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In the search for chemically stable two-dimensional (2D) materials with high in-plane mobility, proper bandgap, and compatibility with vapor-based fabrication, van der Waals semiconductor SiP has become a potential candidate as a robust variation of black phosphorous. While bulk SiP crystals were synthesized in the 1970s, the vapor-based synthesis of SiP nanostructures or thin films is still absent. We here report the first chemical vapor growth of SiP nanostructures on SiO2/Si substrate. SiP islands with lateral size up to 20 μm and showing well-defined Raman signals were grown on SiO2/Si substrate or on SiP-containing concentric rings. The presence of SiP phase is confirmed by XRD. The formation of rings and islands is explained by a multiple coffee ring growth model where a dynamic fluctuation of droplet growth front induces the topography of concentric ring surfaces. This new growth method might shed light on the controlled growth of group IV-III high-mobility 2D semiconductors.
Placental lipids transfer is essential for optimal fetal development, and alterations of these mechanisms could lead to a higher risk of adverse birth outcomes. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), and scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) genes are encoding lipoprotein receptors expressed in the placenta where they participate in cholesterol exchange from maternal to fetal circulation. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the association between maternal lipid changes occurring in pregnancy, placental DNA methylation (DNAm) variations at LDLR, LRP1, and SCARB1 gene loci, and newborn’s anthropometric profile at birth. Sixty-nine normoglycemic women were followed from the first trimester of pregnancy until delivery. Placental DNAm was quantified at 43 Cytosine-phosphate-Guanines (CpGs) at LDLR, LRP1, and SCARB1 gene loci using pyrosequencing: 4 CpGs were retained for further analysis. Maternal clinical data were collected at each trimester of pregnancy. Newborns’ data were collected from medical records. Statistical models included minimally newborn sex and gestational and maternal age. Maternal total cholesterol changes during pregnancy (ΔT3-T1) were correlated with DNAm variations at LDLR (r = −0.32, p = 0.01) and LRP1 (r = 0.34, p = 0.007). DNAm at these loci was also correlated with newborns’ cord blood triglyceride and leptin levels. Mediation analysis supports a causal relationship between maternal cholesterol changes, DNAm levels at LRP1 locus, and cord blood leptin concentration (pmediation = 0.02). These results suggest that LRP1 DNAm link maternal blood cholesterol changes in pregnancy and offspring adiposity at birth, which provide support for a better follow-up of blood lipids in pregnancy.
Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) is the use of a machine to filter wastes, salts and fluid from blood for at least 3 months to prolong the life of patients with advanced kidney failure. Although low dietary energy intake (DEI) has been observed in MHD patients, few studies have related DEI to the risk of mortality. To explore this relationship, a study included 1039 MHD patients from 8 centers was conducted. DEI was assessed by three 24-hour diet recalls including one dialysis day and two non-dialysis days, and was normalized to ideal body weight (IBW). All-cause mortality and CVD mortality were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. During a median follow-up of 28 months, all-cause and CVD mortality occurred in 230 (22.1%) and 140 (13.5%) participants. Overall, a U-shaped relationship was observed between DEI and all-cause or CVD mortality. The risk of all-cause mortality decreased significantly with the increase of DEI in participants with DEI <40kcal/kg IBW/d (HR, 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96-1.00) and increased significantly with the increase of DEI in those with DEI ≥40kcal/kg IBW/d (HR, 1.12; 95%CI: 1.04-1.20). Similarly, the risk of CVD mortality decreased with the increase of DEI in participants with DEI <36.5kcal/kg IBW/d (HR, 0.96; 95%CI: 0.93-0.99) and increased with the increase of DEI in participants with DEI ≥36.5kcal/kg IBW/d (HR, 1.11; 95%CI: 1.04-1.18). In summary, there was a U-shaped association between DEI and all-cause or CVD mortality, with a turning point at about 40 and 36.5 kcal/kg IBW/d, respectively, in MHD patients.
Theoretical calculations and experimental observations show MoTe2 is a type II Weyl semimetal, along with many members of transition metal dichalcogenides family. We have grown highly crystalline large-area MoTe2 thin films on Si/SiO2 substrates by chemical vapor deposition. Very uniform, continuous, and smooth films were obtained as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy analyses. Measurements of the temperature dependence of longitudinal resistivity and current–voltage characteristics at different temperature are discussed. Unsaturated, positive quadratic magnetoresistance of the as-grown thin films has been observed from 10 to 200 K. Hall resistivity measurements confirm the majority charge carriers are hole.
To explore if better diet quality scores as a measure of adherence to the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADG) and the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) are associated with a lower incidence of hypertension and non-fatal CVD.
Prospective analysis of the 1946–1951 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH). The Australian Recommended Foods Score (ARFS) was calculated as an indicator of adherence to the ADG; the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) measured adherence to the MedDiet. Outcomes included hypertension and non-fatal CVD. Generalised estimating equations estimated OR and 95 % CI across quartiles of diet quality scores.
1946–1951 cohort of the ALSWH (n 5324), without CVD, hypertension and diabetes at baseline (2001), with complete FFQ data.
There were 1342 new cases of hypertension and 629 new cases of non-fatal CVD over 15 years of follow-up. Multivariate analysis indicated that women reporting better adherence to the ARFS (≥38/74) had 15 % (95 % CI 1, 28 %; P = 0·05) lower odds of hypertension and 46 % (95 % CI 6, 66 %; P = 0·1) lower odds of non-fatal CVD. Women reporting better adherence to the MDS (≥8/17) had 27 % (95 % CI 15, 47 %; P = 0·0006) lower odds of hypertension and 30 % (95 % CI 2, 50 %; P = 0·03) lower odds of non-fatal CVD.
Better adherence to diet quality scores is associated with lower risk of hypertension and non-fatal CVD. These results support the need for updated evidenced based on the ADG as well as public health nutrition policies in Australia.
The Mediterranean diet offers a range of health benefits. However, previous studies indicate that the restricted consumption of red meat in the diet may affect long-term sustainability in non-Mediterranean countries. A 24-week randomised controlled parallel cross-over design compared a Mediterranean diet supplemented with 2–3 serves per week of fresh, lean pork (MedPork) with a low-fat control diet (LF). Thirty-three participants at risk of CVD followed each intervention for 8 weeks, with an 8-week washout period separating interventions. The primary outcome was home-measured systolic blood pressure. Secondary outcomes included diastolic blood pressure, fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), body composition and dietary adherence. During the MedPork intervention, participants achieved high adherence to dietary guidelines. Compared with the MedPork intervention, the LF intervention led to greater reductions in weight (Δ = −0·65; 95 % CI −0·04, −1·25 kg, P = 0·04), BMI (Δ = −0·25; 95 % CI −0·03, −0·47 kg/m2, P = 0·01) and waist circumference (Δ = −1·40; 95 % CI −0·45, −2·34 cm, P < 0·01). No significant differences were observed for blood pressure, lipids, glucose, insulin or CRP. These findings indicate that Australians are capable of adhering to a Mediterranean diet with 2–3 weekly serves of fresh, lean pork. Larger intervention studies are now required to demonstrate clinical efficacy of the diet in populations with elevated blood pressure.
The objective of this study was to assess the prospective association between diet quality, as well as a 6-year change in diet quality, and risk of incident CVD and diabetes in a community-based population.
We used Cox regression models to estimate the prospective association between diet quality, assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015 and the Alternative HEI (AHEI)-2010 scores, as well as change in diet quality, and incident CVD and diabetes.
The ARIC Study recruited 15 792 black and white men and women (45–64 years) from four US communities.
We included 10 808 study participants who reported usual dietary intake via FFQ at visit 1 (1987–1989) and who had not developed CVD, diabetes, or cancer at baseline.
Overall, 3070 participants developed CVD (median follow-up of 26 years) and 3452 developed diabetes (median follow-up of 22 years) after visit 1. Higher diet score at the initial visit was associated with a significantly lower risk of CVD (HR per 10 % higher HEI-2015 diet quality score: 0·90 (95 % CI: 0·86, 0·95) and HR per 10 % higher AHEI-2010 diet quality score: 0·96 (95 % CI: 0·93, 0·99)). We did not observe a significant association between initial diet score and incident diabetes. There were no significant associations between change in diet score and CVD or diabetes risk in the overall study population.
Higher diet quality assessed using HEI-2015 and AHEI-2010 was strongly associated with lower CVD risk but not diabetes risk within a middle-aged, community-based US population.
To assess independent and joint effects of pairs of vascular and cardiometabolic risk factors (VCMRFs) in relation to risk of all-cause dementia.
Population-based longitudinal cohort study of cognitive impairment. We used an algorithm to select pairs of VCMRFs and tested their joint effects in time-dependent Cox models. We used attributable proportions (AP) to measure the proportion of risk from interactions beyond any additive effect.
Economically depressed small-town population.
Adults age 65+ years with up to 10 yearly study visits (N=1701, median (Q1, Q3) age, 78 (71.0, 83.0), 62.3% female, 94.9% white).
Among 1701 participants free from prevalent dementia with at least one follow-up visit, 109 developed incident all-cause dementia. In pairings of APOE*4 with hypertension (HTN) and congestive heart failure (CHF), the variables contributed independently and additively to all-cause dementia risk. In pairings of APOE*4 with stroke and stroke with CHF, the variables demonstrated independent contributions to all-cause dementia risk; their joint effects showed excess detriment demonstrating synergistic interactions (joint HR [95% CI]: 28.33 [6.74, 119.01] and 50.30 [14.57, 173.57] respectively, fully adjusted models). Physical activity (PA) was independently associated with lower all-cause dementia risk when paired with APOE*4, stroke, and CHF in unadjusted models; these associations did not survive covariate adjustment. The joint effect of low PA and APOE*4 was associated with additively increased all-cause dementia risk (joint HR [95% CI]: 4.61 [2.07, 10.23], fully adjusted model).
Reduction of VCMRFs, including low PA, could be valuable for dementia prevention, especially among APOE*4 carriers.
CVD remains the greatest cause of death globally, and with the escalating prevalence of metabolic diseases, including type-2 diabetes, CVD mortality is predicted to rise. While the replacement of SFA has been the cornerstone of effective dietary recommendations to decrease CVD risk since the 1980s, the validity of these recommendations have been recently challenged. A review of evidence for the impact of SFA reduction revealed no effect on CVD mortality, but a significant reduction in risk of CVD events (7–17%). The greatest effect was found when SFA were substituted with PUFA, resulting in 27% risk reduction in CVD events, with no effect of substitution with carbohydrate or protein. There was insufficient evidence from randomised controlled trials to conclude upon the impact of SFA replacement with MUFA on CVD and metabolic outcomes. However, there was high-quality evidence that reducing SFA lowered serum total, and specifically LDL-cholesterol, a key risk factor for CVD, with greatest benefits achieved by replacing SFA with unsaturated fats. The exchange of SFA with either PUFA or MUFA, also produced favourable effects on markers of glycaemia, reducing HbA1c, a long-term marker of glycaemic control. In conclusion, the totality of evidence supports lowering SFA intake and replacement with unsaturated fats to reduce the risk of CVD events, and to a lesser extent, cardiometabolic risk factors, which is consistent with current dietary guidelines.
To (i) determine the proportion of deaths from CVD that could be avoided in both rural and metropolitan Australia if public health recommendations were met; (ii) assess the impact on the rural CVD mortality; and (iii) determine if policy priorities should be different by rurality for CVD prevention.
A macro-simulation modelling study of population data. Population, risk factor and CVD death data stratified by rurality were analysed using the Preventable Risk Integrated Model. The baseline scenario was the current risk factor levels (including physical activity, smoking, diet and alcohol). The counterfactual scenario was the population levels of these risk factors expected if public health recommendations were met.
Metropolitan and rural Australia.
Rural- and metropolitan-dwelling adults in Australia.
Both populations would experience similar relative declines in the proportion of deaths from CVD. A total of 14 892 deaths from CVD would be avoided annually; with similar declines in the proportions of deaths by rurality. Critically, the order of policy priorities for public health recommendation attainment would differ by rurality CVD prevention, with addressing fat intakes being a higher priority in rural areas.
Achieving public health recommendations in Australia would result in large declines in CVD mortality. Despite declines in overall CVD mortality under this scenario, an inequality in CVD burden would persist for rural populations. The order of risk factor priorities would differ by rurality.
Carbon nanomaterials are consistently providing new excitement over their properties and potential applications, but many of these material have yet to fully live up to their expectations commercially. The barrier to adoption often exists as a result of complex processing, fragility of the as-produced material, or difficulty scaling beyond laboratory quantities. This work provides a new approach for utilizing fibrous carbon nanomaterials to advance the technology toward new applications and industrial utility. This is accomplished by creating tailored device architectures through in-situ integration of activated carbon powder using carbon nanofiber deposition. The resulting hybrid materials and components can serve in diverse applications, with each instance able to be fine-tuned through a combination of processing parameters. The applications of such materials are anticipated to directly serve current carbon-based technology in filtration, energy storage and delivery, and thermal management, but the concepts are not limited to current carbon applications.
Nutrition plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology and management of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and periodontal disease (PD). As PD can have profound effects on an individual’s functional ability to eat and can affect nutrient intake, we aimed to evaluate the role of PD severity on dietary intake (DI) and quality in PAD patients and compare it with current dietary recommendations for CVD. PD stages of 421 consecutive PAD patients were determined according to a standardised basic periodontal examination (Periodontal Screening and Recording Index) (‘healthy’, ‘gingivitis’, ‘moderate periodontitis’ and ‘severe periodontitis’). Dietary intake (24-h recall), dietary quality (food frequency index (FFI)) and anthropometrical data were assessed. Nutritional intake was stratified according to the severity of PD. No significant differences in DI of macronutrients, nutrients relevant for CVD and FFI were seen between the PD stages. Only median alcohol intake was significantly different between gingivitis and severe periodontitis (P = 0·001), and positively correlated with PD severity (P = 0·001; r 0·159). PD severity and the patient’s number of teeth showed no correlation with investigated nutritional parameters and FFI. Few subjects met the recommended daily intakes for fibre (5 %), SFA (10 %), Na (40 %) and sugar (26 %). Macronutrient intake differed from reference values. In our sample of patients with PAD and concomitant PD, we found no differences in DI of macronutrients, nutrients relevant for CVD and diet quality depending on PD severity. The patients’ nutrition was, however, poor, deviating seriously from dietary guidelines and recommendations.
CVD are the main cause of death especially in high-income countries. Previously, research focused on single nutrients including saturated and MUFA, sodium and dietary fibre, or specific foods such as fish, fruit and vegetables, and olive oil, in the aetiology of CVD. In recent years, however, the effects of complete dietary patterns on the prevention of CVD have gained interest, to account for diet heterogeneity and food–nutrient interactions. Several dietary patterns have been investigated, such as the Paleolithic diet, the vegetarian and vegan diets, the Diet Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), the Nordic and Mediterranean diets, with many contradictions remaining. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the effects of these dietary patterns on CVD risk, to discuss their overall nutrient adequacy and briefly discuss their environmental impact.
The present paper reviews the evidence as to whether patients on lipid-lowering drugs should restrict dietary SFA intake. Premature mortality from atherosclerotic CVD has fallen dramatically in many high-income countries. This appears to be due to a combination of improved treatment following a cardiovascular event and reduced risk factors, including LDL-cholesterol. Whether this reduction is due to changes in dietary habits, or the increasing availability of highly potent cholesterol-reducing drugs remains to be firmly established. While reducing dietary SFA intake has been the cornerstone of public health nutrition policy for several decades, the efficacy of such dietary changes has been challenged in recent years. While there remains a lack of consensus in the literature, there is an emerging view that dietary advice should be specifically modified to emphasise replacing SFA with PUFA in the diet rather than carbohydrate. The advice to moderate dietary SFA intake given to the general population is usually also given to those individuals at high risk of CVD who are prescribed lipid-lowering drugs. There is limited evidence to suggest that any potential benefit of such a diet on LDL-cholesterol may be offset by a concurrent decrease in HDL-cholesterol. However, as diets rich in SFA are frequently energy-dense, and rich in red and processed meat (potential risk factors for CVD in themselves), it would seem prudent to continue to advise patients on lipid-lowering drugs to maintain a low-fat diet.
Energy-efficient condensation of steam contained in atmospheric air has emerged as a solution to the water scarcity. Academic and industrial research works that seeks to develop water collection devices with high efficiency has great relevance for the scientific community. In this work, we aim to show that modified carbon nanotubes forest can remove the condensed drops easier than a hydrophobic and a super-hydrophilic surface. In addition, this result was reached at high super saturation level which is an innovative aspect of this work. The Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes (VACNTs) were grown on steel pipes. We used a CO2 laser and an O2 plasma to perform the post treatments that changed the CNTs to super-hydrophobic and super-hydrophilic, respectively. In addition, the CO2 laser treatment added a second level of roughness in the surface by etching the nanotubes walls. A polyethylene coating attached the carbon nanotubes to the substrate. We experimentally demonstrated a 24% higher vapor condensation rate at high supersaturations levels.
CVD is a major burden on the health system in the UK. On average, diets are not aligned with current dietary recommendations, including those for salt, saturated fat, fibre, fruit and vegetables. Obesity prevalence is high and the majority of the population is consuming more energy than required. Addressing these issues would reduce the burden of CVD and help reduce inequalities in health. There is currently a range of policy interventions in place in England designed to help improve diets and reduce obesity, which in turn should help reduce the risk of CVD. Further actions may be needed in the long term to deliver sustained improvements to diet and health.
Addition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to copper materials significantly enhances their properties. However, the performance of CNTs/Cu composites is often not as good as expected mainly because of difficulties in controlling growth and uniform dispersion of CNTs in the matrix. Our study provides an effective way to prepare CNTs/CuCr and CNTs/CuCrY composites using chemical vapor deposition. The morphology and structure of these composites were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy to understand how Y incorporation affects properties of these composites. Our results showed that addition of 0.1 wt% Y enhances the catalytic properties of Cr and helps to obtain purer and pristine Cu substrate. We also studied tensile strength, electric conductivity, corrosion, and wear resistance of these composites. When Y was added, composite properties improved significantly. Tensile strength and corrosion resistance increased by 35.21 and 53.28%, respectively. Electric conductivity increased to 90.9% International Annealed Copper Standard and the coefficient of friction reduced to 0.3.
n-3 PUFA may exert favourable effects on several processes that may inhibit the atherosclerotic process. However, the role of n-3 PUFA in lowering the risk of atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) has been fiercely debated. In the present paper, we summarise the main findings from previous follow-up studies of intake and studies using adipose tissue as an objective biomarker to investigate exposure to n-3 PUFA in relation to ASCVD risk and discuss some perspectives for further research. The majority of previous studies investigating intake of marine- and plant-based n-3 PUFA have focused on CHD while other ASCVD such as ischaemic stroke and peripheral artery disease have been less studied. However, recent data from Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort suggest that marine n-3 PUFA may be inversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke and peripheral arterial disease caused by atherosclerosis. The effect of the plant-derived n-3 PUFA α-linolenic acid on ASCVD is less clear and several gaps in the literature remain to be explored.
Cesium lead iodide perovskite (CsPbI3) with excellent optical and electrical properties have attracted numerous academic attentions. Specifically, the black cubic phase CsPbI3 with a direct band gap of 1.74 eV has been most appropriate materials for various optoelectronic applications, especially for photovoltaic (PV), Light-Emitting Diodes (LED) and photodetector applications1. However, the preferred cubic phase of bulk CsPbI3 (α-CsPbI3) is usually only stable at high temperatures and it will undergo an immediate phase transformation to orthorhombic phase (δ-CsPbI3) after fabrication at room temperature. In this work, we have discovered a convenient CVD method to investigate the growth behavior of the cubic α-CsPbI3 film on the porous alumina substrate. The lead iodide and cesium iodide were used as the precursors for the deposition of CsPbI3. The porous alumina with high surface area and large pore volume was used as growth substrate. It was shown that the porous alumina promoted the growth of CsPbI3 film by absorbing the precursor and increasing the nucleation density. The prepared CsPbI3 film emitted strong and stable red light under ultraviolet light excitation at room temperature and ambient atmosphere. The lead iodide was absorbed on the surface of the porous alumina firstly then reacted with cesiumiodide to form the CsPbI3. The successful preparation of the CsPbI3 by the direct CVD method paves the way for its large scale growth and application in optoelectronic devices.
CVD is common in older adults. Consumption of ‘meat’ (beef, pork, lamb, game, poultry, seafood, eggs) and dairy foods (milk, cheese, yoghurt) is encouraged in older adults as these foods provide protein and nutrients such as essential fatty acids, Ca, Fe, Zn and vitamins A, D and B12 required for healthy ageing. However, these foods also contain saturated fats considered detrimental to cardiovascular health. To determine the effect of their consumption on CVD risk we assessed associations between fat intake from ‘meat’ and dairy foods and serum cholesterol levels in 226 aged-care residents (mean age 85·5 years, 70 % female). Dietary intake was determined over 2 d using visual estimation of plate waste. Fat content of foods was determined using nutrition analysis software (Xyris, Australia). Fasting serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were measured, and the TC:HDL-cholesterol ratio calculated. Associations were determined using random-effect models adjusted for CVD risk factors using STATA/IC 13.0. Total fat and saturated fat from ‘meat’ and dairy foods were associated with higher serum HDL-cholesterol levels, and dairy fat intake and number of servings were associated with a lower TC:HDL-cholesterol ratio. Every 10 g higher intake of fat and saturated fat from dairy products, and each additional serving was associated with a −0·375 (95 % CI −0·574, −0·175; P = 0·0002), a −0·525 (95 % CI −0·834, −0·213; P = 0·001) and a −0·245 (95 % CI −0·458, −0·033; P = 0·024) lower TC:HDL-cholesterol ratio, respectively. Provision of dairy foods and ‘meat’ in recommended amounts to institutionalised older adults potentially improves intakes of key nutrients with limited detriment to cardiovascular health.