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The ruminal degradation of P bound in phytate (InsP6) can vary between feeds, but data on ruminal degradation of InsP6 from different feedstuffs for cattle are rare. One objective of this study was to increase the data base on ruminal effective degradation of InsP6 (InsP6ED) and to assess if InsP6ED of compound feeds (CF) can be calculated from comprising single feeds. As a second objective, use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict InsP6 concentrations was tested. Nine single feeds (maize, wheat, barley, faba beans, soybeans, soybean meal (SBM), rapeseed meal (RSM), sunflower meal (SFM), dried distillers’ grains with solubles (DDGS)) and two CF (CF1/CF2), consisting of different amounts of the examined single feeds, were incubated for 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h in the rumen of three ruminally fistulated Jersey cows. Samples of CF were examined before (CF1/CF2 Mash) and after pelleting (CF1/CF2 Pellet), and InsP6ED was calculated for all feeds at two passage rates (InsP6ED5: k = 5%/h; InsP6ED8: k = 8%/h). For CF1 and CF2, InsP6ED was also calculated from values of the respective single feeds. Near-infrared spectra were recorded in duplicate and used to establish calibrations to predict InsP6 concentration. Besides a global calibration, also local calibrations were evaluated by separating samples into different data sets based on their origin. The InsP6ED8 was highest for faba beans (91%), followed by maize (90%), DDGS (89%), soybeans (85%), wheat (76%) and barley (74%). Lower values were determined for oilseed meals (48% RSM, 65% SFM, 66% SBM). Calculating InsP6ED of CF from values of single feeds underestimated observed values up to 11 percentage points. The NIRS calibrations in general showed a good performance, but statistical key data suggest that local calibrations should be established. The wide variation of InsP6ED between feeds indicates that the ruminal availability of P bound in InsP6 should be evaluated individually for feeds. This requires further in situ studies with high amounts of samples for InsP6 analysis. Near-infrared spectroscopy has the potential to simplify the analytical step of InsP6 in the future, but the calibrations need to be expanded.
This work demonstrates a double-step method, a simple chemical bath deposition and an in situ polymerization process, to synthesize the stable structure of a composite of Polyaniline/BiVO4/cellulose aerogel (PBC) in wastewater treatment. The poor stability of the carrier catalyst was improved significantly by forming a dense film of polyaniline (PANI) through polymerization on BiVO4/cellulose aerogel (BC). The developed three-dimensional porous structure enhanced photocatalytic stability. For instance, photocatalytic degradation of a dye, methylene blue, reached to 91.67% under the eight times successive irradiation of the visible light. The resulted fine performance could be owed to the strong adsorption of cellulose aerogel, uniform spreading of BiVO4, and the speedy electron separation efficiency of PBC. Moreover, the photocatalytic mechanisms including the role of the free radicals (•OH and •O2−) of the developed PBC were also discussed. The novel structure may present a new insight into the development of the carrier catalyst.
Land degradation is a global challenge that affects lives and livelihoods in many communities. Since 1950, about 65% of Africa's cropland, on which millions of people depend, has been affected by land degradation caused by mining, poor farming practices and illegal logging. One-quarter of the land area of Ethiopia is severely degraded. As part of interventions to restore ecosystem services, exclosures have been implemented in Ethiopia since the 1980s. But the lack of tools to support prioritization and more efficient targeting of areas for large-scale exclosure-based interventions remains a challenge. Within that perspective, the overarching objectives of the current study were: (i) to develop a Geographic Information System-based multicriteria decision-support tool that would help in the identification of suitable areas for exclosure initiatives; (ii) to provide spatially explicit information, aggregated by river basin and agroecology, on potential areas for exclosure interventions and (iii) to conduct ex-ante analysis of the potential of exclosure areas for improving ecosystem services in terms of increase in above-ground biomass (AGB) production and carbon storage. The results of this study demonstrated that as much as 10% of Ethiopia's land area is suitable for establishing exclosures. This amounts to 11 million hectares (ha) of land depending on the criteria used to define suitability for exclosure. Of this total, a significant proportion (0.5–0.6 million ha) is currently under agricultural land-use systems. In terms of propriety river basins, we found that the largest amount of suitable area for exclosures falls in the Abay (2.6 million ha) and Tekeze (2.2 million ha) river basins, which are hosts to water infrastructure such as hydropower dams and are threatened by siltation. Ex-ante analysis of ecosystem services indicated that about 418 million tons of carbon can be stored in the AGB through exclosure land use. Ethiopia has voluntarily committed to the Bonn Challenge to restore 15 million ha of degraded land by 2025. The decision-support tool developed by the current study and the information so generated go toward supporting the planning, implementation and monitoring of these kinds of local and regional initiatives.
This chapter provides an introduction to stochastic methods for modelling spatially homogeneous systems of chemical reactions. The Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithm and the chemical master equation are presented using simple examples of chemical systems. The chemical master equation is analysed for chemical systems containing zeroth-order, first-order and second-order chemical reactions. For zeroth-order and first-order chemical reactions, the average behaviour of the stochastic chemical system is described by the ordinary differential equations (ODEs) given by the standard deterministic model. However, when we consider higher-order chemical reactions, for which the deterministic description is nonlinear, the deterministic ODE model does not provide an exact description of the average behaviour of the stochastic system.
This paper presents a novel method for quantifying the effect of ambient, environmental and operating conditions on the progression of degradation in aircraft gas turbines based on the measured engine and environmental parameters. The proposed equivalent operating time (EOT) model considers the degradation modes of fouling, erosion, and blade-tip wear due to creep strain, and expresses the actual degradation rate over the engine clock time relative to a pre-defined reference condition. In this work, the effects of changing environmental and engine operating conditions on the EOT for the core engine booster compressor and the high-pressure turbine were assessed by performance simulation with an engine model. The application to a single and multiple flight scenarios showed that, compared to the actual engine clock time, the EOT provides a clear description of component degradation, prediction of remaining useful life, and sufficient margin for maintenance action to be planned and performed before functional failure.
This chapter and the two that follow cover the period from 1838 to enactment of the Fugitive Slave Act in October 1850. The chapter begins with an examination of the covert networks that helped fugitives from enslavement traverse the Borderland in at least a dozen places between Quincy, IL, and Chester, PA. It then discusses the cultural roots of the violence of mastery, and dozens of incidents in which slaveholders and slave catchers brought the violence of mastery into the Borderland, rampaging through entire communities, breaking into homes, and on a few occasions killing and dismembering escapees who resisted. The chapter explores the impact of this violence on the lives of abolitionists, free blacks, and Underground activists in the Borderland and the manner in which the Underground Railroad adapted its operations to meet the challenge by embracing speed and stealth. Finally, the chapter discusses the dynamics of fugitive rescues in the Borderland, noting particularly the different dynamics of urban and rural rescues and the rarity of interracial cooperation in these efforts.
The effects of silicon incorporation on the in vitro and in vivo properties of magnesium phosphate (MgP) bioceramics were studied. Samples were prepared by conventional solid state synthesis method. Scanning electron microscopy and micro-computed tomography (µ-CT) analysis showed that Si doping reduces degradability of MgP. In vitro studies have shown that MG63 cells can attach and proliferate on MgP samples. Live/dead imaging showed that MgP–0.5Si sample had highest cell proliferation, which was also quantitatively confirmed by alamar blue assay. In vivo biocompatibility of MgP ceramics was assessed after implantation in rabbit model. Detailed µ-CT analysis showed new bone tissue formation around the implant after 30 and 90 days. MgP–0.5Si ceramics had 84% bone regeneration compared with 56% for pure MgP ceramics, as confirmed by oxytetracycline labeling. Our finding suggests that Si doping can alter physicochemical properties of MgP ceramics and promotes osseointegration, which can be a useful choice for bone tissue engineering.
Amphibians on African mountains are threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation, pollution, disease and climate change. In particular, there have been recent reports of declines of montane endemic frogs in Cameroon. Mount Bamboutos, although home to numerous species of endemic amphibians, has no official protection and its amphibian populations have so far not been studied quantitatively. We surveyed frog assemblages on this mountain along a gradient of forest modification over a 2-year period. Through visual encounter surveys stratified across forest and farmland, we found that threatened montane amphibian species are closely associated with forested areas, particularly the Critically Endangered Leptodactylodon axillaris and Endangered Leptodactylodon perreti, Astylosternus ranoides and Cardioglossa oreas. Using the updated inventory of amphibians, which includes species with broader ranges across Africa, we found 69% of amphibian species on Mount Bamboutos to be threatened. We did not record several species present in historical records, which suggests they may have disappeared from this mountain, including Cardioglossa pulchra, Phrynobatrachus steindachneri, Phrynobatrachus werneri, Sclerophrys villiersi, Werneria bambutensis and Wolterstorffina mirei. The pattern of change detected in the amphibian community is consistent with declines on other mountains in the country, with a loss of Phrynobatrachus, Werneria and Cardioglossa spp., but persistence of Astylosternus, Arthroleptis and Leptodacty-lodon. The observed relationships of land-use patterns and amphibian diversity suggest that ongoing land-use changes could extirpate the remaining montane endemic frog species, particularly L. axillaris and L. perreti. Preserving a network of connected forest patches is therefore critical to save the endemic amphibians of Mount Bamboutos.
The present study investigated the effects of Porphyra yezoensis enzyme degradation extract (PYEDE) on the brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases due to oxidative stress. We used in vitro antioxidant systems to verify the antioxidant potential of PYEDE. The results indicated that the PYEDE alleviated weight loss and organ atrophy, reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation and elevated reduced glutathione (GSH) content in the serum and brains of the d-galactose-induced ageing model mice. The PYEDE also renewed the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capability activities, down-regulated the inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels, normalised the hippocampal neurons and modulated multiple neurotransmitter systems by inhibiting the activities of acetylcholinesterase and monoamine oxidase in the up-regulation of acetylcholine, dopamine and noradrenaline levels. Overall, the PYEDE is a promising supplement for the alleviation of oxidative stress and age-associated brain diseases.
The aim of the present study was to map the painting materials, degradation processes, and biological features present on the mural painting in the church of St. Mary in Beram (Croatia) to study their possible interaction and produce information helping the preservation of this valuable painting. The research was conducted on micro samples of painting materials taken from different sites along the painting and the characterization of the present fungal species was carried out. The painting samples, together with observable patinas and degradation products, were studied by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction. Fungal diversity was studied using cultivation methods followed by OM and SEM analyses in addition to molecular analysis. The results contribute to the characterization of the original painting materials, successively added materials and occurred interventions, to the understanding of degradation progressions and fungal biotransformation processes. A mineral, cumengite, a copper-based pigment extremely rarely used in art, was found. Its occurrence together with barium sulfate, gypsum, and calcium oxalate possibly produced by microbiological activity was studied and information was added regarding the composition of painting materials in St. Mary church mural cycle.
A series of double-perovskite LaAMnNiO6 (A = La, Pr, Sm) catalysts with mesoporous morphology was prepared by a sol–gel method and further applied into photothermal synergistic degradation of gaseous toluene. Transmission electron microscopy and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller characterizations confirmed that double-perovskite LaAMnNiO6 (A = La, Pr, Sm) had obvious mesoporous structure, which can provide a larger specific surface area and further enhancing the reactivity of catalyst. UV-vis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization illustrated that LaSmMnNiO6 possessed higher adsorption oxygen content and light absorption capacity, which contribute to the occurrence of catalytic oxidation in the Mars–van Krevelen redox cycle mechanism. A group of active tests showed that the double-perovskite LaSmMnNiO6 catalyst had a lower reaction initiation temperature (starting reaction at 75 °C) and a lower activity temperature of optimal reaction (more than 90% at 255 °C). Moreover, the research on reaction kinetics of the catalyst demonstrated that LaAMnNiO6 (A = La, Pr, Sm) had lower activation energy and thus exhibited better catalytic activity. The results of the study indicate that the double-perovskite LaAMnNiO6 (A = La, Pr, Sm) has broad application prospects in the field of volatile organic pollutant degradation.
Terminal heat stress leads to sizeable yield loss in late-sown wheat in tropical environments. Several synthetic compounds are known to counteract plant stress emanating from abiotic factors. A field experiment was conducted in Sabour (eastern India) during 2013–2016 to investigate the field efficacy of two synthetic compounds, calcium chloride (CaCl2) and arginine, for improving grain yield of two contrasting wheat cultivars (DBW 14 and K 307) facing terminal heat stress. For this, foliar spray of 18.0 mM CaCl2 at booting (CCB) or anthesis (CCA), 9.0 mM CaCl2 at both booting and anthesis (CCB+A), 2.5 mM arginine at booting (ARGB) or anthesis (ARGA) and 1.25 mM arginine at both booting and anthesis (ARGB+A) treatments along with no-spray and water-spray treatments were evaluated in late-sown wheat. The highest grain yield was recorded in treatment CCB+A, followed by CCA and ARGB+A. However, the effect of these compounds was marginal on grain yield when applied only at the booting stage. Grains/ear and thousand-grain weight were found to be the critical determinants for yield in late-sown wheat. During the anthesis to grain filling period, flag-leaf chlorophyll degradation and increase in relative permeability in no-spray treatment were 34–36% and 29–52%, respectively, but these values were reduced considerably in CCB+A treatment followed CCA. Thus, foliar spray of 9.0 mM CaCl2 both at booting and anthesis stages may be recommended for alleviating the negative impacts of terminal heat stress in late-sown wheat and improving its productivity (>13%).
The solvent-casting method was used to synthesize a silver–zeolite–chitosan (AgZ-Ch) composite from Philippine natural zeolites. X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet–visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, optical emission spectroscopy (OES), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG) were used to investigate the different properties of the composite before and after plasma treatment. The major phase of the zeolite is Na-clinoptilolite with trace amounts of mordenite, feldspar and quartz. UV-Vis and OES analyses confirmed the presence of Ag and zeolite on the chitosan matrix. The decrease in the transmittance signal at 290 nm and the emission spectra of the discharge showed the presence of Ag I, Al I and Si I signals at 705–852 nm. The TGA and DTG curves revealed the thermal stability of the natural zeolites after ion exchange and after incorporation in the chitosan matrix, where the onset of degradation was observed to occur above ~37°C, the human body temperature. Bacterial count showed minimal growth of colonies on all samples, both pristine and plasma-treated, suggesting that the surface of the composites does not influence bacterial habitation. The fabricated composites meet the minimum requirements for biomedical application such as thermal stability with respect to the average human body temperature and absence of bacteria.
Anthropogenic habitat alteration and invasive species are threatening carnivores globally. Understanding the impact of these factors is critical for creating localized, effective conservation programmes. Madagascar's Eupleridae have been described as the least studied and most threatened group of carnivores. We investigated the effects of habitat degradation and the presence of people and exotic species on the modelled occupancy of the endemic fosa Cryptoprocta ferox, conducting camera-trap surveys in two western deciduous forests, Ankarafantsika National Park and Andranomena Special Reserve. Our results indicated no clear patterns between habitat degradation and fosa occupancy but a strong negative association between cats Felis sp. and fosas. Cat occupancy was negatively associated with birds and positively associated with contiguous forest and narrow trails. In contrast, dog Canis lupus familiaris occupancy was best predicted by wide trails, degraded forest and exotic civets. Our results suggest fosas are capable of traversing degraded landscapes and, in the short term, are resilient to contiguous forest disturbance. However, high occupancy of cats and dogs in the landscape leads to resource competition through prey exploitation and interference, increasing the risk of transmission of potentially fatal diseases. Management strategies for exotic carnivores should be considered, to reduce the widespread predation of endemic species and the transmission of disease.
Composite materials include various components with different structures, which cooperatively increase their properties and extend their application. In this study, the graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) guest material was assembled into the porous of the SiO2 aerogel, which was prepared during the gel process. By this way, the g-C3N4 could be absolutely encapsulated into the porous of the disordered porous SiO2 aerogel. The prepared g-C3N4/SiO2 composite had a loose porous structure and exhibited the much higher photocatalytic activity to the photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light. The disordered porous structure enhanced photocatalytic activity, and the degradation rate reached to 96.42% in 90 min under the irradiation of visible light, which could be attributed to its high surface area and effective electron–hole separation rate. The catalyst had the much higher stability and could be easily recycled utilization. The prepared composites could be applied to degrade organic pollutants in wastewater.
The susceptibility of marine bacterial communities to copper pyrithione (CuPT2), zinc pyrithione (ZnPT2) and their degradation product is described and toxicities of these relatively new antifouling biocides compared with those of their harmful organotin (OT) predecessors, tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT). These biocides were added to agar at concentrations of 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg l−1 and coastal seawater including indigenous bacteria added to each batch of agar solution. The number of bacterial colony forming units (CFU) was measured after 7 days culture. Relative CFU (as a percentage of control) was more than 80% at a concentration of 0.01 mg l−1 of each compound, except for TBT. Relative CFU decreased as a function of dose of each biocide, although concentration-dependent changes in rate of CFU were relatively low during exposure to degradation products of CuPT2 and ZnPT2, pyridine N-oxide (PO) and pyridine-2-sulphonic acid (PSA). Based on comparisons of EC50, TBT was the most bacterio-toxic of the tested compounds (0.2 mg l−1), marginally more so than CuPT2 (0.3 mg l−1). Interestingly, EC50 values of degradation products of CuPT2 and ZnPT2, 2-mercaptopyridine N-oxide (HPT) and 2,2′-dithio-bispyridine N-oxide (PT2) were 0.8 and 0.5 mg l−1, respectively, lower than that of the parent chemical, ZnPT2 (1.4 mg l−1). The EC50 of PT2 was also lower than that of TPT (0.7 mg l−1), implying higher toxicity. Given the overlapping toxicity ranges, these results suggest that marine bacterial communities experience comparably high susceptibility to metal PTs and OTs during their life history.
Dyeing wastewater has caused serious environmental problems nowadays. In this work, nickel–phosphorus plating–titanium dioxide (Ni-P-TiO2) electroless plating polyimide (PI) fabric was fabricated as an excellent visible light response composite. First, polyaniline (PANI) was in situ polymerized on the surface of the PI fabric. Second, PANI reduced palladium ions to be active seeds for initiating electroless plating of Ni-P-TiO2 layer. Finally, the Ni-P-TiO2/PANI/PI fabric with all-in-one structure was prepared, which can effectively overcome the drawbacks of poor loading fastness and insensitivity to visible light response. It was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degrading reactive blue 19, methylene blue, and reactive red (M-3BE) under visible light irradiation. The results show that the degradation rates of the all three dyes were over 91% with robust cycle stability for repeated 5 cycles of use. The possible photocatalytic degradation mechanism of fabrics was also proposed based on free radical and hole removal experiments.
Although parasites and microbial pathogens are both detrimental to insects, little information is currently available on the mechanism involved in how parasitized hosts balance their immune responses to defend against microbial infections. We addressed this in the present study by comparing the immune response between unparasitized and parasitized pupae of the chrysomelid beetle, Octodonta nipae (Maulik), to Escherichia coli invasion. In an in vivo survival assay, a markedly reduced number of E. coli colony-forming units per microliter was detected in parasitized pupae at 12 and 24 h post-parasitism, together with decreased phagocytosis and enhanced bactericidal activity at 12 h post-parasitism. The effects that parasitism had on the mRNA expression level of selected antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of O. nipae pupae showed that nearly all transcripts of AMPs examined were highly upregulated during the early and late parasitism stages except defensin 2B, whose mRNA expression level was downregulated at 24 h post-parasitism. Further elucidation on the main maternal fluids responsible for alteration of the primary immune response against E. coli showed that ovarian fluid increased phagocytosis at 48 h post-injection. These results indicated that the enhanced degradation of E. coli in parasitized pupae resulted mainly from the elevated bactericidal activity without observing the increased transcripts of target AMPs. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the immune responses of a parasitized host to bacterial infections.
Pyrolized carbon in biochar can sequester atmospheric CO2 into soil to reduce impacts of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. When estimating the stability of biochar, degradation of biochar carbon, mobility of degradation products, and ingress of carbon from other sources must all be considered. In a previous study we tracked degradation in biochars produced from radiocarbon-free wood and subjected to different physico-chemical treatments over three years in a rainforest soil. Following completion of the field trial, we report here a series of in-vitro incubations of the degraded biochars to determine CO2 efflux rates, 14C concentration and δ13C values in CO2 to quantify the contributions of biochar carbon and other sources of carbon to the CO2 efflux. The 14C concentration in CO2 showed that microbial degradation led to respiration of CO2 sourced from indigenous biochar carbon (≈0.5–1.4 μmoles CO2/g biochar C/day) along with a component of carbon closely associated with the biochars but derived from the local environment. Correlations between 14C concentration, δ13C values and Ca abundance indicated that Ca2+ availability was an important determinant of the loss of biochar carbon.