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To study the association between organic food consumption and lifestyle, socio-demographics, and dietary habits.
Cohort participants completed detailed questionnaires about organic food consumption, diet, and lifestyle between 1999 and 2002. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between organic food consumption, and lifestyle, socio-demographics, and dietary habits.
This cross-sectional study uses data from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort.
A total of 43,209 men and women aged between 54 and 73 years were included in the study.
Overall, 15% reported never consuming organic food, 39% had low organic food consumption, 37% had medium organic food consumption and 10% had high organic food consumption. The relative risk of consuming organic food versus never consuming organic food was highest among women, persons with body mass index <25 kg/m2, persons with low alcohol intake, persons participating in sports, persons who did not smoke or were former smokers, and among persons who adhered to the Danish national dietary guidelines. Associations were more distinct with higher levels of organic food consumption.
Based on a historical cohort of Danish adults, organic food consumption was associated with a generally healthy lifestyle, more favorable socio-demographics, and dietary habits. These findings have to be considered in the adjustment strategy for future studies linking organic food consumption with health outcomes.
Although the intake of specific flavonoid-rich foods may reduce C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, the association between dietary flavonoid intakes and CRP is inconsistent. We aim to describe dietary flavonoid intakes in a Taiwanese nationally representative sample and to investigate the association between flavonoid intakes and CRP. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on 2592 adults from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2005–8. Flavonoid intakes were estimated by linking the 24-h dietary recall with the U.S. Department of Agriculture flavonoid database and divided into quartiles. Adjusted estimates of the flavonoid intakes for the continuous and binary (elevated CRP: >0⋅3 mg/dl) variables were performed by using general linear and logistic regression. We found that tea, orange, tofu and sweet potato leaves/water spinach constituted the major food items of the total flavonoid intake. The total flavonoid intake was lower among women and elderly. Compared with the lowest total flavonoid intake quartile, participants in higher quartiles were associated with a lower CRP status (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 0⋅61, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0⋅44–0⋅86 for the highest quartiles). The trends were similar for flavonol and flavan-3-ol intakes. Compared with non-consumers, tea consumers were likely to have a lower CRP status (adjusted OR: 0⋅74, 95 % CI: 0⋅57–0⋅97). In brief, a higher total flavonoid intake and tea consumption were inversely associated with CRP levels, indicating that a high-flavonoid diet may contribute to anti-inflammatory effects. A Taiwanese flavonoid content table is necessary for conducting further studies related to flavonoids in Taiwan.
To explore the association between behavioural characteristics with the prevalence of abdominal obesity (AO) among a population of Southern Brazilian shift working women.
A cross-sectional study was conducted. AO was estimated using waist circumference (WC), and it was used to classify women as having AO (WC ≥ 88 cm). Prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regression with robust variance.
A large plastic utensils company in Southern Brazil.
450 female shift workers.
The prevalence of the AO in the women shift workers was 44·5 % (95 % CI 40·0, 49·2 %). In night shift workers, the prevalence of AO was 56·1 % compared with 40·9 % among hybrid shift workers. After adjustments for covariates, women who were current smokers had a decrease in the prevalence of AO compared with those who never smoked. Women who had three or fewer meals per day had a 46 % increase in the AO prevalence compared with those eating more frequent meals. Night shift work was associated with increase in AO prevalence compared with hybrid shift (PR 1·33; 95 % CI: 1·08, 1·64).
Our findings indicate that behavioural characteristics are associated with a high prevalence of AO in female shift workers, thus suggesting that behavioural modifications among women working shifts, such as increase in meal frequency and physical activity, may reduce AO.
During the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), people are under the dual pressure of interpersonal isolation and concerns about infection. An evaluation of people’s psychological status and risk factors is needed to conduct target interventions.
This was a nationwide, multicenter, cross-sectional study using quota and snowball sampling methods during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Participants’ characteristics and experiences were obtained by an online questionnaire and telephone review. Psychological distress and sleep problems were measured by the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Insomnia Severity Index.
A total of 23,500 participants were recruited, and 19,372 valid questionnaires were received from 11 centers. Overall, 11.0–13.3% of the participants had anxiety, depression, or insomnia symptoms, and 1.9–2.7% had severe symptoms. The prevalence of psychological and sleep problems has increased. Working as frontline medical staff (Odds Ratio OR = 3.406), living in Hubei Province (OR = 2.237), close contacts with COVID-19 (OR = 1.808), and age 35–49 years (OR = 1.310) were risk factors for anxiety symptoms; no outside activity for 2 weeks (OR = 2.167) and age 35–49 years (OR = 1.198) were risk factors for depression symptoms; and living in Hubei Province (OR = 2.376), no outside activity for 2 weeks (OR = 1.927), and age 35–49 years (OR = 1.262) were risk factors for insomnia symptoms. Only 1.9% of participants received counseling during the epidemic.
Psychological and sleep problems increased during interpersonal isolation due to COVID-19. Current psychological interventions are far from sufficient.
To evaluate the association between nutritional quality of breakfast and cardiometabolic risk factors.
Cross-sectional study, 2015 Health Survey of São Paulo (2015 ISA-Capital) with Focus on Nutrition Study (2015 ISA-Nutrition).
Population-based study, with a representative sample of adults and elderlies living in São Paulo, Brazil.
The sample included 606 adults (aged 20–59 years) and 537 elderlies (aged ≥60 years) from the 2015 Health Survey of São Paulo. Dietary intake was assessed by at least one 24-h recall. Breakfast quality was evaluated using the proposed Brazilian Breakfast Quality Index (BQI), ranging scores from 0 to 10. BQI associations with sociodemographic, lifestyle, dietetic and cardiometabolic variables were estimated using survey-weighted multiple logistic regression models.
Being ≥60 years of age, self-identifying as White or Asian, having a per capita family income with ≥1 minimum wage, being sufficiently active at leisure time and non-smoker were associated with better scores of BQI. A higher BQI score was inversely associated with elevated blood pressure (OR 0·81, 95 % CI 0·70, 0·94), fasting glucose (OR 0·85, 95 % CI 0·73, 0·98), HOMA-IR (OR 0·86, 95 % CI 0·74, 0·98), total cholesterol (OR 0·87, 95 % CI 0·76, 0·99), LDL-C (OR 0·85, 95 % CI 0·74, 0·97), metabolic syndrome (OR 0·82, 95 % CI 0·72, 0·93) and being overweight (OR 0·87, 95 % CI 0·76, 0·99).
Breakfast quality of Brazilian adults needs improvement with disparities across some sociodemographic factors. BQI was associated with lower odds of cardiometabolic risk factors, suggesting a beneficial effect in this population and emphasising the role of breakfast in reducing the risk of CVD.
Higher quality dietary patterns such as healthy/prudent and Mediterranean dietary patterns have been protectively associated with depression. This study examined whether healthy Japanese dietary patterns, which differ from dietary patterns derived from Western areas, are associated with depressive symptoms among Japanese women.
A cross-sectional study (the Nagano Nutrition and Health Study). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Dietary patterns were derived with a principal component analysis of the consumption of fifty-six food and beverage items, which were assessed by a validated brief diet history questionnaire.
Japanese women (n 1337) aged 20–72 years.
We identified three dietary patterns: ‘healthy Japanese’, ‘sweets-fat’ and ‘seafood–alcohol’. The highest quality dietary pattern was ‘healthy Japanese’. It is characterised by a high intake of vegetables, mushrooms, seaweed, soyabean products, potatoes, fish/shellfish and fruit. The age- and multivariate-adjusted OR (95 % CI) of depressive symptoms for the highest quartiles of the ‘healthy Japanese’ pattern score were 0·58 (95 % CI 0·41, 0·82) and 0·69 (95 % CI 0·45, 1·06), respectively. Meanwhile, no associations were observed for ‘sweets-fat’ and ‘seafood–alcohol’ patterns.
The ‘healthy Japanese’ pattern may be inversely associated with depressive symptoms with an exposure-response association. The specific Japanese food groups in the ‘healthy Japanese’ pattern included mushrooms, seaweed, soyabean products and potatoes, as well as vegetables, fish/shellfish and fruit. These seem to create an anti-inflammation-prone dietary pattern, and this factor might be associated with better mental health.
To explore the association between dietary Na intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a nationally representative sample of the US population.
In this cross-sectional study, the associations between Na intake and NAFLD, defined by the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and the fatty liver index (FLI), were assessed through multivariable logistic regression models.
Communities in the USA from 2007 to 2014.
Men and women aged 20 years and older.
A total of 11 022 participants were included in the HSI-defined NAFLD analysis, and a subsample of 5320 participants was included in the FLI-defined NAFLD analysis. Compared with the lowest quartile of Na intake, the highest quartile had a multivariate-adjusted OR and 95 % CI of 1·46 (1·29, 1·65) for NAFLD as defined by HSI, and 1·41 (1·18, 1·69) for NAFLD as defined by FLI. This association was, to some degree, attenuated but remained significant after adjusting for several related metabolic parameters, including BMI, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, and diabetes.
Findings from the current study indicate that dietary Na intake is positively associated with NAFLD in US adults.
The authors conducted a home survey investigating the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of depression, suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts among a probability nationwide sample of 1316 adolescents aged 12-17 and 1114 young adults aged 18-24. Depressive symptoms were detected by the use of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. 20.3% of adolescents and 35.7% of young adults were characterized as being depressed. Similar differences between the two age groups in the prevalence rates of suicidal ideation and attempts were observed. Suicide attempters of both age groups reported a higher number of depressive symptoms compared with the non attempters. Characteristics that distinguished the suicide attempters from the total sample were low rates of school attendance, use of substances, previous psychiatric help-seeking and additional mental health problems in families.
We aimed to investigate the associations between school-level characteristics and obesity among Chinese primary school children with consideration of individual-level characteristics.
This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015/2016. School-level characteristics were assessed using an interviewer-administered school questionnaire, and a ‘school-based obesity prevention index’ was further developed. Individual-level characteristics were collected by self-administered questionnaires. Objectively measured height and weight of students were collected, and obesity status was classified according to the International Obesity Task Force criteria for Asian children. Generalised linear mixed models were used to estimate the associations among the school- and individual-level characteristics and obesity of students.
Thirty-seven primary schools from an urban and a rural district of Beijing, China.
School staffs, 2201 students and their parents.
The school-based obesity prevention index involved the number of health professionals, availability of students’ health records, monitoring students’ nutrition status, frequency of health education activities, reporting achievements of obesity prevention activities to parents, duration of physical activity during school time and availability of playground equipment. The prevalence of obesity was lower in schools with the higher index value compared with that in schools with the lower index value (OR 0·56; 95 % CI 0·40, 0·79). Some individual-level characteristics were negatively associated with childhood obesity: liking sports, duration of screen time ≤2 h/d, perceived lower eating speed, parental non-overweight/obesity.
Irrespective of individual-level characteristics, the specific school-level characteristics had a cumulative effect on obesity among Chinese primary school children. Further school-based obesity intervention should consider these characteristics simultaneously.
Epidemiological studies indicate that individuals with one type of mental disorder have an increased risk of subsequently developing other types of mental disorders. This study aimed to undertake a comprehensive analysis of pair-wise lifetime comorbidity across a range of common mental disorders based on a diverse range of population-based surveys.
The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys assessed 145 990 adult respondents from 27 countries. Based on retrospectively-reported age-of-onset for 24 DSM-IV mental disorders, associations were examined between all 548 logically possible temporally-ordered disorder pairs. Overall and time-dependent hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Absolute risks were estimated using the product-limit method. Estimates were generated separately for men and women.
Each prior lifetime mental disorder was associated with an increased risk of subsequent first onset of each other disorder. The median HR was 12.1 (mean = 14.4; range 5.2–110.8, interquartile range = 6.0–19.4). The HRs were most prominent between closely-related mental disorder types and in the first 1–2 years after the onset of the prior disorder. Although HRs declined with time since prior disorder, significantly elevated risk of subsequent comorbidity persisted for at least 15 years. Appreciable absolute risks of secondary disorders were found over time for many pairs.
Survey data from a range of sites confirms that comorbidity between mental disorders is common. Understanding the risks of temporally secondary disorders may help design practical programs for primary prevention of secondary disorders.
The objective of this study was to examine young adults’ healthcare utilisation and its possible association with health literacy.
Many countries struggle with insufficient accessibility at emergency departments (EDs) and primary healthcare centres (PHCs). Young adults, aged 20–29 years old, account for a substantial number of unnecessary doctor visits where health literacy could be an explanatory factor.
This study incorporated a combined retrospective and cross-sectional study design with analysis of registry data, including all registered outpatient doctor visits between 2004 and 2014 (n = 1 086 432), and strategic sample questionnaire data (n = 207), focusing on socio-demographics, symptoms and information-seeking behaviour. Mean differences between first-year and last-year doctor visits for each age group were calculated using registry data. Fischer’s exact test was applied to questionnaire data to analyse group differences between ED and PHC visitors as well as between patients with sufficient health literacy and insufficient health literacy. Binary logistic regression was used to investigate covariation.
Healthcare utilisation has increased among young adults during the past decade, however, not comparatively more than for other age groups. ED patients (n = 49) compared to PHC patients (n = 158) were more likely to seek treatment for gastrointestinal symptoms (P = 0.001), had shorter duration of symptoms (P = 0.001) and sought care more often on the recommendation of a healthcare professional (P = 0.001). Insufficient/problematic health literacy among young adults was associated with having lower reliance on the healthcare system (P = 0.03) and with a greater likelihood of seeking treatment for psychiatric symptoms (P = 0.002).
Young adults do not account for the increase in healthcare utilisation during the last decade to a greater extent than other age groups. Young adults’ reliance on the healthcare system is associated with health literacy, an indicator potentially important for consideration when studying health literacy and its relationship to more effective use of healthcare services.
We explored the factors promoting long-term mental health among adolescent survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. We examined the associations of their long-term mental health with disaster-related storytelling and school-based psychoeducation, and of school-based psychoeducation with disaster-related storytelling.
A secondary school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted 6 years after the disaster. Participants with traumatic experiences such as injury, loss, witnessing someone's death/injury and home destruction (N = 1028, mean age 15, standard deviation 1.38, male 51%) were eligible. Mental health/disaster education (MHE/DE) was defined as taking one or more lessons in MHE and/or DE at school since the earthquake. Experiences of storytelling about the disaster involved expressing distressing memories and feelings regarding the earthquake since the disaster happened, according to four groups: never expressed distressing memories and feelings, expressed them through writing/drawing, expressed them through talking to lay supporters and expressed them through talking to health professionals. Analysis of covariance was used to compare mean scores on five selected subscales of the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) and the Psychotic-Like Experiences (PLEs) scale among the four storytelling groups. Linear regression analysis was used to identify the relationships between MHE/DE and current mental health as measured by the SCL-90, AIS and PLEs. The relationship between education and storytelling was probed by χ2 test.
The talked-to-lay-supporters group showed better mental health on the SCL-90 (p ⩽ 0.001), AIS (p < 0.001) and PLEs (p = 0.004), while the consulted-health-professionals group showed worse mental health on the three dimensions of the SCL-90: depression (p = 0.05), anxiety (p = 0.02) and fear (p = 0.04), and on PLEs (p = 0.02) compared with the never-expressed group. MHE and DE were inversely associated with SCL-90, AIS and PLE scores. Participants who received these forms of education talked about their disaster experiences to lay supporters more than those who did not.
MHE and DE at school may promote adolescents’ mental health after a disaster. Experience of storytelling about the disaster to lay supporters may be helpful for long-term psychological recovery, and may be a potential mediating factor for school-based education and better mental health. Because of the cross-sectional nature of this study, causality cannot be inferred; therefore, further prospective intervention studies are needed to elucidate the effect of these factors on adolescent survivors’ mental health.
Previous studies have shown that the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet might contribute to managing risk factors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but evidence is limited. We examined the association of DASH diet score (DASH-DS) with NAFLD, as well as the intermediary effects of serum retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4), serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum TAG, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and BMI.
We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study. Dietary data and lifestyle factors were assessed by face-to-face interviews and the DASH-DS was then calculated. We assessed serum RBP4, hs-CRP and TAG and calculated HOMA-IR. The presence and degree of NAFLD were determined by abdominal sonography.
Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study participants, aged 40–75 years at baseline (n 3051).
After adjusting for potential covariates, we found an inverse association between DASH-DS and the presence of NAFLD (Ptrend = 0·009). The OR (95 % CI) of NAFLD for quintiles 2–5 were 0·78 (0·62, 0·98), 0·74 (0·59, 0·94), 0·69 (0·55, 0·86) and 0·77 (0·61, 0·97), respectively. Path analyses indicated that a higher DASH-DS was associated with lower serum RBP4, hs-CRP, TAG, HOMA-IR and BMI, which were positively associated with the degree of NAFLD.
Adherence to the DASH diet was independently associated with a marked lower prevalence of NAFLD in Chinese adults, especially in women and those without abdominal obesity, and might be mediated by reducing RBP4, hs-CRP, TAG, HOMA-IR and BMI.
To describe self-rated health in relation to lifestyle and illnesses and to identify risk factors for ill health such as pressure ulcers, falls and malnutrition among 75-year-old participants in a new clinical routine involving health assessment followed by tailored one-to-one health promotion at preventive clinic visits to a nurse at primary health care centres (PHCC).
There is a rapidly growing ageing population worldwide. It is central to health policy to promote active and healthy ageing. Preventive clinic visits to a nurse in primary health care were introduced as a new clinical intervention in a region in Sweden to improve the quality of health for the older adults.
A quantitative cross-sectional population-based study.
The sample consisted of 306 individuals in six primary health care centres in Sweden aged 75 years who attended preventive clinic visits to a nurse. Data were collected from March 2014 to May 2015 during structured conversations with a nurse based on self-administered questionnaires, clinical examinations, risk assessments and after the clinic visit existing register data were collected by the researcher.
Participants experienced good self-rated health despite being overweight and having chronic illnesses. Daily exercise such as walking and housework was more common than aerobic physical training. The majority had no problems with mobility but reported anxiety, pain and discomfort and had increased risk of falls.
It is important to encourage the older adults to live actively and independently for as long as possible. The healthy older adults may benefit from the clinical intervention described here to support the individual’s ability to maintain control over their health. Such supportive assessments might help the healthy older adult to achieve active ageing, reducing morbidity and preventing functional decline.
The problems associated with exposure to excessive heat are a key health concern throughout the world, and are likely to become increasingly important as Earth’s climate warms. Heat exposure is particularly problematic when large groups of people gather, but there is relatively little literature on the subject. Islam requires all adherents who are able to undertake a pilgrimage to Mecca (Saudi Arabia), known as the Hajj. This can result in huge numbers of pilgrims travelling to Mecca in the summer months, during which the temperatures can be very high, and to undertake physically demanding activities.
The aim of this study was to identify the perception level of heat-related health issues and the coping behaviors adopted by pilgrims in the face of excessive heat exposure.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mecca, Saudi Arabia among male Arab pilgrims performing Hajj of the Islamic calendar year 1436 (Summer 2015). Sample was divided into two strata: domestic pilgrims and international Arabs. A total of 14 camps were selected randomly, seven from each stratum. A total of 412 participants completed the questionnaire.
Mean age was 43.48 (SD = 13.42) years. Majority of pilgrims had never performed Hajj before (68.2%). Almost 89.5% among pilgrims more than 40 years of age had more water intake compared to only 76.5% for people under 40 years. Only 7.3% of educated people used to go out at noon time, and almost two-fold of pilgrims with lower educational level did so (15.4%). Approximately 51.8% among those who were aware of Mecca’s weather used cotton clothes, compared to 36.0% among pilgrims unaware of Mecca’s weather.
This study reveals the extent of pilgrims’ understanding of, and abilities to cope with, excessive heat and also suggests coping strategies and options for improved understanding of heat-related health issues world-wide.
Al Mayahi ZK, Ali Kabbash I. Perceptions of, and practices for coping with, heat exposure among male Arab pilgrims to the Hajj, 1436. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):161–174
Despite the high prevalence of domestic violence and abuse (DVA) among patients with psychiatric conditions, detection rates are low. Limited knowledge and skills on DVA in mental healthcare (MHC) professionals might contribute to poor identification.
To assess the level of, and factors associated with, DVA knowledge and skills among MHC professionals.
A total of 278 professionals in Dutch MHC institutions completed a survey assessing factual knowledge, perceived knowledge, perceived skills and attitudes about DVA.
On average, low scores were reported for perceived skills and knowledge. MHC professionals in primary care scored higher than those working with individuals with severe mental illness (P<0.005). Levels of factual knowledge were higher; levels of attitudes moderate. Previous training was positively associated with skills (odds ratios (OR) = 3.0) and attitudes (OR = 2.7). Years of work was negatively associated with factual knowledge (OR = 0.97). Larger case-loads predicted higher scores on skills (OR = 2.1).
Training is needed, particularly for clinicians working with patients with severe mental illness.
Objective: To develop a detailed profile of individuals living with migraine in Canada. Such a profile is important for planning and administration of services. Methods: The 2011–2012 Survey of Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada (SLNCC), a cross-sectional community-based survey, was used to examine a representative sample of migraineurs (N = 949) aged 15 years and older. Several health-related variables were examined (e.g., general health, health utility index (HUI) [a measure of health status and health-related quality of life, where dead = 0.00 and perfect health = 1.00], stigma, depression, and social support). Respondents were further stratified by sex, age, and age of migraine onset. Weighted overall and stratified prevalence estimates and odds ratios, both with 95% CIs, were used to estimate associations. Results: Overall, males had poorer health status compared with females (e.g., mean HUI was 0.67 in males vs. 0.82 in females; men had over two times the odds of their migraine limiting educational and job opportunities compared with females). Poorer health-related variables were seen in the older age groups (35–64 years/≥65 years) compared with the 15–34-year age group. There were no differences between those whose migraine symptoms began before versus after the age of 20 years. Conclusions: In this Canadian sample, migraine was associated with worse health-related variables in men compared with women. However, both men and women were significantly affected by migraine across various health-related variables. Thus, it is important to improve clinical and public health interventions addressing the impact of migraine across individuals of all ages, sexes, and sociodemographic backgrounds.
The purpose of the study was to weigh the community burden of chikungunya determinants on Reunion island. Risk factors were investigated within a subset of 2101 adult persons from a population-based cross-sectional serosurvey, using Poisson regression models for dichotomous outcomes. Design-based risk ratios and population attributable fractions (PAF) were generated distinguishing individual and contextual (i.e. that affect individuals collectively) determinants. The disease burden attributable to contextual determinants was twice that of individual determinants (overall PAF value 89.5% vs. 44.1%). In a model regrouping both categories of determinants, the independent risk factors were by decreasing PAF values: an interaction term between the reporting of a chikungunya history in the neighbourhood and individual house (PAF 45.9%), a maximal temperature of the month preceding the infection higher than 28.5 °C (PAF 25.7%), a socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhood (PAF 19.0%), altitude of dwelling (PAF 13.1%), cumulated rainfalls of the month preceding the infection higher than 65 mm (PAF 12.6%), occupational inactivity (PAF 11.6%), poor knowledge on chikungunya transmission (PAF 7.3%) and obesity/overweight (PAF 5.2%). Taken together, these covariates and their underlying causative factors uncovered 80.8% of chikungunya at population level. Our findings lend support to a major role of contextual risk factors in chikungunya virus outbreaks.
Data on dietary patterns in relation to the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a middle-aged Chinese population are sparse. The present study was performed to determine the major dietary patterns among a population aged 45–59 years and to evaluate their associations with MetS risk in China.
Cross-sectional examination of the association between dietary patterns and MetS. Face-to-face interviews were used to assess dietary intake using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. OR and 95 % CI for MetS were calculated across quartiles of dietary pattern scores using multivariate logistic regression analysis models.
City of Linyi, Shandong Province, China.
Adults (n 1918) aged 45–59 years.
Three major dietary patterns were identified: traditional Chinese, animal food and high-energy. After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals in the highest quartile of the traditional Chinese pattern had a reduced risk of MetS relative to the lowest quartile (OR=0·72, 95 % CI 0·596, 0·952; P<0·05). Compared with those in the lowest quartile, individuals in the highest quartile of the animal food pattern had a greater risk of MetS (OR=1·28; 95 % CI 1·103, 1·697; P<0·05). No significant association was observed between the high-energy pattern and risk of MetS.
These findings indicate that the traditional Chinese pattern was associated with a reduced risk, while the animal food pattern was associated with increased risk of MetS. Given the cross-sectional nature of our study, further prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.
Associations between employment status and mental health are well recognised, but evidence is sparse on the relationship between paid employment and mental health in the years running up to statutory retirement ages using robust mental health measures. In addition, there has been no investigation into the stability over time in this relationship: an important consideration if survey findings are used to inform future policy. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between employment status and common mental disorder (CMD) in 50–64-year old residents in England and its stability over time, taking advantage of three national mental health surveys carried out over a 14-year period.
Data were analysed from the British National Surveys of Psychiatric Morbidity of 1993, 2000 and 2007. Paid employment status was the primary exposure of interest and CMD the primary outcome – both ascertained identically in all three surveys (CMD from the revised Clinical Interview Schedule). Multivariable logistic regression models were used.
The prevalence of CMD was higher in people not in paid employment across all survey years; however, this association was only present for non-employment related to poor health as an outcome and was not apparent in those citing other reasons for non-employment. Odds ratios for the association between non-employment due to ill health and CMD were 3.05 in 1993, 3.56 in 2000, and 2.80 in 2007, after adjustment for age, gender, marital status, education, social class, housing tenure, financial difficulties, smoking status, recent physical health consultation and activities of daily living impairment.
The prevalence of CMD was higher in people not in paid employment for health reasons, but was not associated with non-employment for other reasons. Associations had been relatively stable in strength from 1993 to 2007 in those three cross-sectional nationally representative samples.