To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
During pregnancy, mothers-to-be should adapt their diet to meet increases in nutrient requirements. Pregnant women appear to be keener to adopt healthier diets, but are not always successful. The objective of the present study was to determine whether a guided, stepwise and tailored dietary counselling programme, designed using an optimisation algorithm, could improve the nutrient adequacy of the diet of pregnant women, beyond generic guidelines. Pregnant women (n 80) who attended Notre-Dame-de-Bon-Secours Maternity Clinic were randomly allocated to the control or intervention arm. Dietary data were obtained twice from an online 3-d dietary record. The nutrient adequacy of the diet was calculated using the PANDiet score, a 100-point diet quality index adapted to the specific nutrient requirements for pregnancy. Women were supplied with generic dietary guidelines in a reference booklet. In the intervention arm, they also received nine sets of tailored dietary advice identified by an optimisation algorithm as best improving their PANDiet score. Pregnant women (n 78) completed the 12-week dietary follow-up. Initial PANDiet scores were similar in the control and intervention arms (60·4 (sd 7·3) v. 60·3 (sd 7·3), P = 0·92). The PANDiet score increased in the intervention arm (+3·6 (sd 9·3), P = 0·02) but not in the control arm (−0·3 (sd 7·3), P = 0·77), and these changes differed between arms (P = 0·04). In the intervention arm, there were improvements in the probabilities of adequacy for α-linolenic acid, thiamin, folate and cholesterol intakes (P < 0·05). Tailored dietary counselling using a computer-based algorithm is more effective than generic dietary counselling alone in improving the nutrient adequacy of the diet of French women in mid-pregnancy.
This study examined Turkish school counsellors’ (SCs) ratings of the importance of factors in deciding to report students’ risk-taking behaviours to school administrators (SAs). A sample of Turkish SCs (N = 252) were surveyed. Most and least important factors were determined. Group differences in terms of gender, school level of employment, and attending mandatory counselling ethics training were investigated. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests were used in group comparisons. ‘Protecting the student’ was rated as the most important factor, and ‘Gender of the student’ was the least important factor. Statistically significant group differences with respect to gender, school level of employment, and attending mandatory counselling ethics training were identified. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
We aimed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of brief weight-loss counselling by dietitian-trained practice nurses, in a high-income-country case study.
A literature search of the impact of dietary counselling on BMI was performed to source the ‘best’ effect size for use in modelling. This was combined with multiple other input parameters (e.g. epidemiological and cost parameters for obesity-related diseases, likely uptake of counselling) in an established multistate life-table model with fourteen parallel BMI-related disease life tables using a 3 % discount rate.
New Zealand (NZ).
We calculated quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) gained and health-system costs over the remainder of the lifespan of the NZ population alive in 2011 (n 4·4 million).
Counselling was estimated to result in an increase of 250 QALY (95 % uncertainty interval −70, 560 QALY) over the population’s lifetime. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was 2011 $NZ 138 200 per QALY gained (2018 $US 102 700). Per capita QALY gains were higher for Māori (Indigenous population) than for non-Māori, but were still not cost-effective. If willingness-to-pay was set to the level of gross domestic product per capita per QALY gained (i.e. 2011 $NZ 45 000 or 2018 $US 33 400), the probability that the intervention would be cost-effective was 2 %.
The study provides modelling-level evidence that brief dietary counselling for weight loss in primary care generates relatively small health gains at the population level and is unlikely to be cost-effective.
Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for HIV has been promoted as a strategy to prevent HIV pandemics by changing sexual behaviour. Despite the provision of VCT in countries with generalized or high-burden epidemics, including Nigeria, the extent of its influence on behavioural change remains a conjecture. The main objective of this study was to examine the influence of HIV VCT on sexual behaviour changes among youths in Nigeria. The study utilized 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) data. Data were analysed from a nationally representative sample drawn from 8046 females and 6031 males aged 15–24 giving a total sample of 14,077 never-married youths. Descriptive and analytical analyses were carried out, including multivariate logistic regression. The study found a low uptake of HIV VCT and regional variation in behavioural changes between female and male youths. Voluntary HIV counselling and testing was found to be a protective factor for condom use at last sex for female youths, but significantly reduced the likelihood of primary sexual abstinence for both females and males, as well as having a single sexual partner for female youths. After controlling HIV VCT with other variables, certain socioeconomic factors were found to be significantly associated with behavioural changes. Thus, the attitudes of most Nigerian youths towards voluntary HIV counselling and testing needs to be improved through socioeconomic factors for healthy sexual activity. To achieve this, government and non-governmental organizations, as well as religious leaders and policymakers, should engage in appropriate and long-term activities directed at the sexual health needs of never-married youths, through voluntary HIV counselling and testing, to encourage them to change their sexual behaviour.
The goal of this book is to provide information that will enable parents and educators of children growing up bilingually to make finformed decisions on the bilingual education of their children. The qualifications of the author consist of more than 35 years of experience in research on bilingual development and in counselling activities over the same period of time. How to use the book. Acknowledgments.
Theoretical explanations suggest that insight might increase life satisfaction by helping individuals choose a suitable academic major, indicating that insight might facilitate life satisfaction through academic major satisfaction. The current study thus investigates the mediating role of academic major satisfaction in the potential relationship between insight and life satisfaction. The data collected from a sample of 206 undergraduate students majoring in education degree programs confirm that the relationship between insight and life satisfaction is fully mediated by academic major satisfaction, with a model explaining 23% of the total variance in life satisfaction. The findings have important implications for the design and implementation of career counselling and guidance services provided within high school and university settings, particularly in countries such as Turkey where career counselling services need improvement.
On 1st July 2015, Out of Home Care (OOHC) services in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) joined together to form the ACT Together consortium and aimed to improve outcomes for children and young people who are unable to live with their birth families. Within the consortium, the Therapeutic Services Team (TST) steers the evolution of trauma-informed therapeutic practice, a key focus of which is the establishment of therapeutic care. Current research indicates that a holistic therapeutic approach has the greatest impact in supporting a young person to overcome adverse childhood experiences. This leads to the necessity of a therapeutic care system providing input across the whole domain of OOHC, including trauma-informed therapeutic carers. A common issue met by the TST is the lack of clarity regarding the difference between therapeutic intervention and therapy. This paper defines the concepts of therapy and therapeutic care, discusses how this forms a continuum which flows throughout the whole OOHC system and reflects on what support carers require to make the shift to becoming therapeutic carers, including outlining their role in underpinning better outcomes for the children and young people who pass through their doors.
An essential strategy to increase coverage of psychosocial treatments globally is task shifting to non-medical counsellors, but evidence on its effectiveness is still scarce. This study evaluates the effectiveness of lay psychosocial counselling among persons with psychological distress in a primary health care setting in rural Nepal.
A parallel randomized controlled trial in Dang, rural Nepal (NCT03544450). Persons aged 16 and older attending primary care and with a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) score of 6 or more were randomized (1:1) to receive either non-medical psychosocial counselling (PSY) or enhanced usual care (EUC). PSY was provided by lay persons with a 6-month training and consisted of 5-weekly counselling sessions of 35–60 min with a culturally adapted solution-focused approach. EUC was provided by trained primary health workers. Participants were followed up at 1 (T1) and 6 months (T2). The primary outcome, response to treatment, was the reduction of minimum 50% in the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score.
A total of 141 participants, predominantly socially disadvantaged women, were randomized to receive PSY and 146 to EUC. In the PSY, 123 participants and 134 in the EUC were analysed. In PSY, 101 participants (81.4%) had a response compared with 57 participants (42.5%) in EUC [percentage difference 39.4% (95% CI 28.4–50.4)]. The difference in BDI scores at T2 between PSY and EUC was −7.43 (95% CI −9.71 to −5.14).
Non-medical (lay) psychosocial counselling appears effective in reducing depressive symptoms, and its inclusion in mental health care should be considered in low-resource settings.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer and other sexual minority (LGBQ+) people experience higher levels of psychological difficulties than heterosexual people. Evidence suggests that LGBQ+ treatment outcomes within England’s Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services are worse than the outcomes for heterosexuals, especially for bisexual people and sexual minority women. IAPT services provide evidence-based treatments like cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), typically for anxiety or depression. This study explored LGBQ+ adults’ experiences with IAPT services and/or primary care counselling. LGBQ+ adults (n = 136) answered an online questionnaire (fixed-response and optional open-ended questions) about their access and treatment experiences. Descriptive statistics summarized multiple-choice responses. Qualitative data were analysed through thematic analysis. Before access, 41.9% of participants were concerned about experiencing LGBQ+ stigma/discrimination within psychological services. Only 13.2% of participants thought their sexuality negatively impacted their treatment, although prejudice/discrimination may be underestimated as 33.6% participants did not disclose their sexuality to practitioners and sexuality was not discussed in treatment for 44.0% of participants. Bisexual clients were significantly less likely to disclose their sexuality. The barriers LGBQ+ people described within IAPT or primary care services included: feared or experienced stigma in the services; reluctance to disclose sexuality; inconsistent discussion of sexuality in treatment; a lack of awareness and understanding towards LGBQ+ identities and community-specific challenges; and distrust, disillusionment and exclusion resultantly. Overall, 52.2% thought services could be improved for LGBQ+ individuals. This study identified multiple issues to be addressed in therapist training and service development.
Key learning aims
(1)The unique needs/experiences that LGBQ+ people bring to therapy, such as the need to disclose their sexuality and past experiences of stigma/discrimination, including how this differs within the community (e.g. bisexual people or LGBQ+ Black and minority ethnic people).
(2)How these needs/experiences can result in barriers that make their treatment experience distinct from heterosexuals and influence their treatment outcomes.
(3)What steps should be taken in future research and clinical practice to ensure improvements in the psychological treatment experiences of LGBQ+ people, including in relation to therapist understanding and training in LGBQ+-related issues.
We examined the paradigmatic position of school counsellors as it relates to their practice. A survey and interviews were conducted with counsellors, counsellor educators, and teachers. Findings demonstrated that counsellors lacked skills regarding theoretical orientation and applications, counselling practices remained arbitrary and less effective due to the confusion experienced in the adaptation and application of counselling approaches, and the confusion in paradigms stemmed from problems in the identification of local needs, direct transfer of Eurocentric paradigms, training, and professional roles.
Inadequate knowledge in maternal nutrition is one of the determinants of low birth weight. However, little evidence is available on whether maternal nutrition counselling alone can influence birth weight among women from low socioeconomic households. This study assessed the effect of prenatal maternal nutritional counselling on birth weight and examined the related risk factors. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of home-based maternal nutritional counselling on nutritional outcomes, morbidity, breastfeeding, and infant feeding practices by the African Population and Health Research Center in two urban informal settlements of Nairobi. The intervention group received monthly antenatal and nutritional counselling from trained community health volunteers; meanwhile, the control group received routine antenatal care. A total of 1001 participants were included for analysis. Logistic regression was applied to determine associations between low birth weight and maternal characteristics. A higher prevalence of low birth weight was observed in the control group (6.7%) than in the intervention group (2.5%; P<0.001). Logistic regression identified significant associations between birth weight and intervention group (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.26; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.10–0.64); maternal height <154.5 cm (AOR=3.33; 95% CI, 1.01–10.96); last antenatal care visits at 1st or 2nd trimesters (AOR=9.48; 95% CI, 3.72–24.15); pre-term delivery (AOR=3.93; 95% CI, 1.93–7.98); maternal mid-upper arm circumference <23 cm (AOR=2.57; 95% CI, 1.15–5.78); and cesarean delivery (AOR=2.27; 95% CI, 1.04–4.94). Nutrition counselling during pregnancy reduced low birth weight and preterm births, which was determined by women of short stature, early stoppage of antenatal visit, and cesarean delivery.
A framework was examined to assist school psychologists and counsellors in recommending quality apps for supporting diabetes self-management. A content analysis was undertaken to assess behaviour change strategies in Apple and Android smartphone apps for the self-management of type 2 diabetes. The Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy was used to assess the presence of behaviour change strategies, while the Mobile App Rating Scale was used to assess overall app quality. Raters found, on average, 7.13 behaviour change techniques out of a possible 93, indicating few behaviour change techniques in apps for the self-management of Type 2 diabetes. Analysis indicated that apps of a higher overall quality tended to incorporate more behaviour change strategies. It was concluded that mental-health professionals are advantaged if they are able to assess and refine selection tools for matching apps with the needs of students with diabetes.
For a school counsellor or classroom teacher, working with newly arrived students from refugee backgrounds can be daunting, particularly with the awareness that these students have likely experienced significant and potentially horrific trauma. There is now a wealth of evidence showing that traumatic experiences can significantly impact our neurological development, resulting in difficulties in areas such as learning, behaviour, relationship building and emotion regulation, meaning newly arrived refugee students will often arrive at school with some significant challenges. While there is an extensive amount of literature on trauma, there is very little that focuses specifically on the refugee population, and even less on young people from refugee backgrounds. Predominantly, the research looks at chronic or developmental trauma such as child abuse and neglect, or acute trauma such as natural disasters. The following article looks at the refugee context specifically, breaking down the difference between acute, chronic and developmental trauma; and describing the neurological effects of trauma and suggesting some practical classroom-based strategies that can be employed to support and facilitate the recovery of students from refugee backgrounds.
This article offers an introduction for constructing family self-help groups or parent
associations in the field of countering violent extremism (CVE) and deradicalization. These
support group interventions are an essential addition to recently developed family
counseling CVE programs, which have been created in multiple countries since 2012. Based on
interviews with parents of deceased foreign terrorist fighters, this article was able to
identify the most pressing practical needs of parents and to suggest specific measures to
address these. The most important needs voiced by parents are: loneliness, trauma,
understanding, acquiring a death certificate, access to personal files, problems with child
care (criminalization), and fear of the media. Support groups can be designed to address
these issues with a specific CVE focus.
We provide a comparative case study of rehabilitation counselling across the U.S., Japan and Taiwan focusing on the common challenges facing international constituents in the field. Through interviews with students, faculty and administrators from each of the respective countries, we use thematic coding analysis to identify key points of tension. Emergent themes comprise (a) systemic challenges, (b) student and faculty mobility, (c) cultural and linguistic differences and (d) lack of sustainable international leadership. We further discuss mitigation of these recurrent challenges and conclude collaborative research, student exchange and institutional partnerships may advance teaching, research and service scholarship of rehabilitation counselling programs, and, in turn, enhance the lives of people with chronic illness and disability worldwide.
School students are increasingly using apps for health-related purposes, either on their own or when recommended by psychologists or counsellors, as apps offer a way to assist students to change their behaviour. However, there is a growing need for psychologists and counsellors to be able to evaluate the quality and usefulness of such apps to effect behaviour change. This study was therefore undertaken to identify methods by which school psychologists and counsellors could evaluate health-related apps for clinical use or research purposes. After examining 15 studies of apps that met the inclusion criteria, it was clear that researchers used a number of taxonomies to evaluate the apps. There were seven taxonomies identified, of which five were generalisable to all health conditions, with the behaviour change technique (BCT) taxonomy being the most comprehensive, containing 13 key behaviour strategies. Despite the utility of the taxonomies to identify the amount of behaviour change content within the apps, it was difficult to determine how the behaviour change strategies were measured, thus reducing the ability to predict app effectiveness. Approaches to improving methods by which apps can be developed and evaluated are proposed.
To facilitate students’ transition into secondary school, a short, problem-oriented group program was designed that included interpretation retraining, problem solving, and social-skills training. Pre- and post-test data from two groups conducted over the course of 5 weeks were combined for a total of 35 6th-grade students waiting to undergo school transition. There was also a no-intervention control group (n = 19). Results indicate that completion of the program by the intervention group led to a significant decrease on negative interpretations, with greater reductions in feelings of loneliness and increases in children's positive attitudes toward school compared to the control group. In addition, 3 months before moving to secondary school, children in the intervention group reported significantly fewer concerns about school transition compared with the controls. We conclude that the inclusion of problem-based strategies may be beneficial when designing transition groups, which may also lead to a significant reduction in worries and concerns about the transition to secondary school.
This research examined the effects of structured group supervision (SGS) on counsellors’ self-efficacy, counselling competency, and job involvement in Singapore. Twenty-one counsellors participated in six, 3-hour SGS sessions over 12 weeks with one qualified counselling supervisor. The counsellors had at least six months’ experience working as counsellors in schools or educational-related settings, such as student care centres. A single-group, before-after design was adopted. Pre- and posttest questionnaires were administered — Counselling Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES), Counsellor's Competence Self-Evaluation Scale (CCSS), and Job Involvement Scale (JIS) — to examine counsellor self-efficacy, counselling competency, and job involvement respectively. Paired-sample t tests were used to examine the impact of SGS on the three measures, whereas the Pearson correlation was used to examine the relationships among them. It was found that there was (a) a significant increase in mean scores for pre- and posttest scores for counsellor self-efficacy and counselling competency, but not for job involvement after SGS; and (b) a significant positive correlation among the three variables. With a better understanding of the SGS and the impact on counsellors, supervision practices can be improved and school counsellors can become more competent and confident.
To engage in the community and the workplace requires physical, mental, and social health and wellbeing. Health promotion is a crucial rehabilitation counselling function for the health and wellbeing of people living with chronic illness and disability (CID). This exploratory review seeks to examine theories and models of motivation applicable to health promotion interventions in rehabilitation counselling practice. Although no single theory can address all the potential variables affecting people with CID's health behaviours, Bandura's (1977) concept of self-efficacy and outcome expectancy appear to be the most common factors in the health promotion models we surveyed. Among theories of motivation, only self-determination theory specifically includes a motivation variable, autonomy (internal and external motivation). We developed a diagram to depict a model, including all the theories and models covered in this exploratory review and identify commonalities among their constructs. This diagram can be used by rehabilitation counsellors to apply theories and models of motivation in case conceptualisation, formulating clinical hypotheses, developing treatment plans, and selecting and implementing evidence-based health promotion interventions for their clients.
The limited number of programs of tested efficacy in the literature such as cognitive-behavioural therapy and family-based prevention of internet addiction is striking. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of reality therapy-based group counselling on college students’ problematic internet use and life satisfaction. In order to determine who would participate in the counselling program, screening tests were administered to 418 students. Twenty students who met the inclusion criteria eventually took part. The Online Cognition Scale and Life Satisfaction Scale were used pre- and posttests in order to evaluate the counselling program. Results show that reality therapy-based group counselling significantly reduces the level of problematic internet use among college students and increases their life satisfaction levels.