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Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) causes over $1.2 billion in revenue loss annually in the United States and consistently ranks as the most threatening pathogen for soybean. SCN weed hosts have been documented in other states in the eastern Corn Belt, but very little work has been done in the midwestern Corn Belt. To determine alternative SCN weed hosts in South Dakota, 670 whole weed root samples comprising 63 weed species were collected from 48 SCN-positive fields in 13 counties during fall 2016 and spring 2017. Among the 63 weed species, 12 contained SCN juveniles and 7 were confirmed hosts of SCN based on the completion of the SCN life cycle in greenhouse studies. Ranking of female index (FI) for the weed hosts were purple deadnettle (FI = 34.6) > field pennycress (FI = 26.9) > common mallow (FI = 2.04) > shepherd’s purse (FI = 1.89) > white clover (FI = 1.86) > Canada thistle (FI = 1.24) > common cocklebur (FI = 1.10). These results indicate that some weeds can support SCN, and therefore a proactive weed management approach should be employed for fields infested with SCN.
This is a case of a 30-year-old right-handed male patient who presented to the hospital in 2014 after hitting his head on the mat during a wrestling match followed by headache and temporary peripheral vision limitation. The patient’s past medical history was unremarkable. On physical examination, Glasgow Coma Scale was 15 with no focal neurological deficits. Unenhanced head computed tomography (CT) and enhanced brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed (Figure 1). The patient was managed conservatively, and follow-up CT and MRI in 2015 (Figure 2) demonstrated significant decrease in size of the previously seen right frontoparietal lesion with also changes in its radiological features. The patient remained asymptomatic for about 3 years when in 2018 he presented to the Emergency Department with increasing headaches and peripheral vision loss. MRI demonstrated an increase in the right frontal lesion size (Figure 3). He underwent surgical resection of the lesion.
This study examined Echinococcus spp. genotypes and genetic variants isolated from humans as well as domestic and wild animals from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Area using the cox1 gene. All samples except the pika isolates were identified as the Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto. Sixteen different haplotypes with considerable intraspecific variation were detected and characterized in mitochondrial cox1 sequences. The parsimonious network of cox1 haplotypes showed star-like features, and the neutrality indexes computed via Tajima's D and Fu's Fs tests showed high negative values in E. granulosus s. s., indicating deviations from neutrality; the Fst values were low among the populations, implying that the populations were not genetically differentiated. The pika isolates were identified as E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus. Only one haplotype was recognized in the pika isolates. E. granulosus s. s. was the predominant species found in animals and humans, followed by E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus, with high genetic diversity circulating among the animals and humans in this area. Further studies are needed to cover many sample collection sites and larger numbers of pathogen isolates, which may reveal abundant strains and/or other haplotypes in the hydatid cysts infecting human and animal populations of the QTPA, China.
There are substantial knowledge gaps, practice variation, and paucity of controlled trials owing to the relatively small number of patients with critical heart disease. The Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society has recognised this knowledge gap as an area needing a more comprehensive and evidence-based approach to the management of the critically ill child with heart disease. To address this, the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society created a scientific statements and white papers committee. Scientific statements and white papers will present the current state-of-the-art in areas where controversy exists, providing clinicians with guidance in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, particularly where evidence-based data are lacking. This paper provides a template for other societies and organisations faced with the task of developing scientific statements and white papers. We describe the methods used to perform a systematic literature search and evidence rating that will be used by all scientific statements and white papers emerging from the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society. The Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society aims to revolutionise the care of children with heart disease by shifting our efforts from individual institution-based practices to national standardised protocols and to lay the ground work for multicentre high-impact research directions.
Hydatid disease is a zoonotic parasitic infection endemic in livestock-raising countries. Isolated cardiac hydatid cyst is a very rare disease, and chest pain, palpitations, cough, and dyspnoea are the most common presenting symptoms. Here a case of isolated cardiac hydatid cyst in a female patient with chest pain and electrocardiographic changes mimicking myocardial ischaemia is presented.
Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes toxoplasmosis, a prevalent infection related to abortion, ocular diseases and encephalitis in immuno-compromised individuals. In the untreatable (and life-long) chronic stage of toxoplasmosis, parasitophorous vacuoles (PVs, containing T. gondii tachyzoites) transform into tissue cysts, containing slow-dividing bradyzoite forms. While acute-stage infection with tachyzoites involves global rearrangement of the host cell cytoplasm, focused on favouring tachyzoite replication, the cytoplasmic architecture of cells infected with cysts had not been described. Here, we characterized (by fluorescence and electron microscopy) the redistribution of host cell structures around T. gondii cysts, using a T. gondii strain (EGS) with high rates of spontaneous cystogenesis in vitro. Microtubules and intermediate filaments (but not actin microfilaments) formed a ‘cage’ around the cyst, and treatment with taxol (to inhibit microtubule dynamics) favoured cystogenesis. Mitochondria, which appeared adhered to the PV membrane, were less closely associated with the cyst wall. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) profiles were intimately associated with folds in the cyst wall membrane. However, the Golgi complex was not preferentially localized relative to the cyst, and treatment with tunicamycin or brefeldin A (to disrupt Golgi or ER function, respectively) had no significant effect on cystogenesis. Lysosomes accumulated around cysts, while early and late endosomes were more evenly distributed in the cytoplasm. The endocytosis tracer HRP (but not BSA or transferrin) reached bradyzoites after uptake by infected host cells. These results suggest that T. gondii cysts reorganize the host cell cytoplasm, which may fulfil specific requirements of the chronic stage of infection.
Objective: The concomitant presence of pituitary adenoma (PA) with Rathke’s cleft cyst (RCC) is rare, and most of the literature published is case reports. RCC’s clinicopathological features have not been well described. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 15 patients with PA associated with RCC. We also provide a systematic review of the literature. Results: The patients included males and seven females. The transsphenoidal approach was adopted for all patients except one, who underwent right frontal craniotomy. Complete resection was achieved in nine cases, with grossly complete resection in five and partial removal in one. Of the PA subtypes available, five patients had nonfunctional pituitary adenomas, three had multiple-hormone secreting PAs, three had prolactin-producing adenomas, and one had a growth hormone-secreting adenoma. All of the patients’ symptoms and abnormal endocrine test results resolved or were relieved after surgery. The mean follow-up time was 27.6±16.6 months. All of the patients recovered well and had no signs of recurrence during their follow-up, except for one patient. Conclusions: A cyst-like signal indicated on images or cystic materials encountered during operation in a patient with PA suggest the possibility of PA associated with RCC. Transsphenoidal surgery is the preferred approach and can resolve or relieve patients’ symptoms to a great extent. Histologically, nonfunctional PA and prolactinoma are the most common types of PA coexisting with RCC; the mechanisms of PA associated with RCC need to be investigated further.
Harmful algal blooms caused by raphidophyte species of the genus Chattonella (i.e. Chattonella antiqua, Chattonella marina and Chattonella ovata) have been documented in temperate coastal regions around the world. To understand the effects of physicochemical factors on bloom development of Chattonella spp., we investigated the variations of vegetative and resting cells (i.e. cysts) of Chattonella spp. and environmental variables in two coastal environments, Uranouchi Inlet (extremely closed) and Nomi Inlet (semi-closed), with contrasting enclosed natures. Although the vegetative cells and cysts of Chattonella spp. were distributed in both coastal regions, the densities were remarkably higher in Uranouchi Inlet than in Nomi Inlet. The mud content in the sediments of Uranouchi Inlet was also higher than that in the sediments of Nomi Inlet, meaning that fine particles such as cysts are likely to accumulate in the former region. Because of the extremely closed nature of Uranouchi Inlet, warm oceanic waters of the Kuroshio Current penetrate the inlet only infrequently. These results suggest that the closed nature of coastal regions is an important factor influencing either water exchange or the resultant accumulation of Chattonella cells in coastal environments.
The well-exposed marine Eocene units from southwestern Patagonia, Argentina, contain useful information for reconstructing regional climate and oceanographic patterns in an area adjacent to the Drake Passage. The aim of this paper is to integrate dinoflagellate cyst data from three sections of the southwestern Austral Basin (Río Turbio Formation) to propose a zonation scheme, which can be applied to other southwestern Atlantic Ocean sites. Assemblages of organic walled dinoflagellate cysts have been analysed in different cropping-out sections and cores, showing the high potential of this fossil group as biostratigraphic markers. Comparison of dinoflagellate cyst events of the upper member of the Río Turbio Formation with calibrated biostratigraphic ranges in the Palaeogene South Pacific Ocean allowed us to date and correlate these sedimentary sections. The resulting zonation consists of four dinoflagellate cyst zones labelled RTF 1 to RTF 4, between the middle Lutetian and late Priabonian. As a final point, we applied dinoflagellate cyst species with importance as palaeoenvironmental markers to assess long-term climatic and oceanographic evolution for the area. This study shows that the endemic–Antarctic dinoflagellate cyst assemblage is dominant during the middle to late Eocene (RTF 1 to RTF 3), while a significant replacement of these taxa by cosmopolitan species characterizes the upper part of the upper member of the Río Turbio Formation (RTF 4). This turnover seems to be a consequence of changes in the ocean circulation patterns forced by deepening of the southern Atlantic gateways (the Drake Passage and the Tasman Gateway).
Thyroglossal duct cyst recurrence following resection is attributed to anatomical variability and residual thyroglossal ducts. In adults, thyroglossal duct cyst recurrence is extremely rare and a surgical solution is yet to be well explored. This paper describes our approach to the management of recurrent thyroglossal duct cysts and sinuses in adults using a wide anterior neck dissection.
A retrospective review was performed to identify adults who underwent a wide anterior neck dissection for recurrent thyroglossal duct cyst management between 1 January 2009 and 1 January 2015.
Six males and one female were included in the series (mean age, 26.4 ± 10.9 years). Recurrence occurred at a mean of 18 ± 9.8 months following primary surgical management (3 patients underwent cystectomy and 4 had a Sistrunk procedure). All patients subsequently underwent wide anterior neck dissection; there was no further recurrence over the 12-month average follow-up period.
This paper describes a wide anterior neck dissection technique for the management of recurrent thyroglossal duct cysts or sinuses in adults; this approach addresses the variable anatomy of the thyroglossal duct and is associated with minimal morbidity.
The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-range chickens from Uberlândia, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and characterize the genotypic and phenotypic features of two isolates of this parasite, considering the importance of these hosts in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. Serum samples from 108 free-range chickens were obtained from ten different districts, and submitted to the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies, and brain and heart tissue samples from infected chickens were processed for mouse bioassay. An overall seroprevalence of 71·3% was found and antibody titres ranged from 16 to 4096. After confirmation of seropositivity by mouse bioassay, the determination of the T. gondii genotypes of two isolates was performed by PCR–RFLP, using primers for the following markers: SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22–8, c29–2, L358, PK1, new SAG2, Apico and CS3. These T. gondii isolates, designated TgChBrUD1and TgChBrUD2, were obtained from heart samples of free-range chickens. The TgChBrUD1 isolate belonged to ToxoDB PCR–RFLP genotype 11 and the TgChBrUD2 isolate belonged to ToxoDB PCR–RFLP genotype 6. Both isolates demonstrated high virulence in a rodent model, with the TgChBrUD1 isolate able to induce brain cysts, in accord with its pattern of multiplication rates in human fibroblast culture. Taken together, these results reveal high prevalence of T. gondii infection in free-range chickens throughout Uberlândia, indicating an important degree of oocyst environmental contamination and the existence of considerable risk for T. gondii transmission to humans by consumption of free-range chicken as a food source.
Dermoid cysts in the floor of the mouth are relatively uncommon developmental lesions. They are thought to arise in the midline and along the lines of embryonic fusion of the facial processes containing ectodermal tissue.
A 17-year-old female presented with a 3-month history of a growing, progressive swelling in the mouth floor. Clinical examination revealed a rather large symmetrical, soft swelling in the mouth floor, displacing the tongue superiorly. The fast growing nature and size of the lesion raised suspicion of potential compromise to the airway. Surgical excision was therefore performed.
Differential diagnosis of cystic lesions in the floor of the mouth is of paramount importance, as the recommended surgical techniques vary depending on the anatomical position of the lesions. The intraoral approach is preferred for those lesions that do not extend beyond the mylohyoid muscle boundaries; this leads to a satisfactory cosmetic and functional outcome.
Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is a major soybean yield–limiting disease in the United States. Henbit, a winter annual species common to no-till fields in the midwestern United States, is known to act as an alternative host for SCN. A simulation was performed to estimate how likely SCN was to reproduce on henbit roots during a 30-yr period in two important soybean production areas of Nebraska. Simulations were conducted using published information on henbit seedling emergence, SCN reproduction on henbit roots, and SCN response to soil temperature. Results indicate that SCN would be able to complete one generation on henbit roots under Nebraska conditions. The SCN reproductive cycle was not likely to be completed before the winter in south central Nebraska, but one SCN generation was predicted to be completed in the fall in 2 out of 30 simulation years (7% likelihood) in southeast Nebraska. Based on our predictions, to reduce the chances of SCN population build-up in the absence of its main host (soybean), weed management in fields infested with both henbit and SCN should be completed after crop harvest in the fall when most henbit seedlings have emerged and are growing but the SCN developing on henbit roots have not yet achieved full maturity in Nebraska.
Thyroglossal duct cysts and obstructive sleep apnoea are commonly occurring medical conditions which appear to present independently in patients. However, we noted three cases where the thyroglossal duct cysts influenced the development and/or therapy of obstructive sleep apnoea. In this article, these three case studies are presented, as is a study of the association between thyroglossal duct cysts and obstructive sleep apnoea, preceded by a literature review.
The patient in the first case study underwent hyoidthyroidpexia for obstructive sleep apnoea, which revealed an unexpected thyroglossal duct cyst. The second patient had previously undergone Sistrunk surgery for the removal of a thyroglossal duct cyst and subsequently presented with obstructive sleep apnoea. Finally, the third patient, who had previously undergone Sistrunk surgery, presented with obstructive sleep apnoea and underwent alternative surgery as hyoidthyroidpexia was no longer possible.
To our knowledge, the association between thyroglossal duct cysts and obstructive sleep apnoea has not been addressed previously. The results indicate that the relationship is much stronger than previously thought, and further research is required to investigate the extent of the association and possible causal relations.
Many patients with human immunodeficiency virus present with atypical features. Early indicators of human immunodeficiency virus are scarce and hence most affected patients are diagnosed in the later stages of the disease, which is associated with poor prognosis. Salivary gland disease usually develops before acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and is sometimes the first manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Salivary gland lesions include benign lymphoepithelial cysts of the parotid gland, which are seen in 3–6 per cent of patients. Many of the reported lesions are diagnosed on routine examination.
This review aimed to highlight the association between parotid gland benign lymphoepithelial cyst and human immunodeficiency virus infection, in order to aid early diagnosis and management of the disease.
Human immunodeficiency virus testing is recommended for patients with benign lymphoepithelial cysts, as this can often be the first indication of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Benign lymphoepithelial cysts are important diagnostic and prognostic indicators in human immunodeficiency virus infection.
A simple subcutaneous lesion such as an epidermoid cyst can present a challenge when located in the nasal tip, as regards aesthetic surgical management. Even when performed parallel to relaxed skin tension lines, a direct transcutaneous incision (commonly used for epidermoid cyst removal) distorts the nasal tip subunit, resulting in a conspicuous, disfiguring scar. This should be avoided, especially in children.
A 13-year-old girl was referred by her dermatologist for diagnosis and treatment of a slowly progressive dermoid cyst located on the tip of her nose. The cyst was removed using a subcutaneous open rhinoplasty approach, leaving the aesthetic nasal tip subunit intact.
For aesthetic reasons, open rhinoplasty should be considered as a treatment option in patients with subcutaneous lesions in the nasal tip.