The recent interest in cover crops as component of Midwest corn and soybean production systems has led to the need for additional research, including the effects of residual corn and soybean herbicide treatments on fall cover crop establishment. Field studies were conducted in 2013, 2014, and 2015 in Columbia, Missouri to investigate the effects of common residual herbicides applied in corn and soybean on establishment of winter wheat, tillage radish, cereal rye, crimson clover, winter oat, Austrian winter pea, Italian ryegrass, and hairy vetch. Cover crops were evaluated for stand and biomass reduction 28 d after emergence (DAE). Rainfall from herbicide application to cover crop seeding date was much greater in 2014 and 2015, which resulted in less carryover in these years compared to 2013. When averaged across all herbicides evaluated in these experiments, the general order of sensitivity of cover crops to herbicide carryover, from greatest to least was Austrian winter pea=crimson clover>oilseed radish>Italian ryegrass>hairy vetch>wheat >winter oat>cereal rye. Cereal rye had the fewest instances of biomass or stand reduction with only four out of the 27 herbicides adversely effecting establishment. Pyroxasulfone consistently reduced Italian ryegrass and winter oat biomass at least 67% in both the corn and soybean experiments. In the soybean experiment, imazethapyr- and fomesafen-containing products resulted in severe stand and biomass reduction in both years while flumetsulam-containing products resulted in the greatest carryover symptoms in the corn experiment. Results from these experiments suggest that several commonly used corn and soybean herbicides have the potential to hinder cover crop establishment, but the severity of damage will depend on weather, cover crop species, and the specific herbicide combination.