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Previous studies have shown that the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet might contribute to managing risk factors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but evidence is limited. We examined the association of DASH diet score (DASH-DS) with NAFLD, as well as the intermediary effects of serum retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4), serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum TAG, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and BMI.
We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study. Dietary data and lifestyle factors were assessed by face-to-face interviews and the DASH-DS was then calculated. We assessed serum RBP4, hs-CRP and TAG and calculated HOMA-IR. The presence and degree of NAFLD were determined by abdominal sonography.
Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study participants, aged 40–75 years at baseline (n 3051).
After adjusting for potential covariates, we found an inverse association between DASH-DS and the presence of NAFLD (Ptrend = 0·009). The OR (95 % CI) of NAFLD for quintiles 2–5 were 0·78 (0·62, 0·98), 0·74 (0·59, 0·94), 0·69 (0·55, 0·86) and 0·77 (0·61, 0·97), respectively. Path analyses indicated that a higher DASH-DS was associated with lower serum RBP4, hs-CRP, TAG, HOMA-IR and BMI, which were positively associated with the degree of NAFLD.
Adherence to the DASH diet was independently associated with a marked lower prevalence of NAFLD in Chinese adults, especially in women and those without abdominal obesity, and might be mediated by reducing RBP4, hs-CRP, TAG, HOMA-IR and BMI.
To describe self-rated health in relation to lifestyle and illnesses and to identify risk factors for ill health such as pressure ulcers, falls and malnutrition among 75-year-old participants in a new clinical routine involving health assessment followed by tailored one-to-one health promotion at preventive clinic visits to a nurse at primary health care centres (PHCC).
There is a rapidly growing ageing population worldwide. It is central to health policy to promote active and healthy ageing. Preventive clinic visits to a nurse in primary health care were introduced as a new clinical intervention in a region in Sweden to improve the quality of health for the older adults.
A quantitative cross-sectional population-based study.
The sample consisted of 306 individuals in six primary health care centres in Sweden aged 75 years who attended preventive clinic visits to a nurse. Data were collected from March 2014 to May 2015 during structured conversations with a nurse based on self-administered questionnaires, clinical examinations, risk assessments and after the clinic visit existing register data were collected by the researcher.
Participants experienced good self-rated health despite being overweight and having chronic illnesses. Daily exercise such as walking and housework was more common than aerobic physical training. The majority had no problems with mobility but reported anxiety, pain and discomfort and had increased risk of falls.
It is important to encourage the older adults to live actively and independently for as long as possible. The healthy older adults may benefit from the clinical intervention described here to support the individual’s ability to maintain control over their health. Such supportive assessments might help the healthy older adult to achieve active ageing, reducing morbidity and preventing functional decline.
The problems associated with exposure to excessive heat are a key health concern throughout the world, and are likely to become increasingly important as Earth’s climate warms. Heat exposure is particularly problematic when large groups of people gather, but there is relatively little literature on the subject. Islam requires all adherents who are able to undertake a pilgrimage to Mecca (Saudi Arabia), known as the Hajj. This can result in huge numbers of pilgrims travelling to Mecca in the summer months, during which the temperatures can be very high, and to undertake physically demanding activities.
The aim of this study was to identify the perception level of heat-related health issues and the coping behaviors adopted by pilgrims in the face of excessive heat exposure.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mecca, Saudi Arabia among male Arab pilgrims performing Hajj of the Islamic calendar year 1436 (Summer 2015). Sample was divided into two strata: domestic pilgrims and international Arabs. A total of 14 camps were selected randomly, seven from each stratum. A total of 412 participants completed the questionnaire.
Mean age was 43.48 (SD = 13.42) years. Majority of pilgrims had never performed Hajj before (68.2%). Almost 89.5% among pilgrims more than 40 years of age had more water intake compared to only 76.5% for people under 40 years. Only 7.3% of educated people used to go out at noon time, and almost two-fold of pilgrims with lower educational level did so (15.4%). Approximately 51.8% among those who were aware of Mecca’s weather used cotton clothes, compared to 36.0% among pilgrims unaware of Mecca’s weather.
This study reveals the extent of pilgrims’ understanding of, and abilities to cope with, excessive heat and also suggests coping strategies and options for improved understanding of heat-related health issues world-wide.
Al Mayahi ZK, Ali Kabbash I. Perceptions of, and practices for coping with, heat exposure among male Arab pilgrims to the Hajj, 1436. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):161–174
Despite the high prevalence of domestic violence and abuse (DVA) among patients with psychiatric conditions, detection rates are low. Limited knowledge and skills on DVA in mental healthcare (MHC) professionals might contribute to poor identification.
To assess the level of, and factors associated with, DVA knowledge and skills among MHC professionals.
A total of 278 professionals in Dutch MHC institutions completed a survey assessing factual knowledge, perceived knowledge, perceived skills and attitudes about DVA.
On average, low scores were reported for perceived skills and knowledge. MHC professionals in primary care scored higher than those working with individuals with severe mental illness (P<0.005). Levels of factual knowledge were higher; levels of attitudes moderate. Previous training was positively associated with skills (odds ratios (OR) = 3.0) and attitudes (OR = 2.7). Years of work was negatively associated with factual knowledge (OR = 0.97). Larger case-loads predicted higher scores on skills (OR = 2.1).
Training is needed, particularly for clinicians working with patients with severe mental illness.
Objective: To develop a detailed profile of individuals living with migraine in Canada. Such a profile is important for planning and administration of services. Methods: The 2011–2012 Survey of Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada (SLNCC), a cross-sectional community-based survey, was used to examine a representative sample of migraineurs (N = 949) aged 15 years and older. Several health-related variables were examined (e.g., general health, health utility index (HUI) [a measure of health status and health-related quality of life, where dead = 0.00 and perfect health = 1.00], stigma, depression, and social support). Respondents were further stratified by sex, age, and age of migraine onset. Weighted overall and stratified prevalence estimates and odds ratios, both with 95% CIs, were used to estimate associations. Results: Overall, males had poorer health status compared with females (e.g., mean HUI was 0.67 in males vs. 0.82 in females; men had over two times the odds of their migraine limiting educational and job opportunities compared with females). Poorer health-related variables were seen in the older age groups (35–64 years/≥65 years) compared with the 15–34-year age group. There were no differences between those whose migraine symptoms began before versus after the age of 20 years. Conclusions: In this Canadian sample, migraine was associated with worse health-related variables in men compared with women. However, both men and women were significantly affected by migraine across various health-related variables. Thus, it is important to improve clinical and public health interventions addressing the impact of migraine across individuals of all ages, sexes, and sociodemographic backgrounds.
The purpose of the study was to weigh the community burden of chikungunya determinants on Reunion island. Risk factors were investigated within a subset of 2101 adult persons from a population-based cross-sectional serosurvey, using Poisson regression models for dichotomous outcomes. Design-based risk ratios and population attributable fractions (PAF) were generated distinguishing individual and contextual (i.e. that affect individuals collectively) determinants. The disease burden attributable to contextual determinants was twice that of individual determinants (overall PAF value 89.5% vs. 44.1%). In a model regrouping both categories of determinants, the independent risk factors were by decreasing PAF values: an interaction term between the reporting of a chikungunya history in the neighbourhood and individual house (PAF 45.9%), a maximal temperature of the month preceding the infection higher than 28.5 °C (PAF 25.7%), a socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhood (PAF 19.0%), altitude of dwelling (PAF 13.1%), cumulated rainfalls of the month preceding the infection higher than 65 mm (PAF 12.6%), occupational inactivity (PAF 11.6%), poor knowledge on chikungunya transmission (PAF 7.3%) and obesity/overweight (PAF 5.2%). Taken together, these covariates and their underlying causative factors uncovered 80.8% of chikungunya at population level. Our findings lend support to a major role of contextual risk factors in chikungunya virus outbreaks.
Data on dietary patterns in relation to the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a middle-aged Chinese population are sparse. The present study was performed to determine the major dietary patterns among a population aged 45–59 years and to evaluate their associations with MetS risk in China.
Cross-sectional examination of the association between dietary patterns and MetS. Face-to-face interviews were used to assess dietary intake using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. OR and 95 % CI for MetS were calculated across quartiles of dietary pattern scores using multivariate logistic regression analysis models.
City of Linyi, Shandong Province, China.
Adults (n 1918) aged 45–59 years.
Three major dietary patterns were identified: traditional Chinese, animal food and high-energy. After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals in the highest quartile of the traditional Chinese pattern had a reduced risk of MetS relative to the lowest quartile (OR=0·72, 95 % CI 0·596, 0·952; P<0·05). Compared with those in the lowest quartile, individuals in the highest quartile of the animal food pattern had a greater risk of MetS (OR=1·28; 95 % CI 1·103, 1·697; P<0·05). No significant association was observed between the high-energy pattern and risk of MetS.
These findings indicate that the traditional Chinese pattern was associated with a reduced risk, while the animal food pattern was associated with increased risk of MetS. Given the cross-sectional nature of our study, further prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.
Associations between employment status and mental health are well recognised, but evidence is sparse on the relationship between paid employment and mental health in the years running up to statutory retirement ages using robust mental health measures. In addition, there has been no investigation into the stability over time in this relationship: an important consideration if survey findings are used to inform future policy. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between employment status and common mental disorder (CMD) in 50–64-year old residents in England and its stability over time, taking advantage of three national mental health surveys carried out over a 14-year period.
Data were analysed from the British National Surveys of Psychiatric Morbidity of 1993, 2000 and 2007. Paid employment status was the primary exposure of interest and CMD the primary outcome – both ascertained identically in all three surveys (CMD from the revised Clinical Interview Schedule). Multivariable logistic regression models were used.
The prevalence of CMD was higher in people not in paid employment across all survey years; however, this association was only present for non-employment related to poor health as an outcome and was not apparent in those citing other reasons for non-employment. Odds ratios for the association between non-employment due to ill health and CMD were 3.05 in 1993, 3.56 in 2000, and 2.80 in 2007, after adjustment for age, gender, marital status, education, social class, housing tenure, financial difficulties, smoking status, recent physical health consultation and activities of daily living impairment.
The prevalence of CMD was higher in people not in paid employment for health reasons, but was not associated with non-employment for other reasons. Associations had been relatively stable in strength from 1993 to 2007 in those three cross-sectional nationally representative samples.
Emotional crying is hypothesized to serve intra- and interpersonal functions. Intrapersonal functions are assumed to facilitate the capacity to recover from emotional distress, thus promoting well-being. Interpersonal functions are postulated to have a major impact on social functioning. We hypothesized that non-criers would have lower well-being and poorer social functioning than criers.
Study participants included 475 people who reportedly lost the capacity to cry and 179 “normal” control criers. Applied measures assessed crying, well-being, empathy, attachment, social support, and connection with others. Prevalence estimates of not crying by gender were obtained from a panel survey of 2,000 Dutch households.
In the main survey, tearless cases had less connection with others, less empathy, and experienced less social support, but were equal in terms of well-being. They also reported being less moved by emotional stimuli and had a more avoidant and less anxious attachment style. In multivariate analyses, being male, having an avoidant attachment style, and lacking empathy were independent predictors of tearlessness. Some 46.1% felt that not being able to cry affected them negatively; however, despite these findings, only 2.9% had sought any kind of professional help. Loss of the capacity to cry occurred in 8.6% of the men and 6.5% of the women in the large panel survey.
Despite reduced empathy, less connection with others, and a more avoidant/less anxious attachment type, well-being is maintained in tearless people. Additional clinical and therapeutic investigations of tearlessness may lead to clarification of bidirectional associations between psychiatric disorders (e.g., alexithymia, posttraumatic stress disorder, psychopathy) and tearlessness.
Members of faith-based organizations (FBOs) are in a unique position to provide support and services to their local communities during disasters. Because of their close community ties and well-established trust, they can play an especially critical role in helping communities heal in the aftermath of a mass-fatality incident (MFI). Faith-based organizations are considered an important disaster resource and partner under the National Response Plan (NRP) and National Response Framework; however, their level of preparedness and response capabilities with respect to MFIs has never been evaluated. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to develop appropriate measures of preparedness for this sector; (2) to assess MFI preparedness among United States FBOs; and (3) to identify key factors associated with MFI preparedness.
New metrics for MFI preparedness, comprised of three domains (organizational capabilities, operational capabilities, and resource sharing partnerships), were developed and tested in a national convenience sample of FBO members.
Data were collected using an online anonymous survey that was distributed through two major, national faith-based associations and social media during a 6-week period in 2014. Descriptive, bivariate, and correlational analyses were conducted.
One hundred twenty-four respondents completed the online survey. More than one-half of the FBOs had responded to MFIs in the previous five years. Only 20% of respondents thought that roughly three-quarters of FBO clergy would be able to respond to MFIs, with or without hazardous contamination. A higher proportion (45%) thought that most FBO clergy would be willing to respond, but only 37% thought they would be willing if hazardous contamination was involved. Almost all respondents reported that their FBO was capable of providing emotional care and grief counseling in response to MFIs. Resource sharing partnerships were typically in place with other voluntary organizations (73%) and less likely with local death care sector organizations (27%) or Departments of Health (DOHs; 32%).
The study suggests improvements are needed in terms of staff training in general, and specifically, drills with planning partners are needed. Greater cooperation and inclusion of FBOs in national planning and training will likely benefit overall MFI preparedness in the US.
Untreated maternal depression during the postpartum period can have a profound impact on the short- and long-term psychological and physical well-being of children. There is, therefore, an imperative for increased understanding of the determinants of depression and depression-related healthcare access during this period.
Respondents were 11 089 mothers of 9-month-old infants recruited to the Growing Up in Ireland study. Of this sample, 10 827 had complete data on all relevant variables. Respondents provided sociodemographic, socioeconomic and household information, and completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD).
11.1% of mothers scored above the CESD threshold for depression. 10.0% of depressed mothers and 25.4% of depressed fathers had depressed partners. Among depressed mothers, 73.1% had not attended a healthcare professional for a mental health problem since the birth of the cohort infant. In the adjusted model, the likelihood of depression was highest in mothers who: had lower educational levels (odds ratio (OR) 1.26; 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.08, 1.46); were unemployed (OR 1.27; 95% CIs 1.10, 1.47); reported previous mental health problems (OR 6.55; 95% CIs 5.68, 7.56); reported that the cohort child was the result of an unintended pregnancy (OR 1.43; 95% CIs 1.22, 1.68), was preterm (OR 1.35; 95% CIs 1.07, 1.70), or had health/developmental problems (OR 1.20; 95% CIs 1.04, 1.39); had no partner in the household (OR 1.33; 95% CIs 1.04, 1.70) or were living with a depressed partner (OR 2.66; 95% CIs 1.97, 3.60); reported no family living nearby (OR 1.33; 95% CIs 1.16, 1.54); were in the lowest income group (OR 1.60; 95% CIs 1.21, 2.12). The primary determinant of not seeking treatment for depression was being of non-white ethnicity (OR 2.21; 95% CIs 1.18, 4.13).
Results highlight the prevalence of maternal depression in the later postpartum period, particularly for lower socioeconomic groups, those with previous mental health problems, and those with limited social support. The large proportion of unmet need in depressed mothers, particularly among ethnic minority groups, emphasises the need for a greater awareness of postpartum mental health problems and increased efforts by healthcare professionals to ensure that mothers can access the required services.
This study examined the association between psychological distress and the risk of withdrawing from hypertension treatment (HTTx) 1 year after the earthquake disaster in the coastal area affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE).
Using cross-sectional data from 2012, we studied people over 20 years of age living in Shichigahama Town, Miyagi, on the northeastern coast of Japan, which had been severely inundated by the tsunami that followed the GEJE in 2011. A total of 1014 subjects were categorized as in need of HTTx. Withdrawing from HTTx was assessed by using a self-reported questionnaire.
Subjects with a higher degree of psychological distress (Kessler-6 [K6] score ≥ 13) exhibited a significantly higher risk of withdrawing from HTTx, compared with subjects with a lower degree of psychological distress (K6 score ≤ 12; odds ratio=4.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.3-10.6, P<0.01).
This study indicated that psychological distress is a risk factor for withdrawing from HTTx in post-disaster settings. Our data suggested that the increased risk of withdrawing from HTTx associated with post-disaster psychological distress may underlie the increased prevalence of vascular diseases after the earthquake disaster in coastal areas affected by the tsunami. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:179–182)
Long-chain n-3 PUFA from fish and exercise capacity are associated with CVD risk. Fish, especially large and old predatory fish, may contain Hg, which may attenuate the inverse association of long-chain n-3 PUFA with CVD. However, the associations of long-chain n-3 PUFA or Hg exposure with exercise capacity are not well known. We aimed to evaluate the associations of serum long-chain n-3 PUFA EPA, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and DHA and hair Hg with exercise cardiac power (ECP, a ratio of VO2max:maximal systolic blood pressure (SBP) during an exercise test), a measure for exercise capacity. For this, data from the population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study were analysed cross-sectionally in order to determine the associations between serum long-chain n-3 PUFA, hair Hg and ECP in 1672 men without CVD, aged 42–60 years. After multivariate adjustments, serum total long-chain n-3 PUFA concentration was associated with higher ECP and VO2max (Ptrend across quartiles=0·04 and Ptrend=0·02, respectively), but not with maximal SBP (Ptrend=0·69). Associations were generally similar when EPA, DPA and DHA were evaluated individually. Hair Hg was not associated with ECP, VO2max or maximal SBP. However, the associations of total long-chain n-3 PUFA (Pinteraction=0·03) and EPA (Pinteraction=0·02) with higher VO2max were stronger among men with lower hair Hg. Higher serum long-chain n-3 PUFA concentration, mainly a marker for fish consumption in this study population, was associated with higher ECP and VO2max in middle-aged men from eastern Finland.
The present study aimed to compare different indicators of obesity in the Serbian adult population.
Cross-sectional study. A stratified, two-stage, national-representative random sampling approach was used for the selection of the survey sample. Data sources were questionnaires created according to the European Health Interview Survey questionnaire. Measurements of weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were performed using standard procedures. Anthropometric measures included BMI, WC and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR).
Data for the study were obtained from the 2013 National Health Survey, performed in line with the EUROSTAT recommendations for performance of the European Health Interview Survey.
Adults aged ≥20 years.
According to BMI, out of the whole studied population (12 460 adults of both sexes) 2·4 % were underweight, 36·4 % overweight and 22·4 % obese. Using WC and WHtR as measures of adiposity showed that 22·5 % and 42·8 % of participants were overweight and 39·8 % and 25·3 % were obese, respectively. Men and women differed significantly in all variables observed. Overweight was more frequent in men and obesity in women regardless of adiposity measure used.
In spite of strong correlations between BMI, WC and WHtR, substantial discrepancies between these three measures in the assessment of overweight and obesity were found, especially in some age groups. Which of these anthropometric measures should be used, or whether two or all three of them should be applied, depends on their associations with cardiovascular or some other disease of interest.
Demoralization syndrome (DS) within the context of the psychological experience at the end of life is an important and relevant medical issue and remains the subject of a growing area of research.
Ours was a cross-sectional study designed to assess the prevalence and associated demographic, physical, psychiatric, and psychosocial factors for demoralization syndrome in Portuguese patients with advanced disease.
Some 80 terminally ill patients were included in the analyses over a 28-month period of time. The prevalence of DS was found to be 52.5%. No statistical differences were observed among prevalence of DS within categories of all studied variables, with the exception of depression using DSM–IV criteria (prevalence ratio PR = 1.8, CI95% = [1.18–2.74]) and desire for death (PR = 1.8, CI95% = [1.25–2.56]). In the Poisson regression analyses predicting DS, none of the latter factors emerged as significant (DSM–IV criteria: PR = 1.6, CI95% = [0.84–3.08]; and desire for death: PR = 1.5, CI95% = [0.74–2.99]). Thirty percent of participants met both criteria for demoralization syndrome and depression using the DSM–IV.
Significance of Results:
Prevalence of demoralization syndrome was high in this patient sample. Based on our results, we cannot determine if DS and depression are two distinct psychological entities. Identifying factors associated with DS could help provide efficacious interventions capable of diminishing suffering in terminally ill patients.
To evaluate the correlation among nutritional status, tooth wear and quality of life in Brazilian schoolchildren.
The study followed a cross-sectional design. Nutritional status was measured via anthropometry using BMI and tooth wear was measured using the Dental Wear Index; both these assessments were carried out by a trained recorder according to standard criteria. A modified version of the Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances was used to assess quality of life.
City of Bauru, in Brazil.
A cluster sample of 396 schoolchildren (194 boys and 202 girls) aged 7–10 years.
The anthropometric assessment showed similar situations for both sexes regarding underweight (31·40 % in boys and 30·20 % in girls) and overweight/obesity (33·96 % in boys and 33·17 % in girls). The underweight children showed a greater severity of tooth wear in the primary teeth (OR=0·72; CI 0·36, 1·42), although in the permanent dentition the obese children had a greater severity of tooth wear (OR=1·42; 95 % CI 0·31, 6·55). The tooth wear was correlated with age for both dentitions.
Tooth wear in the primary and permanent dentition may be related to nutritional status. Tooth wear and obesity did not have a significant impact on the schoolchildren’s perception of quality of life.
The aim of this study is to estimate the lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity and treatment of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders in Japan based on the final data set of the World Mental Health Japan Survey conducted in 2002–2006.
Face-to-face household interviews of 4130 respondents who were randomly selected from Japanese-speaking residents aged 20 years or older were conducted from 2002 to 2006 in 11 community populations in Japan (overall response rate, 56%). The World Mental Health version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI), a fully structured, lay administered psychiatric diagnostic interview, was used for diagnostic assessment.
Lifetime/12-month prevalence of any DSM-IV common mental disorders in Japan was estimated to be 20.3/7.6%. Rank-order of four classes of mental disorders was anxiety disorders (8.1/4.9%), substance disorders (7.4/1.0%), mood disorders (6.5/2.3%) and impulse control disorders (2.0/0.7%). The most common individual disorders were alcohol abuse/dependence (7.3/0.9%), major depressive disorder (6.1/2.2%), specific phobia (3.4/2.3%) and generalized anxiety disorder (2.6/1.3%). While the lifetime prevalence of any mental disorder was greater for males and the middle-aged, the persistence (proportion of 12-month cases among lifetime cases) of any mental disorder was greater for females and younger respondents. Among those with any 12-month disorder, 15.3% were classified as severe, 44.1% moderate and 40.6% mild. Although a strong association between severity and service use was found, only 21.9% of respondents with any 12-month disorder sought treatment within the last 12 months; only 37.0% of severe cases received medical care. The mental health specialty sector was the most common resource used in Japan. Although the prevalence of mental disorders were quite low, mental disorders were the second most prevalent cause of severe role impairment among chronic physical and mental disorders.
These results suggest lower prevalence of mental disorders in Japan than that in Western countries, although the general pattern of disorders, risk factors and unmet need for treatment were similar to those in other countries. Greater lifetime prevalence for males and greater persistence for females seems a unique feature of Japan, suggesting a cultural difference in gender-related etiology and course of disorders. The treatment rate in Japan was lower than that in most other high-income countries in WMH surveys.
To describe the prevalence and determinants of gestational night blindness in pregnant women receiving care in a hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Cross-sectional study of pregnant and postpartum women receiving care in a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro from 1999 to 2001 (group I; n 225) or from 2005 to 2008 (group II; n 381). Night blindness was identified through a standardized and validated interview (WHO, 1996). The determinants of gestational night blindness were identified through a hierarchical logistic regression model.
Public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
Adult pregnant and postpartum women (n 606), aged ≥20 years.
The prevalence of gestational night blindness was 9·9 %. The final model revealed that not living in the South Zone of Rio de Janeiro (distal level: adjusted OR=1·846; 95 % CI 1·002, 3·401), belonging to group I (intermediate level: adjusted OR=2·183; 95 % CI 1·066, 4·471) and for the proximal level, having a history of abortion (adjusted OR=2·840; 95 % CI 1·134, 7·115) and having anaemia during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy (adjusted OR=3·776; 95 % CI 1·579, 9·029) were determinants of gestational night blindness.
Gestational night blindness should be assessed for during the prenatal care of all pregnant women, especially those living in deprived areas of the city and/or who have a history of abortion or anaemia. Nutritional monitoring is recommended during pregnancy to control gestational night blindness.
Conflicting data are available on the prevalence of binge eating behaviour (BE) in individuals seeking to lose or maintain weight. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of and the risk factors for BE in a large sample of men and women starting a weight loss or maintenance programme.
Cross-sectional study. BE was defined as a Binge Eating Scale (BES) score ≥18. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Italian Depression Questionnaire were used to assess anxiety and depression. Besides sex, age and BMI, marital status, educational level, smoking and physical activity were evaluated as potential risk factors for BE. Uni- and multivariable Poisson working regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) and marginal probabilities.
Nutritional research centre.
Adults (n 6930; 72 % women) with a median age of 46 years (range 18–81 years) were consecutively studied.
BE prevalence in the pooled sample was 17 %. At multivariable analysis, being a woman (PR=2·70), smoking (PR=1·15) and increasing BMI (PR=1·05 for 1 kg/m2 increase) were risk factors for BE. On the contrary, being older (PR=0·99 for 1-year increase), performing physical activity (PR=0·89) and being married (PR=0·88) were protective factors for BE. Anxiety and depression were more common in subjects with BE.
BE is common in individuals seeking to lose or maintain weight. The prevalence of BE is higher in young obese women. However, BE is present also in men, elders and normal-weight subjects.
To investigate dietary and non-dietary characteristics of wholegrain bread eaters in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study.
Cross-sectional study using an FFQ.
Women were divided into two groups according to wholegrain bread consumption.
Adult women (n 69 471).
Median daily consumption of standardized slices of wholegrain bread was 2·5 in the low intake group and 4·5 in the high intake group. The OR for high wholegrain bread consumption was 0·28, 2·19 and 4·63 for the first, third and fourth quartile of energy intake, respectively, compared with the second quartile. Living outside Oslo or in East Norway and having a high level of physical activity were associated with high wholegrain bread consumption. BMI and smoking were inversely associated with wholegrain bread consumption. Intake of many food items was positively associated with wholegrain bread consumption (P trend <0·01). After adjustment for energy intake, consumption of most food items was inversely associated with wholegrain bread consumption (P trend <0·001). The mean intakes of thiamin and Fe were higher in those with high wholegrain bread consumption, even after taking energy intake into account.
Energy intake was strongly positively associated with wholegrain bread consumption. Geographical differences in wholegrain bread consumption were observed. Our study suggests that women with high wholegrain bread consumption do not generally have a healthier diet than those who eat less wholegrain bread, but that they tend to be healthier in regard to other lifestyle factors.