to follow. The sixth section discusses various outcomes of theoretical interest, and the final section introduces the data sources that we rely on to measure right- and left-side variables.
Every country, every subnational government, and every electoral district has a designated population. Some are large and some are small. Yet in existing empirical work, population is usually treated as a background factor. In this preface, the present book’s focus on scale effects is outlined and motivated. By means of a brief comparison of the illustrative examples of the United States and Malta, it is argued that population size influences politics in a variety of ways. Since it is difficult to reach a determination about the role of scale for particular cases, this book examines scale effects at a general level, focusing on universal rather than particular causal effects. While a venerable tradition of political thought and scholarship suggests that scale is an obstacle to democracy and good governance, our findings suggest that scale has both positive and negative effects. The final section of the preface lays out the structure of this book, highlighting the themes discussed in each of the following chapters.
This chapter explores differences of scale as manifested in political communities around the world. The first section of this chapter takes stock of scale differences across a variety of political units, highlighting the extraordinary demographic variation on display across nation-states, municipalities, and electoral districts. Next, we demonstrate the extreme skewness that characterizes most differences of scale. In the third section, we examine differences of scale across different organizational types, showing that political communities often contain greater size differences than other sorts of organizations. In the final section, we show that size affects our choice of subjects, with larger communities garnering the lion’s share of attention from academics and (we assume) the popular press. We highlight that this problem of knowledge bias is troublesome, not only because small units in combination contain a good number of people, but especially because our knowledge of the world tends to be based on highly unrepresentative samples.
Every country, every subnational government, and every district has a designated population, and this has a bearing on politics in ways most citizens and policymakers are barely aware of. Population and Politics provides a comprehensive evaluation of the political implications stemming from the size of a political unit – on social cohesion, the number of representatives, overall representativeness, particularism ('pork'), citizen engagement and participation, political trust, electoral contestation, leadership succession, professionalism in government, power concentration in the central apparatus of the state, government intervention, civil conflict, and overall political power. A multimethod approach combines field research in small states and islands with cross-country and within-country data analysis. Population and Politics will be of interest to academics, policymakers, and anyone concerned with decentralization and multilevel governance.
There is an emerging debate about the growth of Anglicanism in sub-Saharan Africa. With this debate in mind, this paper uses four statistically representative surveys of sub-Saharan Africa to estimate the relative and absolute number who identify as Anglican in five countries: Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda. The results for Kenya, South Africa and Tanzania are broadly consistent with previous scholarly assessments. The findings on Nigeria and Uganda, the two largest provinces, are likely to be more controversial. The evidence from statistically representative surveys finds that the claims often made of the Church of Nigeria consisting of ‘over 18 million’ exceedingly unlikely; the best statistical estimate is that under 8 million Nigerians identify as Anglican. The evidence presented here shows that Uganda (rather than Nigeria) has the strongest claim to being the largest province in Africa in terms of those who identify as Anglican, and is larger than is usually assumed. Evidence from the Ugandan Census of Populations and Households, however, also suggests the proportion of Ugandans that identify as Anglican is in decline, even if absolute numbers have been growing, driven by population growth.
The Belgian medical world has acknowledged the diagnosis of transsexualism and accepted Sex Reassignment Surgery (SRS) as one of the steps in the treatment of choice since 1985. This prevalence and demographic study analyses data on all Belgian individuals who have undergone SRS since that year.
All (188) plastic surgeons as well as all gender teams (Antwerp, Bruges, Ghent, and Liège) in Belgium were sent demographic questionnaires to be completed for each of their transsexual patients.
The results show an overall prevalence of 1:12,900 for male-to-female and 1:33,800 for female-to-male transsexuals in Belgium. In Wallonia (the French-speaking region of Belgium) the prevalence is significantly lower than in Flanders (the Dutch-speaking region) and in Brussels (the bilingual capital region). In the total Belgian population the male/female sex ratio is 2.43:1, again with a substantial difference between Wallonia on the one hand and Flanders on the other.
Discussion and Conclusion
While in Flanders and in Brussels the prevalence is comparable to that in other Western European countries, in Wallonia it is markedly lower. Transsexualism in Wallonia appears to be socially less acceptable: persons suffering from gender dysphoria in that part of Belgium encounter more problems accessing gender clinics and receiving treatment.
As of yet, there is no political sociology of demography. Although not entirely ignored, demography has not been a central concern or preoccupation for most political sociologists; other topics and themes have more forcefully commanded attention. With some important exceptions, its relationship to states, parties, and movements has rarely been explicitly foregrounded. The same can be said about the relationship between demography and power. But what would a political sociology of demography look like? What kinds of questions and issues could it address? How could it contribute to our understanding of politics and demography, and of the relationship between the two?
There is limited understanding of the cognitive profiles of Spanish-speaking children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The current study investigated the cognitive cluster profiles of Puerto Rican Spanish-speaking children with ADHD using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition Spanish (WISC-IV Spanish) Index scores and examined the association between cognitive cluster profiles with other potentially relevant factors.
Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify WISC-IV clusters in a sample of 165 Puerto Rican children who had a primary diagnosis of ADHD. To examine the validity of the ADHD clusters, analysis of variances and chi-square analyses were conducted to compare the clusters across sociodemographics (e.g., age and education), type of ADHD diagnosis (ADHD subtype, Learning Disorder comorbidity), and academic achievement.
Clusters were differentiated by level and pattern of performance. A five-cluster solution was identified as optimal that included (C1) multiple cognitive deficits, (C2) processing speed deficits, (C3) generally average performance, (C4) perceptual reasoning strengths, and (C5) working memory deficits. Among the five clusters, the profile with multiple cognitive deficits was characterized by poorer performance on the four WISC-IV Spanish Indexes and was associated with adverse sociodemographic characteristics.
Results illustrate that there is substantial heterogeneity in cognitive abilities of Puerto Rican Spanish-speaking children with ADHD, and this heterogeneity is associated with a number of relevant outcomes.
This chapter charts Syria’s descent into conflict, from the eruption of demonstrations in March 2011 to the unrestrained brutality that would come to characterise the Syrian conflict – itself an umbrella for a number of distinct conflicts, both civil and international. The chapter focuses on the Syrian government’s leading role in Syria’s conflagration. Beginning with an analysis of the conflict’s origins and the Syrian government’s strategy, which developed from suppression and terror to a ‘total war’, the chapter describes the conduct of the Syrian government against its own people, elaborating on the chemical weapons attacks. It then discusses Russia’s and Iran’s intervention and concludes with an assessment of the implications of the conflict on the civil society in Syria in terms of deaths and casualties, demographic changes in the population of Syria, and the economic repercussions of the conflict.